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Rosemary

Rosemary

Description

Rosemary, a herb whose botanical name is Rosmarinus officinalis, is a sun-loving shrub, native to the south of France and other Mediterranean regions. It is widely cultivated for its aromatic and medicinal properties. This pine-scented evergreen of the Lamiaceae, or mint, family, can grow to 5 ft (1.5 m) in height in favorable settings. Rosemary thrives in chalky or sandy soil in full sun. The herb grows wild on dry, rocky slopes near the sea. Its name is derived from the Latin ros marinus, meaning "sea dew." Other common names for the herb include polar plant, compass-weed, or compass plant. The specific name, officinalis, refers to the herb's inclusion in official Western listings of medicinal herbs. Rosemary was a favored herb in early apothecary gardens.

Legend abounds around this lovely perennial known as the "herb of remembrance." It is said that rosemary will grow particularly well in gardens tended by strong-willed women. Young brides traditionally carried a sprig of rosemary in their wreaths or wedding bouquets. The young couple may even have been brought together with the magic of a touch of rosemary, as in the refrain of an old ballad: "Young men and maids do ready stand/With sweet rosemary in their hands." Greek scholars wore a bit of the pungent herb in their hair when engaged in study as an aid to increase concentration. The fragrant herb was exchanged between friends as a symbol of loyalty, and tossed onto the graves of departed loved ones. Gypsy travelers sought rosemary for its use as a rinse for highlighting dark hair, or as a rejuvenating face wash. In the fourteenth century, Queen Isabella of Hungary used an alcohol extract of the flowering herb to treat gout . In ancient Egypt the herb was buried with the pharaohs. Rosemary was believed to have magical powers to banish evil spirits. It was burned in sick rooms as a disinfectant, and was used to ward off the plague.

Rosemary's deep, woody taproot produces stout, branching, scaly, light brown stalks covered with simple, sessile narrow leaves about 1 in long and opposite, growing in whorls along the square stalks. Rosemary leaves are dark green on top and pale green on the underside with a distinctive mid vein. They curl inward along the margins. Tiny two-lipped, light blue or violet flowers grow in a cluster of five to seven blossoms each on a pair of short, opposite spikes. Each pair of flower spikes alternates along the sides of the stalk. This graceful aromatic herb blooms in late spring and early summer bearing two tiny seeds in each flower. Bees are attracted to rosemary flowers.

General use

Rosemary can be used to make an essential oil, a fixed oil, or teas and tinctures. These different products have different uses.

Volatile oil of rosemary

The volatile oil in rosemary leaves and blossoms, called a "sovereign balm" by the seventeenth-century herbalist Nicholas Culpeper, has a long history of medicinal uses in the West. Other chemical constituents of rosemary include bitters , borneol, linalol, camphene, camphor, cineole, pinene, resin, tannins, and rosmarinic acid, which acts as an antioxidant. Research has yielded promising results regarding the cancer-inhibiting effects of this antioxidant component of rosemary oil. In addition, rosemary is a circulatory stimulant. It has been shown to increase coronary blood flow, and is useful in treatment of blood pressure problems. A flavonoid known as diosmin in the volatile oil of rosemary can restore strength to fragile capillaries. Many of the traditional uses for this healing herb, discovered through trial and error and passed down through the generations, have not been clinically verified. Rosemary is still, however, officially listed as a medicinal herb in the United States Pharmacopoeia.

Essential oil of rosemary

The essential oil of rosemary has potent antibacterial and antifungal effects. It was burnt as an incense in rituals, and used in sick rooms to provide protection from disease and infection. The herb has also been used as a digestive stimulant and liver tonic. It increases the flow of bile through its ability to relax the smooth muscle in the digestive tract and gallbladder. Rosemary's astringent properties, due to its tannin content, may help in the treatment of diarrhea , and reduce excessive menstrual flow. Rosemary can be used as a carminative (gas-relieving medication) to ease the discomfort of colic and dyspeptic disorders. The pungent herb has an energizing effect; it is used in aromatherapy to improve memory and focus, dispel depression , and relieve migraine headache . An external application of essential oil of rosemary, as a component in liniments, can ease pain in rheumatism. An infusion of rosemary, combined with sage (Salvia officinale ), makes a good sore throat gargle. When used as a hair rinse, rosemary will stimulate hair follicles, and may help to reduce dandruff . A poultice of the herb may be applied to soothe eczema , or to speed the healing of wounds . Essential oil of rosemary is a component of many commercially available lotions, perfumes, liniments, soaps, and mouthwash preparations. Lastly, dried rosemary is used widely as a culinary herb.

