Skip to main content

Murray, Andrew

Murray, Andrew (d. 1297). An undeservedly unsung hero of the Scottish Wars of Independence, he came to the fore in 1297, when most prominent Scots had submitted to Edward I. He master-minded widespread risings in northern Scotland, advanced south with his supporters, and joined forces with William Wallace. Together they brilliantly exploited English tactical errors at the battle of Stirling Bridge (11 September 1297) by waiting until the enemy had begun to cross the bridge over the river Forth, and then pouncing to massacre the vanguard while the rest watched helplessly from the other bank. This was the first full-scale defeat inflicted by the Scots in battle with the English since the early 11th cent., and vital in keeping the cause of Scottish independence alive. Wallace went on to invade northern England, but Murray was soon dead, apparently from wounds sustained at Stirling.

Keith J. Stringer

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Murray, Andrew." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. 24 Nov. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Murray, Andrew." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 24, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/murray-andrew

"Murray, Andrew." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved November 24, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/murray-andrew

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.