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Shoshone

SHOSHONE

SHOSHONE Indians span widely dispersed geographical and cultural areas. Eastern Shoshones live on the Wind River Reservation in Wyoming, Shoshone-Bannock tribes are at Fort Hall in Idaho, and Western Shoshones reside on reservations in Nevada. While the Shoshones' linguistic roots may have originated in the Great Basin of Utah and Nevada, archaeological evidence suggests a Shoshonean presence eight thousand years ago in the Bitterroot, Yellowstone, Absoroka, Wind River, and Bighorn Mountains.

Shoshones began migrating onto the Plains beginning around a.d. 1500, although the mountain Shoshones (Sheepeaters) did not venture to the Plains. They acquired horses in the late 1600s and then split into Comanche and Eastern Shoshone divisions in the early 1700s. As Plains horse-and-buffalo cultures, they celebrated the Sun Dance and leadership that valued military prowess. Shoshones of eastern and northern Idaho occasionally hunted buffalo and other large game, but staples were fish and camas roots. Western Shoshones did not use horses, but hunted small game and harvested wild vegetables and piñon nuts.

Shoshones in Idaho and Wyoming rapidly integrated into the European-American fur trade during the years from 1825 to 1845. The Fort Bridger Treaty of 1868 created the Wind River and Fort Hall Reservations. There are approximately 5,700 enrolled Eastern Shoshones at Wind River (with about 4,300 in residence) and about 4,500 Shoshone-Bannock people at Fort Hall. Most Shoshones are employed in ranching and farming.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Crum, Steven J. The Road on Which We Came: A History of the Western Shoshones. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1994.

Madsen, Brigham D. The Shoshoni Frontier and the Bear River Massacre. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1985.

Stamm, Henry E., IV. People of the Wind River: The Eastern Shoshones, 18251900. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1999.

Henry E. Stamm IV

See also Fur Trade and Trapping ; Indian Economic Life ; Indians and the Horse .

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"Shoshone." Dictionary of American History. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Nov. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Shoshone

Shoshone or Shoshoni (shəshō´nē), Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Shoshonean group of the Uto-Aztecan branch of the Aztec-Tanoan linguistic stock (see Native American languages). In the early 19th cent. the Shoshone occupied SE California, NW Utah, SW Montana, W Wyoming, S Idaho, and NE Nevada. The Shoshone were traditionally divided into four groups: the Comanche of W Texas, a historically recent subdivision of the Wind River Shoshone of Wyoming; the Northern Shoshone of Idaho and Utah, who had horses and ranged across the Great Plains in search of buffalo; the Western Shoshone, who did not use horses and subsisted mainly on nuts and other wild vegetation; and the Wind River Shoshone of Wyoming. Today the Shoshone live on reservations in California, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming. In 1990 there were some 9,500 Shoshone in the United States.

See V. C. Trenholm and M. Carley, The Shoshonis, Sentinels of the Rockies (1964); E. Dorn, The Shoshoneans (1966); J. G. Jorgensen, The Sun Dance Religion (1972).

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"Shoshone." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Nov. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Shoshone

Sho·sho·ne / shōˈshōnē/ • n. (pl. same or -nes ) 1. a member of an American Indian people living chiefly in Wyoming, Idaho, and Nevada. 2. the Uto-Aztecan language of this people. • adj. of or relating to the Shoshone or their language.

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"Shoshone." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Nov. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Shoshone

Shoshone (Shoshoni) Native North Americans of the Uto-Aztecan language group. They occupy reservations in California, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming. They comprise the Comanche, the Northern, the Western, and the Wind River Shoshone. Today, there are c.9500 Shoshone.

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"Shoshone." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Nov. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Shoshone." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved November 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/shoshone

Shoshone

Shoshoneabalone, Albinoni, Annigoni, Antonioni, baloney, Bodoni, boloney, bony, calzone, cannelloni, canzone, cicerone, coney, conversazione, coronae, crony, Gaborone, Giorgione, macaroni, Manzoni, Marconi, mascarpone, minestrone, Moroni, Mulroney, padrone, panettoni, pepperoni, phoney, polony, pony, rigatoni, Shoshone, Sloaney, stony, Toni, tony, zabaglione •cartoony, lacunae, loony, Moonie, moony, Nguni, puny, Rooney, spoony, uni •Sunni •bunny, dunny, funny, gunny, honey, money, runny, sonny, sunny, tunny •twopenny • chutney • beermoney

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"Shoshone." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Nov. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Shoshone." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved November 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/shoshone