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abundance of elements

abundance of elements Universe: It is estimated that up to 99% of the known universe is made up of hydrogen and helium, with hydrogen in a ratio of 20:1 to helium and some 10,000:1 of other elements. The next, in order, are oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, silicon, magnesium, neon, sulphur and iron.

Earth's crust1

%

Living things

%

Sea water2

%

1 Igneous rocks in the lithosphere

2 Average ocean concentration

Oxygen

46.6

Oxygen

62.0

Oxygen

85.7

Silicon

27.7

Carbon

20.0

Hydrogen

10.7

Aluminium

8.1

Hydrogen

10.0

Chlorine

1.9

Iron

5.0

Nitrogen

3.0

Sodium

1.1

Calcium

3.6

Calcium

2.5

Magnesium

0.1

Sodium

2.8

Phosphorous

1.14

Potassium

2.6

Chlorine

0.16

Magnesium

2.1

Sulphur

0.14

Titanium

0.44

Potassium

0.11

Hydrogen

0.14


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