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Rock

Rock

To the geologist, the term rock means a naturally occurring aggregate of minerals that may include some organic solids (e.g., fossils ) and/or glass . Rocks are generally subdivided into three large classes: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. These classes relate to common origin, or genesis. Igneous rocks form from cooling liquid rock or related volcanic eruptive processes. Sedimentary rocks form from compaction and cementation of sediments. Metamorphic rocks develop due to solid-state, chemical and physical changes in pre-existing rock because of elevated temperature , pressure, or chemically active fluids.

With igneous rocks, the aggregate of minerals comprising these rocks forms upon cooling and crystallization of liquid rock. As crystals form in the liquid rock, they become interconnected to one another like jigsaw puzzle pieces. After total crystallization of the liquid, a hard, dense igneous rock is the result. Also, some volcanic lavas, when extruded on the surface and cooled instantaneously, will form a natural glass. Glass is a mass of disordered atoms, which are frozen in place due to sudden cooling, and is not a crystalline material like a mineral. Glass composes part of many extrusive igneous rocks (e.g., lava flows) and pyroclastic igneous rocks. Alternatively, some igneous rocks are formed from volcanic processes, such as violent volcanic eruption. Violent eruptions eject molten, partially molten, and non-molten igneous rock, which then falls in the vicinity of the eruption. The fallen material may solidify into a hard mass, called pyroclastic igneous rock. The texture of igneous rocks (defined as the size of crystals in the rock) is strongly related to cooling rate of the original liquid. Rapid cooling of liquid rock promotes formation of small crystals, usually too small to see with the unaided eye. Rocks with this cooling history are called fine-textured igneous rocks. Slow cooling (which usually occurs deep underground) promotes formation of large crystals. Rocks with this cooling history are referred to as coarse-textured igneous rocks.

The mineral composition of igneous rocks falls roughly into four groups: silicic , intermediate, mafic , and ultramafic. These groups are distinguished by the amount of silica (SiO4), iron (Fe), and magnesium (Mg) in the constituent minerals. Mineral composition of liquid rock is related to place of origin within the body of the earth. Generally speaking, liquids from greater depths within the earth contain more Fe and Mg and less SiO4 than those from shallow depths.

In sedimentary rocks, the type of sediment that is compacted and cemented together determines the rock's main characteristics. Sedimentary rocks composed of sediment that has been broken into pieces (i.e., clastic sediment), such as gravel, sand , silt, and clay , are clastic sedimentary rocks (e.g., conglomerate, sandstone , siltstone, and shale, respectively). Sedimentary rocks composed of sediment that is chemically derived (i.e., chemical sediment), such as dissolved elements like calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), and silicon (Si), are chemical sedimentary rocks. Examples of chemical sedimentary rocks are limestone (composed of calcium carbonate), rock salt (composed of sodium chloride), rock gypsum (composed of calcium sulfate), ironstones (composed of iron oxides), and chert (composed of hydrated silica). Biochemical sedimentary rocks are a special kind of chemical sedimentary rock wherein the constituent particles were formed by organisms (typically as organic hard parts, such as shells), which then became sedimentary particles. Examples of this special kind of sedimentary rock include chalk, fossiliferous limestone, and coquina. Sedimentary rocks are formed from sediment in two stages: compaction and cementation. Compaction occurs when sediments pile up to sufficient thickness that overlying mass squeezes out water and closes much open space . Cementation occurs when water flowing through the

compacted sediment deposits mineral crystals upon particles thus binding them together. The main cement minerals are calcite (CaCO3), hematite (Fe2O3), and quartz (SiO2).

With metamorphic rocks, the nature of the pre-existing rock (protolith) determines in large part the characteristics of the ultimate metamorphic rock . Regardless of protolith, however, almost all metamorphic rocks are harder and more dense than their protoliths. A protolith with flat or elongate mineral crystals (e.g., micas or amphiboles) will yield a metamorphic rock with preferentially aligned minerals (due to directed pressure). Such metamorphic rocks are called foliated metamorphic rocks (e.g., slate and schist ). Non-foliated metamorphic rocks (e.g., marble and quartzite) come from protoliths that have mainly equidimensional mineral crystals (e.g., calcite and quartz, respectively). For example, a protolith shale will yield a foliated metamorphic rock, and a protolith limestone will yield marble, a non-foliated metamorphic rock. Metamorphic rocks possess distinctive grades or levels of metamorphic change from minimal to a maximum near total melting . Low-grade metamorphic rocks generally have fine-textured crystals and low-temperature indicator minerals like the mica chlorite. High-grade metamorphic rocks generally have coarse-textured crystals and very distinctive foliation, plus high-temperature indicator minerals like the silicate mineral staurolite.

