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EAST ANGLIA

EAST ANGLIA. A region of England consisting of the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, but also often taken to include Essex and parts of Cambridgeshire and Bedfordshire. It has two main urban areas, Norwich in Norfolk and Ipswich in Suffolk, which tend to influence the speech of the areas around them. The regional dialects belong to the MIDLANDS group, but are internally diverse: for example, Essex speech is closer to London varieties than are Norfolk and Suffolk speech. The so-called singing Suffolk accent has a wide pitch range and a high rising intonation at the ends of sentences. Many local accents are marked by a rhythm that tends to lengthen stressed vowels and to reduce or eliminate unstressed short vowels. Although many speakers are influenced by RP and media norms, some generalizations can be made of informal working-class speech: (1) It is non-rhotic. (2) Older, rural speakers tend to distinguish between the vowel sounds in words such as game, grace, and tale (with a long /e/) and words such as bay, bait, and eight (with /æɪ/ or /eɪ/). Younger speakers tend to use /æɪ/ or /eɪ/ for both. (3) Norfolk speakers in particular, especially older people, use two realizations for words that contain /aʊ/ in RP: words such as bone and tone have monophthongal /uː/ or a /ʊu/ diphthong, whereas words such as bowl and tow have /ʌu/. (4) Because of their use of /u/ for /əʊ/, some Norwich speakers have such homophones as soap sounding like soup and boat like boot. (5) The vowel sounds in words such as bare and beer are merged into /ɛ/ or /ɛə/, producing additional homophones. (6) Throughout the region, there tends to be no /j/ in words such as dew, dune. Do and dew are therefore often homophones. The pronunciation ‘bootiful’ for beautiful (with the /t/ often glottalized) is a regional shibboleth. (7) Word-initial /h/ tends to be preserved in Norfolk and Suffolk but not in Cambridgeshire or Essex. (8) Glottal stops are common throughout the area, including the towns; /hæ?/ is a common pronunciation of hat. (9) In older, rural Norfolk speech, /l/ tends to be clear; elsewhere, the clear/dark distinction is similar to RP. (10) In casual speech, the unmarked verb form is often used with all subjects in the present tense: I go; He go. (11) That is often used rather than it in such greetings as That's a cold day!, That's nice now. (12) A feature formerly widespread but now recessive is conditional do: They don't go there; do, they'd have a surprise They don't go there; if they did, they'd get a surprise. (13) Some distinctive rural words can be found, such as hodmadod/dodman a snail, fourses a light afternoon meal (compare elevenses), and neathouse, a shed for neat (cattle). Scandinavian influence was once strong and can still be found, especially in northern Suffolk, where streams continue to be called becks. See DIALECT IN ENGLAND, NEW ENGLAND.

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"EAST ANGLIA." Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"EAST ANGLIA." Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 21, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/east-anglia

"EAST ANGLIA." Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. . Retrieved July 21, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/east-anglia

East Anglia

East Anglia (ăng´glēə), kingdom of Anglo-Saxon England, comprising the modern counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. It was settled in the late 5th cent. by so-called Angles from northern Germany and Scandinavia. Little is known of its early history, but its large size and the fact that it was protected by fens probably made it one of the most powerful English kingdoms in the late 6th cent. Raedwald of East Anglia (d. 627?) followed Æthelbert of Kent as king of S England. He helped Edwin defeat Æthelfrith of Northumbria and seize the Northumbrian throne. This brief ascendancy was eclipsed by the rise of the kingdom of Mercia, of which East Anglia was a dependency for long periods after 650. In 825 the East Anglians rebelled against Mercia, with the help of Egbert of Wessex, but thereafter their kingdom was a dependency of Wessex. The great Danish invading army was quartered (865–66) in East Anglia and returned (869) to conquer the kingdom completely, to destroy its monasteries, and to murder its young ruler, St. Edmund. When King Alfred of Wessex first defeated the Danes in the 870s, they retired under Guthrum to an area that included East Anglia, and the treaty of 886 confirmed the region as part of the Danelaw. Its Danes gave aid to later Viking invaders and continued to harass Wessex until Edward the Elder finally defeated their army in 917. After that time, East Anglia was an earldom of England.

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"East Anglia." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"East Anglia." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 21, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/east-anglia

"East Anglia." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved July 21, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/east-anglia

East Anglia

East Anglia Region of e England, made up of the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, and parts of Cambridgeshire and Essex. It was one of the most powerful Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of the late 6th century. A fertile agricultural land, farming includes grain, vegetables and livestock-raising. Industries: market gardening, tourism and fishing.

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"East Anglia." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"East Anglia." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 21, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/east-anglia

"East Anglia." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved July 21, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/east-anglia