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York, house of

York, house of. 15th-cent. royal dynasty. Historians from the Tudor period onward viewed the Wars of the Roses as a dynastic contest between the houses of Lancaster and York. This interpretation appears in the papal dispensation for the marriage of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV, in 1486.

The title was first created in 1385 for Edmund of Langley duke of York, 4th surviving son of Edward III, and descended to his son Edward, duke of York in 1402. His heir was Richard of York, son of his brother Richard of Conisborough. A hereditary right to the throne by York was inferior to that of the Lancastrians descended from John of Gaunt, Edward III's third son to reach maturity. From his mother, however, Duke Richard could trace descent through the Mortimer earls of March from Lionel, Edward's second surviving son. In 1460 he claimed the crown as Lionel's heir.

By this date there had been intermittent hostilities since 1455, and this was the second time victory in battle by York and his allies had won control of Henry VI's government. His friends had not fought to make him king, as was apparent by their dismayed reaction to his claim and the eventual compromise that he should be Henry's heir. After York's death, they recognized his son as King Edward IV. His claim was confirmed by battles in 1461 and again in 1471, when the main Lancastrian dynasty was extinguished; its former ministers, like John Morton, now entered Edward's service.

The Yorkist monarchy was destroyed by Richard III's usurpation. Courtiers of Edward, believing Richard had murdered Edward's sons Edward V and Richard, agreed to accept Henry Tudor as king if he married their sister. Risings for this purpose failed in 1483; it was achieved at Bosworth in 1485.

Continental enemies encouraged opposition to the Tudor king. Edward IV's sister Margaret, duchess of Burgundy, assisted the pseudo-Yorkist claimants Lambert Simnel and Perkin Warbeck. Pole and Courtenay descendants of Richard of York, some known as ‘the white rose’, fell victim to Henry VIII's paranoia. Pride in his own Yorkist ancestry was shown by naming his children Edward ( VI) and Elizabeth, and by his burial in Edward's chapel of St George in Windsor castle.

R. L. Storey

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"York, house of." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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York, house of

house of York, royal house of England, deriving its name from the creation of Edmund of Langley, fifth son of Edward III, as duke of York in 1385. The claims to the throne of Edmund's grandson, Richard, duke of York, in opposition to Henry VI of the house of Lancaster (see Lancaster, house of), resulted in the Wars of the Roses (see Roses, Wars of the), so called because the badge of the house of York was a white rose, and a red rose was later attributed to the house of Lancaster. Richard's claim to the throne came not only from direct male descent from Edmund, but also through his mother Anne Mortimer, great-granddaughter of Lionel, duke of Clarence, who was the third son of Edward III. The royal members of the house of York were Edward IV, Edward V, and Richard III. The marriage of the Lancastrian Henry VII to Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Edward IV, united the houses of York and Lancaster. Henry was the first of the Tudor kings.

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"York, house of." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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York, House of

York, House of the English royal house which ruled England from 1461 ( Edward IV) until the defeat and death of Richard III in 1485, with a short break in 1470–1 (the restoration of Henry VI).

Descended from Edmund of Langley (1341–1402), 1st Duke of York and 5th son of Edward III, the House of York fought the Wars of the Roses with the House of Lancaster, both houses being branches of the Plantagenet line. Lancaster eventually prevailed, through their descendants, the Tudors, but the houses were united when the victorious Henry VII married Elizabeth, the eldest daughter of Edward IV (1486).

The Yorkist emblem was a white rose.

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York, House of

York, House of English royal House, a branch of the Plantagenets. During the Wars of the Roses, rival claimants from the Houses of York and Lancaster contended for the throne. The Yorkist claimant, Richard, Duke of York, was a great-grandson of Edward III. His son was crowned as Edward IV. In 1485, the defeat of Edward's brother, Richard III, by Henry VII brought the Yorkist line to a close. See also Tudors

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"York, House of." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 May. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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