Rock is a brittle natural solid found mainly in the outer reaches of Earth's crust and upper mantle. Material that would be brittle rock at such shallow depths becomes to one degree or another rather plastic within the body of the earth. The term "rock" is not generally applied to such non-brittle internal Earth materials. Therefore, rock is a concept related to the outer shell of the earth. The term rock may also be properly applied to brittle natural solids found on the surfaces of other planets and satellites in our solar system . Meteorites are rock. Naturally occurring ice (e.g., brittle water ice in a glacier, H2O) is also a rock, although we do not normally think of ice this way.

Rock has been an important natural resource for people from early in human evolution . Rocks' properties are the key to their specific usefulness, now as in the past. Hard, dense rocks that could be chipped into implements and weapons were among the first useful possessions of people. Fine-textured and glassy rocks were particularly handy for these applications. Later on, rock as building stone and pavement material became very important, and this continues today in our modern world. All of Earth's natural mineral wealth, fossil energy resources, and most groundwater are contained within rocks of the earth's crust.

See also Lithification; Metamorphism

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rock

rock, aggregation of solid matter composed of one or more of the minerals forming the earth's crust. The scientific study of rocks is called petrology. Rocks are commonly divided, according to their origin, into three major classes—igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.

Igneous Rocks

Igneous rock originates from the cooling and solidification of molten matter from the earth's interior. If the rock is formed on the earth's surface (i.e., from the solidification of lava), it is called extrusive rock; igneous rock that has cooled and solidified slowly beneath the earth's surface is intrusive rock. Among the forms commonly taken by intrusive rocks are batholiths, which are enormous, irregular masses cutting or displacing older rocks; stocks, irregular and smaller than batholiths; necks, or plugs, columnar in form and probably the result of the hardening of magma in the necks of extinct volcanoes; dikes, more or less vertical, filling fissures in previously existing rock; sills, more or less horizontal, forced between layers of previously existing rock; and laccoliths, modified domelike sills that arch under the overlying rock.

Igneous rocks are commonly divided into classes by texture. Some rocks are markedly granular (e.g., granite, syenite, diorite, gabbro, peridotite, and pyroxenite), while others (e.g., basalt, trachite, dacite, and andesite) are composed of grains visible only under a microscope. Both fine-grained and coarse-grained igneous rocks frequently contain grains called phenocrysts that are larger than the surrounding grains; such rocks are said to be porphyritic in texture (see porphyry). Rocks with grains of uniform size are called equigranular.

Igneous rocks are commonly light in color if their constituent minerals are predominantly alkali feldspars and dark in color if the feldspars are calcic or if magnesia and iron minerals are abundant. The glassy igneous rocks include obsidian, pitchstone, and pumice, which contain few or no phenocrysts, and vitrophyre, or glass porphyry, which does contain phenocrysts. Rocks such as tuff and volcanic breccia, which are formed from fragmental volcanic material, are sometimes grouped as pyroclastic rocks.

Sedimentary Rocks

Sedimentary rocks originate from the consolidation of sediments derived in part from living organisms but chiefly from older rocks of all classes (ultimately the mineral elements are derived from igneous rocks alone). The sediments of inorganic origin are chiefly removed from older rocks by erosion and transported to the place of deposition; chemical precipitation from solution is a secondary cause of deposition of inorganic matter. Sedimentary rocks are commonly distinguished, according to their place of deposition, by a great variety of terms, such as continental, marine (i.e., oceanic), littoral (i.e., coastal), estuarine (i.e., in an estuary), lacustrine (i.e., lakes), and fluviatile, or fluvial (i.e., in a stream).

The characteristic feature of sedimentary rocks is their stratification; they are frequently called stratified rocks. Sedimentary rocks made up of angular particles derived from other rocks are said to have a clastic texture, in contrast to pyroclastic sediments, which are particles of volcanic origin. Among the important varieties of sedimentary rock, distinguished both by texture and by chemical composition, are conglomerate, sandstone, tillite, sedimentary breccia, shale, marl, chalk, limestone, coal, lignite, gypsum, and rock salt. Characteristic occurrences in sedimentary rocks are fossils, footprints, raindrop impressions, concretions, oolites, ripple marks, rill marks, and crossbedding. Some of these features are useful in determining the antiquity of sedimentary formations and in interpreting geologic history.

