GERMAN-AMERICAN BUND, an organization that emerged in 1936 as the successor to the Friends of the New Germany, an organization formed in 1932 to generate support for Nazism among people of German descent living in the United States. Under the leadership of Fritz Kuhn, a naturalized American citizen, the Bund gained notoriety through its use of parades and mass rallies attended by uniformed storm troopers, special training camps, and blatant racist propaganda. Membership estimates for its heyday vary from three thousand to twenty-five thousand. While publicly disavowing connection with the Bund, the German government privately supported its efforts until 1938. The movement collapsed when Kuhn was convicted in 1939 of embezzling Bund funds, but its highly publicized activities contributed to the growing American repugnance for Nazism.
Canedy, Susan. America's Nazis: A Democratic Dilemma. Menlo Park, Calif. : Markgraf, 1990.
Diamond, Sander A. The Nazi Movement in the United States, 1924–1941. Ithaca, N. Y. : Cornell University Press, 1974.
Ludwig F.Schaefer/c. p.
"German-American Bund." Dictionary of American History. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 22, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/german-american-bund
"German-American Bund." Dictionary of American History. . Retrieved November 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/german-american-bund
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.