The county was dominated by the Snowdon massif (Eryri) with the highest peaks in Wales (yr Wyddfa, 3,560 feet), a glaciated terrain of steep mountain slopes, deeply eroded valleys, and lakes. It is one of Wales's national parks. It is predominantly agricultural with sheep-farming as the main enterprise but extensive slate-quarrying and mining in the 18th and 19th cents. have scarred the landscape. There is still some slate production, but tourism, particularly hill-walking and rock-climbing, is a significant element in the economy. Hydroelectric schemes exploit the steep slopes and fast-flowing rivers.
Regarded as the primary mountain fastness of Wales, it has retained Welsh speech. In 1901, 89.6 per cent spoke Welsh with 47.7 being monoglot Welsh. By 1991 the percentage speaking Welsh had fallen to 61.5. In 1991 the total population was 133,338.
"Caernarfonshire." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 19, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/caernarfonshire
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