Metamorphic Rocks

Metamorphic rocks originate from the alteration of the texture and mineral constituents of igneous, sedimentary, and older metamorphic rocks under extreme heat and pressure deep within the earth (see metamorphism). Some (e.g., marble and quartzite) are massive in structure; others, and particularly those which have been subject to the more extreme forms of metamorphism, are characterized by foliation (i.e., the arrangement of their minerals in roughly parallel planes, giving them a banded appearance). A distinguishing characteristic of many metamorphic rocks is their slaty cleavage. Among the common metamorphic rocks are schist (e.g., mica schist and hornblende schist), gneiss, quartzite, slate, and marble.

Bibliography

See H. Blatt et al., Origin of Sedimentary Rocks (1972); A. F. Deeson, ed., The Collector's Encyclopedia of Rocks and Minerals (1973); N. Cristescu, Rock Rheology (1988).

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rock

rock1 / räk/ • n. 1. the solid mineral material forming part of the surface of the earth and other similar planets, exposed on the surface or underlying the soil or oceans. ∎  a mass of such material projecting above the earth's surface or out of the sea: there are dangerous rocks around the island. ∎ Geol. any natural material, hard or soft (e.g., clay), having a distinctive mineral composition. ∎  (the Rock) Gibraltar. ∎  (the Rock) informal name for Newfoundland1 . 2. a large piece of such material that has become detached from a cliff or mountain; a boulder: the stream flowed through a jumble of rocks. ∎  a stone of any size, esp. one small enough to be picked up and used as a projectile. ∎  Brit. a kind of hard confectionery in the form of cylindrical peppermint-flavored sticks. ∎  inf. a precious stone, esp. a diamond. ∎  inf. a small piece of crack cocaine. ∎  (rocks) vulgar slang testicles. 3. used in similes and metaphors to refer to someone or something that is extremely strong, reliable, or hard: imagining himself as the last rock of civilization being swept over by a wave of barbarism. ∎  (usu. rocks) (esp. with allusion to shipwrecks) a source of danger or destruction: the new system is heading for the rocks. 4. (rocks) inf., dated money. PHRASES: between a rock and a hard place inf. in a situation where one is faced with two equally difficult alternatives. get one's rocks off vulgar slang have an orgasm. ∎  obtain pleasure or satisfaction. on the rocks inf. 1. (of a relationship or enterprise) experiencing difficulties and likely to fail. 2. (of a drink) served undiluted and with ice cubes. DERIVATIVES: rock·less adj. rock·like / -ˌlīk/ adj. rock2 • v. 1. [tr.] cause (someone or something) to move gently to and fro or from side to side: she rocked the baby in her arms. ∎  [intr.] move in such a way: the vase rocked back and forth on its base | [as adj.] (rocking) the rocking movement of the boat. ∎  (with reference to a building or region) shake or cause to shake or vibrate, esp. because of an impact, earthquake, or explosion: [tr.] a terrorist blast rocked a Tube station | [intr.] the building began to rock on its foundations. ∎  cause great shock or distress to (someone or something), esp. so as to weaken or destabilize them or it: diplomatic upheavals that rocked the British Empire. 2. [intr.] inf. dance to or play rock music. ∎ fig. (of a place) have an atmosphere of excitement or much social activity: the new town really rocks | [as adj.] (rocking) a rocking resort. • n. 1. rock music: [as adj.] a rock star. ∎  rock and roll. 2. [in sing.] a gentle movement to and fro or from side to side: she placed the baby in the cradle and gave it a rock. PHRASES: rock the boat see boat.PHRASAL VERBS: rock out inf. perform rock music loudly and vigorously. ∎  enjoy oneself in an enthusiastic and uninhibited way, esp. by dancing to rock music.

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"rock." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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rock

rock A consolidated or unconsolidated aggregate of minerals or organic matter. The minerals may be all of one type, in which case the rock is ‘monomineralic’, or of many types, in which case it is ‘polymineralic’. The aggregate of minerals can form by: (a) accretion or precipitation of grains during Earth surface processes, to give sedimentary rocks; (b) crystallization of magma to give igneous rocks; and (c) solid-state recrystallization in response to changes in external conditions (e.g. pressure and temperature) to give metamorphic rocks. The grain relationships (textures) of these three rock types contrast. Sedimentary rocks are characterized by one of the following: (i) rounded or angular grains held together by an intergrain precipitate or a fine intergrain mud; (ii) fine aggregates of clay minerals displaying a preferred orientation of their long axes; (iii) a crystalline aggregate of minerals (e.g. calcite) displaying straight edges and triple junctions between the grains; (iv) an aggregate of fossil fragments held together by an interfragment precipitate of calcite or a fine interfragment mud; or (v) an aggregate of organic material (e.g. lignite or coal). All igneous rocks are characterized by an aggregate of minerals displaying an interlocking texture. Metamorphic rocks are characterized by one of the following: (i) a crystalline aggregate of minerals which display a preferred orientation of their long axes; (ii) a crystalline aggregate of equidimensional and randomly oriented non-equidimensional minerals; or (iii) an extremely fine-grained aggregate of sutured, anhedral, or sometimes elongate minerals.

