Skip to main content

Lugard, Sir Frederick, Baron Lugard

Lugard, Sir Frederick, Baron Lugard (1858–1945). Colonial administrator. Lugard started as a soldier and adventurer, then got drawn into east Africa's religious wars (protestant converts v. catholic converts), until the area (Uganda) was formally annexed by Britain in 1894. Then he helped the Royal Niger Company in the west, and when its charter ran out became British commissioner in northern Nigeria. While there he devised a new way of governing ‘natives’, called ‘indirect rule’, or ruling them according to their own customs rather than by imposing alien ones. He later justified this philosophically, in a seminal book called The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa (1922); but it clearly had practical advantages too. The Dual Mandate's other message was that colonies should be run for the benefit of both their subjects and the world as a whole. That made Lugard an obvious choice for the League of Nations Permanent Mandates Commission, on which he sat from 1922 to 1936.

Bernard Porter

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Lugard, Sir Frederick, Baron Lugard." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Sep. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Lugard, Sir Frederick, Baron Lugard." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 22, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lugard-sir-frederick-baron-lugard

"Lugard, Sir Frederick, Baron Lugard." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved September 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lugard-sir-frederick-baron-lugard

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.