IRONCLAD OATH. In 1862, Congress mandated that civil servants and military personnel take an Ironclad Test Oath that they had never voluntarily aided the Confederacy. As Reconstruction evolved, the Ironclad Oath emerged as the strictest of several possible standards for the readmission of Southerners into the political life of the Union. The Radical Wade-Davis Bill (1864) would have required Southerners to take the oath before regaining the right to vote, but President Lincoln pocket-vetoed it. The Second Reconstruction Act (1867) made the oath a condition for holding federal office, but it was not consistently enforced.
Dorris, Jonathan Truman. Pardon and Amnesty Under Lincoln and Johnson: The Restoration of the Confederates to Their Rights and Privileges, 1861–1898. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1953.
Foner, Eric. Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877. New York: Harper and Row, 1988.
"Ironclad Oath." Dictionary of American History. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 20, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ironclad-oath
"Ironclad Oath." Dictionary of American History. . Retrieved January 20, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/ironclad-oath
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.