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Monongahela, Battle of the

MONONGAHELA, BATTLE OF THE

MONONGAHELA, BATTLE OF THE (9 July 1755). In the opening stages of the French and Indian War, a vanguard of British Gen. Edward Braddock's expedition encountered a band of French and Indian soldiers near Braddock, Pa., surprising both sides. The British opened fire immediately, scattering the enemy. The Indians occupied a commanding hill and worked through a gully on the other British flank. Surrounded, the vanguard retreated, abandoning its guns. Meanwhile, the main body rushed forward hastily, and the whole army became an unmanageable huddle. Most of the officers were killed or wounded, but Lt. Col. George Washington, who was one of Braddock's aides, was almost miraculously unscathed. Braddock, mortally wounded, ordered a retreat; the soldiers fled in disorder.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Hamilton, Charles, Ed. Braddock's Defeat. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1959.

Kopperman, Paul E. Braddock at the Monongahela. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1977.

Pargellis, Stanley McCrory. "Braddock's Defeat." American Historical Review (1936).

Parkman, Francis. Montcalm and Wolfe. New York: Collier Books, 1962.

Solon J.Buck/a. r.

See alsoBraddock's Expedition ; Colonial Wars ; French and Indian War .

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