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inflection

inflection, in grammar. In many languages, words or parts of words are arranged in formally similar sets consisting of a root, or base, and various affixes. Thus walking, walks, walker have in common the root walk and the affixes -ing, -s, and -er. An inflectional affix carries certain grammatical restrictions with it; for example, with the plural inflection -s, a change from singular to plural in the noun tree/trees requires a concommitant change in the verb form from singular to plural: "the tree is green," "the trees are green." Other examples of English inflectional suffixes are the verb tenses. Many languages have far more extensive inflection than English, e.g., Latin, Eskimo, Arabic. In Latin grammar the typical noun and adjective are inflected for case and number, and the adjective is additionally inflected for the gender of the noun. Latin verbs have overlapping categories of inflection: mood, voice, tense, person, and number. Noun inflection is called declension, and the inflection of verbs is called conjugation. To be distinguished from inflectional affixes are those of derivation. Derivation is the process of forming words from other words or roots by the addition of affixes that in themselves either have meaning or denote word function. Derivational affixes in English may be either prefixes—e.g., de-press, un-common—or suffixes—e.g., work-er, retire-ment, happi-ness. The name stem is given to a root together with its derivational affixes; thus in racket-eer-s, racket is the root, racketeer the stem, and -s the plural inflection. Beginning in the 19th cent., the modification of a root or base by the amount of inflection or derivation in a language was used as a basis for classification. An isolating language is one in which there are only roots, with no derivation or inflection, such as Chinese. On the other hand, inflected languages, e.g., English and Latin, use roots, stems, and affixes, but the amount of inflection is not as great as in agglutinative languages where roots and affixes are readily identifiable, e.g., Turkish baba "father," babam "my father," babama "to my father." The old belief that agglutinative languages were the most primitive and isolating languages the most civilized is no longer held, it being recognized that every language is just as expressive as any other and can develop new vocabulary to fit new situations. See ablaut; grammar; umlaut; English language.

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"inflection." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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INFLECTION

INFLECTION, also especially BrE inflexion. A grammatical form of a word. Some languages make more use of inflections than others: LATIN is highly INFLECTED for nouns, adjectives, pronouns, and verbs, whereas FRENCH is highly inflected for verbs but less so for other parts of speech. Generally, verbs inflect for MOOD, TENSE, PERSON, NUMBER, while nouns and adjectives inflect for NUMBER AND GENDER. Such inflections may involve affixes, sound and spelling changes (including stress shifts), SUPPLETION, or a mixture of these. In English, there are relatively few inflections. Verbs inflect through suffixation (look/looks/looking/looked), but some irregular verbs have past forms that depart from the norm (see/sees/seeing/saw/seen; swim/swims/swimming/swam/swum; put/puts/putting/put). The verb be has eight forms: am, are, be, been, being, is, was, were. Nouns inflect for plurality and possession (worker/workers/worker's/workers') and some adjectives inflect for their comparatives and superlatives (big/bigger/biggest). Seven pronouns have distinct object forms: me, us, her, him, them, thee, whom. See ACCIDENCE, CASE, ENDING, STRONG VERB, WEAK VERB.

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"INFLECTION." Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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inflection

in·flec·tion / inˈflekshən/ (chiefly Brit. also in·flex·ion) • n. 1. Gram. a change in the form of a word (typically the ending) to express a grammatical function or attribute such as tense, mood, person, number, case, and gender. ∎  the process or practice of inflecting words. 2. the modulation of intonation or pitch in the voice: she spoke slowly and without inflection | the variety of his vocal inflections. ∎  the variation of the pitch of a musical note. 3. chiefly Math. a change of curvature from convex to concave at a particular point on a curve. DERIVATIVES: in·flec·tion·al / -shənl/ adj. in·flec·tion·al·ly / -shənl-ē/ adv. in·flec·tion·less adj.

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"inflection." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"inflection." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 20, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/inflection-0

"inflection." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved July 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/inflection-0

inflect

in·flect / inˈflekt/ • v. [tr.] (often be inflected) 1. Gram. change the form of (a word) to express a particular grammatical function or attribute, typically tense, mood, person, number, case, and gender. ∎  [intr.] (of a word or a language containing such words) undergo such change. 2. vary the intonation or pitch of (the voice), esp. to express mood or feeling. ∎  influence or color (music or writing) in tone or style. ∎  vary the pitch of (a musical note). 3. technical bend or deflect (something), esp. inward. DERIVATIVES: in·flec·tive / -tiv/ adj.

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inflection

inflection Variation in the form of a lexical item (word) that distinguishes its grammatical relationship to other words in a sentence without altering its part of speech. In a common type of inflection, affixes are added to a stem or root form in order to distinguish tense, person, number, gender, voice or case. In English, this is usually achieved by adding different endings to the word stem – singular noun ‘house’ gives plural ‘houses’.

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inflect

inflect bend XV; (gram.) vary the termination of XVII; modulate the tone of XIX. — L. inflectere, f. IN-1 + flectere bend. inflection, inflexion bending, curvature XVI; modulation of voice XVI; (gram.) modification of form in declension, etc. XVII. — (O)F. or L. (see FLEXION).

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"inflect." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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inflection

inflection. In plainsong, the general name given to such parts as are not in monotone, i.e. incl. the intonation, mediation, and ending, and excl. the recitation.

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"inflection." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Agglutination

Agglutination

a combination of simple words to express compound ideasWilkes.

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"Agglutination." Dictionary of Collective Nouns and Group Terms. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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agglutination (in linguistics)

agglutination, in linguistics: see inflection.

