Skip to main content

Bamburgh castle

Bamburgh castle in Northumberland is sited on an outcrop of basalt rock, overlooking the North Sea. A citadel of the Anglo-Saxon kings of Bernicia, it was close to their palace at Yeavering and the royal monastery of Lindisfarne. Later the site became a centre of power of the earls of Northumbria. Between the 10th and 12th cents. control of the north of England was disputed between the kings of England and of Scotland, the earls being a powerful independent force. In 1095 William Rufus took it by force from the then earl, Robert Mowbray, as part of his bid to control the north. After that the castle remained in royal hands until the 16th cent., except when held by Henry, earl of Northumberland, son of King David of Scots, during the reign of Stephen, when Scottish influence in Northumberland was in the ascendant. It is likely that the keep was begun by David and Henry, and completed by Henry II of England, after he recovered the castle in 1157; and that the castle had achieved its full extent, of three wards each with its own gate, by 1250. It was allowed to fall into decay after being severely damaged in the siege of 1464, when held by the Lancastrians against Edward IV. Warwick the Kingmaker pounded it with heavy guns, despite the king's wish that it be taken ‘whole, unbroken with ordinance’. Its present condition is due to modern restorations, especially by Lord Armstrong.

Lynda Rollason

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Bamburgh castle." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. 21 Nov. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Bamburgh castle." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 21, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bamburgh-castle

"Bamburgh castle." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved November 21, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/bamburgh-castle

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.