Naval commanders saw horrendous problems in assembling the necessary amphibious shipping and negotiating the treacherous sea approaches to Inchon. The tides, up to 30 feet, were among the highest in the world. Low tide left vast mudflats across which landing ships and landing craft could not beach and amphibian tractors could not crawl. Hydrographers stipulated that the best date for the landing would be 15 September, when the morning high tide would be at 6:59 A.M. and the evening high tide at 7:19 P.M.
The landing force, which MacArthur designated X Corps, would have to be gathered from parts scattered around the world. In the assault would be the hastily assembled 1st Marine Division. In reserve would be the 7th U.S. Infantry Division, weakest of the four divisions that had made up the occupation force in Japan and with untrained South Korean conscripts as half its rifle strength.
At daybreak on 15 September, a Marine battalion landed on Wolmi‐do, an island forming the northern arm of the channel. That evening, two Marine regiments made the main landing against Inchon itself, going over sea walls that were themselves formidable barriers. The assault, with a five‐to‐one strength advantage, easily overcame the 2,200 second‐rate North Korean troops defending the city.
The march to Seoul, against thickening defenses, began the next morning. After heavy fighting, Seoul was declared “secured” on 28 September. The next day, MacArthur escorted President Syngman Rhee in a triumphal reentry into his capital city.
[See also Korea, U.S. Military Involvement in; Korean War.]
Lynn Montross and and Nicholas A. Canzona , The Inchon‐Seoul Operation, 1955.
Robert D. Heinl , Victory at High Tide, 1968.
Edwin Howard Simmons
"Inchon Landing." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 22, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/inchon-landing
"Inchon Landing." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Retrieved August 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/inchon-landing
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.