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unauthorized programme

unauthorized programme, 1885. Between 1883 and 1885 Joseph Chamberlain and John Morley organized publication in the Fortnightly Review of a series of articles—on land, housing, religion, education, and taxation—republished as The Radical Programme (1885) with a fiery preface by Chamberlain, promulgating ‘a definite and practical programme for the Radical party’. The programme was ‘unauthorized’ as it lacked the Liberal Party leadership's approval, Gladstone especially deploring its ‘constructive’ (i.e. socialistic) direction. Within a year ‘Radical Joe’ was allied to the Unionists, some of the items of his programme becoming even more ‘unauthorized’, and an embarrassment to him for the remainder of his career.

R. L. Storey

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