South Carolina Exposition and Protest
SOUTH CAROLINA EXPOSITION AND PROTEST
SOUTH CAROLINA EXPOSITION AND PROTEST. In the fall of 1828, many South Carolinians were on the point of rebellion against the Tariff of Abominations and the perceived abuse of power by congressional majorities. Seeking redress, state legislators asked John C. Calhoun, then U.S. vice president, to write a justification for a state veto of the offending legislation. In his "draft," Calhoun expanded on the iniquities and dangers of the tariff, and argued that state constitutional conventions had the sovereign authority to declare a federal act unconstitutional. Such a declaration would halt the operation of the law within the state until the federal government secured passage—if it could—of a constitutional amendment confirming the disputed power. The South Carolina legislature did not formally adopt Calhoun's Exposition, but printed it with amendments, together with its own protest, in December 1828. Four years later, the state adopted Calhoun's nullification scheme, bringing on a national crisis that showed the impracticality and danger of the procedure, and it was never used again.
Freehling, William W. Prelude to Civil War: The Nullification Controversy in South Carolina, 1816–1836. New York: Harper and Row, 1966.
Wilson, Clyde N., and W. Edwin Hemphill, eds. The Papers of John C. Calhoun, Vol. 10: 1825–1829. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1977.
Wiltse, Charles M. John C. Calhoun. 3 vols. Indianapolis, Ind.: Bobbs-Merrill, 1944–1951.
See alsoNullification .
"South Carolina Exposition and Protest." Dictionary of American History. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 23, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/south-carolina-exposition-and-protest
"South Carolina Exposition and Protest." Dictionary of American History. . Retrieved June 23, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/south-carolina-exposition-and-protest
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.