After the war, Upton became an articulate advocate of military efficiency and effectiveness. He drew upon his own broad experience to begin substantial revisions of the army's infantry, cavalry, and artillery tactics, an ambitious and contentious effort he continued to supervise while commandant of cadets at West Point (1870–75). The protégé of Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman, he went on a multinational tour of military establishments and published his observations in The Armies of Asia and Europe (1878), in part to suggest ways in which organizational and personnel reforms might create a more professional U.S. army.
As superintendent of the Artillery School at Fort Monroe (1877–80), Upton introduced combined arms training and theory‐based case studies to add intellectual rigor to its limited practical curriculum. His institution became the model for advanced officer education throughout the army. Years after Upton committed suicide in March 1881 (the reasons for which remain uncertain) the reformist secretary of war Elihu Root published Upton's most enduring work, The Military Policy of the United States (1904), a treatise that challenged contemporary notions of the “minuteman tradition,” arguing instead for a professional army, headed by a General Staff, to be the proper foundation for national defense.
[See also Academies, Service; Army Combat Branches; Militia and National Guard.]
Peter S. Michie , The Life and Letters of Emory Upton, 1885.
Stephen E. Ambrose , Upton and the Army, 1964.
"Upton, Emory." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 20, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/upton-emory
"Upton, Emory." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Retrieved October 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/upton-emory
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