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rock

rock1 in figurative usage, rock may be taken as the type of something providing a sure foundation and support, as in the words of Jesus Christ to Peter in Matthew 16:18, ‘Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church.’ In the parable in Matthew 7 of the two houses, it is the house built on sand which falls, and the house built on rock which stands.

A rock in biblical contexts may also be a source of sustenance (with allusion to Numbers 20:11, in which water issued from the rock struck by the staff of Moses), and a shelter, as in Isaiah 32:2, ‘the shadow of a great rock in a weary land’.

A rock (especially with the notion of one on which a ship may be wrecked) can also be taken as a sign of danger, as in rocks ahead.
between a rock and a hard place in a situation where one is faced with two equally difficult alternatives.
on the rocks (of a relationship or enterprise) experiencing difficulties and likely to fail.
Rock of Ages symbolizing the foundation of Christian belief; the phrase is now probably best-known from the hymn ‘Rock of Ages, cleft for me’ (1773), by the English clergyman Augustus Toplady (1740–78).

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rock

rock (rock and roll) Form of popular music characterized by amplified guitars and singing, often with repetitive lyrics and driving rhythms. Rock music appealed largely to a white audience who found its forerunner, rhythm and blues, inaccessible. It developed out of the blues and folk music of rural USA to become a major form of cultural expression in the 1960s. Rock and roll was popularized by Bill Haley and the film Rock Around the Clock (1956). Its modern offshoots include heavy metal, grunge, and punk.

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rock

rock. Species of popular mus. originating in USA (as rock ‘n’ roll) in early 1950s and spreading throughout world. Perf. by ‘groups’, e.g. of v(v)., guitars, often electronically amplified, and drums. There are sub-species such as folk rock, jazz rock, and punk rock. Rock was used in stage works such as Hair, Tommy, and Jesus Christ Superstar. Words of songs often refer to social themes.

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rock

rock2 rock and roll a type of popular dance music originating in the 1950s, characterized by a heavy beat and simple melodies. Rock and roll was an amalgam of black rhythm and blues and white country music, usually based around a twelve-bar structure and an instrumentation of guitar, double bass, and drums.

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rock

rock (mint‐rock) Traditional English seaside sugar confectionery, made by pulling melted sugar. It is white, with an outer coloured layer (traditionally pink) and an inner ring of coloured sugar that spells out the name of the town where it is sold or of which it is a souvenir.

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rock

rock1 move from side to side on a pivot. Late OE. roccian, prob. f. Gmc. *rukk- move, remove, repr. also by MLG., MDu. rukken, rocken (Du. rukken tug, jerk, snatch), OHG. rucchan (G. rücken move, push), ON. rykkja pull, tug.

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rock

rock Solid material that makes up the Earth's crust. Rocks are classified by origin into three major groups: igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks, and metamorphic rocks.

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rock

rock3 (arch., dial.) distaff. XIV. — MLG. rocken, MDu. rocke (Du. rok, rokken) or ON. rokkr = OHG. rocco (G. rocken); of unkn. orig.

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rock

rock2 solid part of the earth's crust, mass of this. XIV. — OF. ro(c)que, var. of (O)F. roche; of unkn. orig.
Hence rocky (-Y1) XV.

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rock

rockad hoc, amok, Bangkok, baroque, belle époque, bloc, block, bock, brock, chock, chock-a-block, clock, cock, crock, doc, dock, floc, flock, frock, hock, hough, interlock, jock, knock, langue d'oc, lock, Locke, Médoc, mock, nock, o'clock, pock, post hoc, roc, rock, schlock, shock, smock, sock, Spock, stock, wok, yapok •manioc • Antioch • sjambok •gemsbok • rhebok • steenbok •springbok • grysbok • Lombok •Zadok • Languedoc •burdock, Murdoch •hollyhock • forehock • spatchcock •blackcock • Hancock • petcock •haycock • gamecock •Leacock, peacock, seacock •Hickok • Hitchcock • poppycock •stopcock • gorcock •Alcock, ballcock •monocoque • woodcock • shuttlecock •moorcock • weathercock

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