Skip to main content

Birmingham Political Union

Birmingham Political Union. Formed in 1830 by Thomas Attwood to press for parliamentary reform as a remedy for economic distress and inspired by the successful campaign for catholic emancipation. Led by local businessmen and manufacturers, the BPU aimed to unite middle- and working-class reformers in a programme of peaceful and orderly change based on currency reform and household suffrage. It rapidly became a preponderant factor in Birmingham political life; and as the Reform Bill crisis deepened, the BPU organized a series of huge reform demonstrations, becoming the pattern for similar political unions elsewhere. After the passing of the 1832 Reform Bill, the BPU fell apart and was virtually dissolved in 1834. A revival came in 1837, but the BPU was soon swallowed up by chartism, which possessed a more powerful working-class dynamic.

John F. C. Harrison

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Birmingham Political Union." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Dec. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Birmingham Political Union." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 17, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/birmingham-political-union

"Birmingham Political Union." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved December 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/birmingham-political-union

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.