STALWARTS, a term applied to a conservative faction of the Republican Party during the Gilded Age. Led by Senator Roscoe Conkling of New York, they supported black male suffrage in the South and opposed the civil-service reform program of Rutherford B. Hayes's administration. Although the Stalwarts were unsuccessful in securing Ulysses S. Grant's nomination for a third presidential term in 1880, the assassination of James Garfield in 1881 elevated to the presidency Chester A. Arthur, the last Stalwart to hold the office. After Conkling's retirement from politics in the 1880s, the designation soon passed out of use.
Foner, Eric. Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863– 1877. New York: Harper and Row, 1988.
Jordan, David M. Roscoe Conkling of New York: Voice in the Senate. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1971.
Asa E.Martin/t. g.
"Stalwarts." Dictionary of American History. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 22, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/stalwarts
"Stalwarts." Dictionary of American History. . Retrieved August 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/stalwarts
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.