The proliferation—if not the origin—of this pattern of relationships coincided with the Hundred Years War. Edward III and his successors raised their invading armies by indentures with lords and other captains who undertook to provide certain numbers of mounted men and archers. They in turn recruited parts of their contingents by similar contracts. All were to be paid wages of war: these were not feudal armies. The core of a lord's company would be the men already retained to follow him ‘in peace and war’. It was therefore in the king's interest that lords had organized companies available for military service, not only for campaigns abroad but for emergencies like foreign invasion or domestic rebellion.
The political hazards of this dependency could be reduced by good kingship. Public order was assisted if lords kept their retainers in order, as by arbitrating in their quarrels. It was otherwise when lords competed for regional dominance, as did the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, and the Nevilles and Percies, in a period of weak monarchy. ‘Livery and maintenance’ could weaken the administration of justice. In 1384 the parliamentary Commons complained that wrongdoers expected to escape retribution through the patronage of the lords whose liveries of cloth or badges they wore. Sheriffs and justices of the peace retained by a lord would not be impartial: juries could be packed or intimidated.
For many landed gentry, the best safeguard available was to have the ‘good lordship’ of a noble protector by becoming his retainer. Social aspirations may have helped to swell retinues, because tradesmen and rustic tenants able to wear a lord's livery could describe themselves as ‘yeomen’; while those of more dignified standing were known as ‘gentlemen’. Both these personal descriptions became widely used in the 15th cent., particularly in indictments of riotous assemblies. Eventually bastard feudalism was curbed, though not abolished, by Henry VII's conciliar jurisdiction and his statute of 1504, which prohibited retaining without royal licence.
R. L. Storey
"bastard feudalism." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 11, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bastard-feudalism
"bastard feudalism." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved December 11, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bastard-feudalism
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.