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Mohawk

Mohawk

The Mohawk were one of the original member tribes of the League of the Iroquois or Five Nations Confederacy. The Mohawk live mostly in Ontario and Quebec in Canada and New York and Oklahoma in the United States and numbered about ten thousand on six reservations in the 1980s. They were the easternmost tribe of the Iroquois Confederacy and in late aboriginal and early historic times occupied the region of present-day New York State bounded by the Mohawk and Hudson river valleys in the south and east and the St. Lawrence River in the north. In 1650 they numbered approximately nine thousand.

In the late 1600s a group of Mohawk who favored the French migrated north to Canada and helped establish the community of Caughnawaga near Montreal. At about this time a second northern Mohawk community was established at Oka, also near Montreal. In 1881 some of the Oka Mohawk established a new settlement at Gibson Reserve east of Georgian Bay in Ontario. In the mid-eighteenth century factional disputes and overcrowding at Caughnawage led to the establishment of a third northern Mohawk community at St. Regis on the St. Lawrence River. In the early nineteenth century some of the Caughnawaga Mohawk joined the Iroquois in migrating to Ohio and later to Indian Territory (Oklahoma). After the American Revolution the Mohawk remaining in New York resettled on the Six Nations and Tyendinaga reserves in Ontario.

Traditionally, the Mohawk were a hunting and farming people, but fishing and gathering were also important subsistence activities. They held nine of the fifty hereditary sachem positions in the council of the League of the Iroquois and were known as the Keepers of the Eastern Door.

See also Iroquois

Bibliography

Blanchard, David (1983). "Entertainment, Dance, and Northern Mohawk Showmanship." American Indian Quarterly 7:2-26.

Carse, Mary (Rowell) (1949). "The Mohawk Iroquois." Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of Connecticut 23:3-53.

Freilich, Morris (1958) "Cultural Persistence among the Modern Iroquois." Anthropos 53:473-483.

Frisch, Jack A. (1970). "Tribalism among the St. Regis Mohawks: A Search for Self-Identity." Anthropologica 12:207-219.

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Mohawk

Mohawk

The Mohawk hairstyle is distinguished by a ridge of hair sticking straight up, running down the center of the head from the forehead to the nape of the neck, with the rest of the head shaved. It originated among Native American tribes in North America and Canada and was often not made of human hair but rather of a "deer roach," a piece of deer tail with skin and fur attached and worn atop the head.

French explorer Samuel de Champlain (c. 15671635) first noted the hairstyle among the Hurons of southwestern Ontario in the early 1600s. The name Huron, in fact, comes from the old French word hure, meaning "boar's head," after the stiff ridge of hair bristles along the head of a boar. Other Native American tribes wore their hair in this fashion as well. There is even a tribe called the Mohawk tribe, though there is no evidence to suggest that the Mohawk tribe originated the style. The first time the Mohawk hairstyle was identified with the Mohawk tribe was in a book written in 1656 by a Dutch Reform minister named Johannes Megatolensis. The illustration of a Mohawk hairstyle included in his book was of a Long Island Algonquin, not a Mohawk.

In the 1970s the Mohawk became a popular hairstyle among punk rockers, fans of punk rock music, who liked its menacing look. The actor Mr. T sported a variation of the Mohawk on his 1980s action TV series The A-Team.

FOR MORE INFORMATION

Gröning, Karl. Body Decoration: A World Survey of Body Art. New York: Vendome Press, 1998.

Raphael, Mitchell. "Who Really Sported the First Mohawk?" Canku Ota. http://www.turtletrack.org/Issues01/Co06302001/CO_06302001_Mohawk.htm (accessed on July 31, 2003).

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"Mohawk." Fashion, Costume, and Culture: Clothing, Headwear, Body Decorations, and Footwear through the Ages. . Encyclopedia.com. 19 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Mohawk." Fashion, Costume, and Culture: Clothing, Headwear, Body Decorations, and Footwear through the Ages. . Retrieved August 19, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/fashion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/mohawk

Mohawk (river, United States)

Mohawk, river, c.140 mi (230 km) long, rising in central New York and flowing S then SE past Utica and Schenectady to enter the Hudson River at Cohoes. The Mohawk is canalized from Rome to its mouth (completed 1918) as part of the New York State Canal System's rebuilt Erie Canal, which links the Hudson River with the Great Lakes; it is mainly used by leisure craft. Rapids and small waterfalls are found at Little Falls and Oriskany, near Cohoes, and on many tributaries. Pollution from industries and municipal raw sewage was the focus of cleanup efforts under the Clean Waters Program of 1965.

The beautiful and fertile Mohawk valley, named for its Native American inhabitants, was the scene of many battles and raids in the French and Indian Wars and in the American Revolution. The valley served as the sole route (see Mohawk Trail) for westward-bound pioneers to cross the Appalachian Mts. The Erie Canal, N.Y. Central RR, and N.Y. State Thruway were built along the river's course.

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Mohawk

Mo·hawk / ˈmōˌhôk/ • n. (pl. same or -hawks ) 1. a member of an American Indian people, one of the Five Nations, originally inhabiting parts of eastern New York. 2. the Iroquoian language of this people. 3. a hairstyle with the head shaved except for a strip of hair from the middle of the forehead to the back of the neck, typically stiffened to stand erect or in spikes. 4. Figure Skating a step from either edge of the skate to the same edge on the other foot in the opposite direction. • adj. of or relating to the Mohawks or their language. ORIGIN: from Narragansett mohowawog, literally ‘man-eaters.’

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Mohawk

Mohawk a member of an American Indian people, originally inhabiting parts of what is now upper New York State. Recorded in English from the mid 17th century, the name comes from Narragansett mohowawog, literally ‘maneaters’; an early variant spelling survives in Mohock.

From the 1980s in North America, Mohawk has also been used to denote a Mohican haircut.

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Mohawk

Mohawk Iroquoian-speaking Native North American tribe of the Iroquois Confederacy, formerly inhabiting central New York state. Today, there are c.2000 Mohawks. Most are farmers on two reservations in Ontario, Canada.

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Mohawk (indigenous people of North America)

Mohawk: see Iroquois Confederacy.

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"Mohawk (indigenous people of North America)." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved August 19, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/mohawk-indigenous-people-north-america

mohawk

mohawkauk, baulk, Bork, caulk (US calk), chalk, cork, dork, Dundalk, Falk, fork, gawk, hawk, Hawke, nork, orc, outwalk, pork, squawk, stalk, stork, talk, torc, torque, walk, york •pitchfork • nighthawk • goshawk •mohawk • sparrowhawk • tomahawk •back talk • peptalk • beanstalk •sweet-talk • crosstalk • small talk •smooth-talk • catwalk • jaywalk •cakewalk • space walk •sheep walk, sleepwalk •skywalk • sidewalk • crosswalk •boardwalk • rope-walk

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