Chosin Reservoir, Battle of the
On 24 November, MacArthur began an “end‐the‐war” attack to the Yalu. Days later, a massive Chinese counteroffensive erupted. The First Marine Division, its 5th and 7th Regiments now at Yudam‐ni north of the reservoir, was ordered to shift its attack to the west to shore up the collapsed right flank of the Eighth Army. Overwhelming Chinese forces quickly brought the Marine advance to a halt. Temperatures had dropped to −25° Fahrenheit.
The 1st Marines, the division's third infantry regiment, held positions in battalion strength at Hagaru‐ri, Koto‐ri, and Chinhung‐ni along the only road leading south from Yudam‐ni. Maj. Gen. Oliver P. Smith, the division commander, pulled the 5th and 7th Marines back to Hagaru‐ri. The breakout from there began on 6 December. Immeasurably helped by close air support and aerial resupply, the division reached Hungnam six days later. Of the some 15,000 Marines engaged, 4,400 were battle casualties. Almost all the Marines suffered some degree of frostbite. The Chinese had lost perhaps 25,000 dead and did not oppose the evacuation of Hungnam by X Corps, which was accomplished by Christmas.
Lynn Montross and and Nicholas A. Canzona , The Chosin Reservoir Campaign, 1957.
Roy E. Appleman , Escaping the Trap, 1990.
Edwin Howard Simmons
"Chosin Reservoir, Battle of the." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 23, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/chosin-reservoir-battle
"Chosin Reservoir, Battle of the." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Retrieved October 23, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/chosin-reservoir-battle
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