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inflect

inflectabreact, abstract, act, attract, bract, compact, contract, counteract, diffract, enact, exact, extract, fact, humpbacked, hunchbacked, impact, interact, matter-of-fact, pact, protract, redact, refract, retroact, subcontract, subtract, tact, tract, transact, unbacked, underact, untracked •play-act • autodidact •artefact (US artifact) • cataract •contact •marked, unremarked •Wehrmacht •affect, bisect, bull-necked, collect, confect, connect, correct, defect, deflect, deject, detect, direct, effect, eject, elect, erect, expect, infect, inflect, inject, inspect, interconnect, interject, intersect, misdirect, neglect, object, perfect, project, prospect, protect, reflect, reject, respect, resurrect, sect, select, subject, suspect, transect, unchecked, Utrecht •prefect • abject • retroject • intellect •genuflect • idiolect • dialect • aspect •circumspect • retrospect • Dordrecht •vivisect • architect • unbaked •sun-baked

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inflection

inflectionashen, fashion, passion, ration •abstraction, action, attraction, benefaction, compaction, contraction, counteraction, diffraction, enaction, exaction, extraction, faction, fraction, interaction, liquefaction, malefaction, petrifaction, proaction, protraction, putrefaction, redaction, retroaction, satisfaction, stupefaction, subtraction, traction, transaction, tumefaction, vitrifaction •expansion, mansion, scansion, stanchion •sanction •caption, contraption •harshen, Martian •cession, discretion, freshen, session •abjection, affection, circumspection, collection, complexion, confection, connection, convection, correction, defection, deflection, dejection, detection, direction, ejection, election, erection, genuflection, imperfection, infection, inflection, injection, inspection, insurrection, interconnection, interjection, intersection, introspection, lection, misdirection, objection, perfection, predilection, projection, protection, refection, reflection, rejection, resurrection, retrospection, section, selection, subjection, transection, vivisection •exemption, pre-emption, redemption •abstention, apprehension, ascension, attention, circumvention, comprehension, condescension, contention, contravention, convention, declension, detention, dimension, dissension, extension, gentian, hypertension, hypotension, intention, intervention, invention, mention, misapprehension, obtention, pension, prehension, prevention, recension, retention, subvention, supervention, suspension, tension •conception, contraception, deception, exception, inception, interception, misconception, perception, reception •Übermenschen • subsection •ablation, aeration, agnation, Alsatian, Amerasian, Asian, aviation, cetacean, citation, conation, creation, Croatian, crustacean, curation, Dalmatian, delation, dilation, donation, duration, elation, fixation, Galatian, gyration, Haitian, halation, Horatian, ideation, illation, lavation, legation, libation, location, lunation, mutation, natation, nation, negation, notation, nutation, oblation, oration, ovation, potation, relation, rogation, rotation, Sarmatian, sedation, Serbo-Croatian, station, taxation, Thracian, vacation, vexation, vocation, zonation •accretion, Capetian, completion, concretion, deletion, depletion, Diocletian, excretion, Grecian, Helvetian, repletion, Rhodesian, secretion, suppletion, Tahitian, venetian •academician, addition, aesthetician (US esthetician), ambition, audition, beautician, clinician, coition, cosmetician, diagnostician, dialectician, dietitian, Domitian, edition, electrician, emission, fission, fruition, Hermitian, ignition, linguistician, logician, magician, mathematician, Mauritian, mechanician, metaphysician, mission, monition, mortician, munition, musician, obstetrician, omission, optician, paediatrician (US pediatrician), patrician, petition, Phoenician, physician, politician, position, rhetorician, sedition, statistician, suspicion, tactician, technician, theoretician, Titian, tuition, volition •addiction, affliction, benediction, constriction, conviction, crucifixion, depiction, dereliction, diction, eviction, fiction, friction, infliction, interdiction, jurisdiction, malediction, restriction, transfixion, valediction •distinction, extinction, intinction •ascription, circumscription, conscription, decryption, description, Egyptian, encryption, inscription, misdescription, prescription, subscription, superscription, transcription •proscription •concoction, decoction •adoption, option •abortion, apportion, caution, contortion, distortion, extortion, portion, proportion, retortion, torsion •auction •absorption, sorption •commotion, devotion, emotion, groschen, Laotian, locomotion, lotion, motion, notion, Nova Scotian, ocean, potion, promotion •ablution, absolution, allocution, attribution, circumlocution, circumvolution, Confucian, constitution, contribution, convolution, counter-revolution, destitution, dilution, diminution, distribution, electrocution, elocution, evolution, execution, institution, interlocution, irresolution, Lilliputian, locution, perlocution, persecution, pollution, prosecution, prostitution, restitution, retribution, Rosicrucian, solution, substitution, volution •cushion • resumption • München •pincushion •Belorussian, Prussian, Russian •abduction, conduction, construction, deduction, destruction, eduction, effluxion, induction, instruction, introduction, misconstruction, obstruction, production, reduction, ruction, seduction, suction, underproduction •avulsion, compulsion, convulsion, emulsion, expulsion, impulsion, propulsion, repulsion, revulsion •assumption, consumption, gumption, presumption •luncheon, scuncheon, truncheon •compunction, conjunction, dysfunction, expunction, function, junction, malfunction, multifunction, unction •abruption, corruption, disruption, eruption, interruption •T-junction • liposuction •animadversion, aspersion, assertion, aversion, Cistercian, coercion, conversion, desertion, disconcertion, dispersion, diversion, emersion, excursion, exertion, extroversion, immersion, incursion, insertion, interspersion, introversion, Persian, perversion, submersion, subversion, tertian, version •excerption

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"inflection." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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