More recently, carnosol, a naturally occurring antioxidant compound found in rosemary, has been studied for its anticancer properties. Carnosol appears to be effective against cancer by reducing inflammation and by inhibiting the expression of cancer genes. Carnosic acid, another compound found in rosemary, appears to reduce the risk of skin cancer by protecting skin cells against the effects of ultraviolet radiation.

Preparations

Dried: Rosemary leaves and blossoms may be harvested during the second year of growth. Carefully trim the branches in 4 in (10 cm) lengths, leaving at least twothirds of the shrub intact. Strip the leaves from the stems and spread out on a tray, or hang the branches in bunches away from direct sunlight in a bright, airy room. Store the dried herb in tightly sealed dark containers.

Infusion: In a glass teapot, combine 1 oz (28.35 g) of fresh or dried flowering tops with 1 pt of non-chlorinated water that has been brought just to the boiling point. Steep the mixture in a covered container for 1015 min. Strain. Drink the tea warm up to three cups per day.

Oil infusion: Pack a quart jar with fresh rosemary leaves and flowering tops. Pour enough olive oil in the jar to cover the herbs completely. Seal and place on a sunny windowsill for 23 weeks. Strain the oil through cheesecloth into a large glass container. Squeeze the remainng oil from the cloth. Pour this first oil infusion over additional fresh herbs in a jar to cover. Seal and place on a sunny window sill for an additional two weeks. Strain again through cheesecloth. Store this second oil infusion in tightly sealed, clearly labeled, dark glass containers.

Compress: Soak a cotton pad with the hot infusion of rosemary leaf and apply to bruises or sprains, or as an aid in the healing of wounds and skin irritations.

Precautions

Rosemary should not be used in medicinal preparations during pregnancy or breast-feeding, although it is safe to use in cooking in small quantities to season foods. Persons with high blood pressure, epilepsy or diverticulosis, chronic ulcers, or colitis, should not take rosemary internally for medicinal purposes. Rosemary acts as an emmenagogue, stimulating the flow of menstrual blood. The essential oil of rosemary was once used in folk practice in attempts to induce abortion. As with all essential oils , only small amounts of it should be used, either topically or internally. An overdose of essential oil of rosemary may lead to deep coma, vomiting , spasms, uterine bleeding, gastroenteritis , kidney irritation, and even death, according to the PDR for Herbal Medicines. No documented cases have been reported, however.

Side effects

No side effects are known when rosemary is used in designated therapeutic doses, properly harvested, prepared, and administered. Some persons, however, may be allergic to rosemary or its oils, and experience nausea and vomiting.

Interactions

Relatively few interactions between rosemary and Western pharmaceuticals have been reported. Rosemary appears to increase the effects of doxorubicin, a cancer medication. Although further studies are necessary, as of 2002 patients taking doxorubicin are advised to consult their physicians before taking rosemary.

Resources

BOOKS

McIntyre, Anne. The Medicinal Garden. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1997.

Ody, Penelope. The Complete Medicinal Herbal. New York: Dorling Kindersley, 1993.

PDR for Herbal Medicines. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, 1998.

Polunin, Miriam, and Christopher Robbins. The Natural Pharmacy. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1992.

Prevention's 200 Herbal Remedies, 3rd ed. Emmaus, PA: Ro-dale Press, Inc., 1997.

Price, Shirley. Practical Aromatherapy. London: Thorsons/HarperCollins, 1994.

Weiss, Gaea, and Shandor Weiss. Growing & Using The Healing Herbs. New York: Wings Books, 1992.

PERIODICALS

Lo, A. H., Y. C. Liang, S. Y. Lin-Shiau, et al. "Carnosol, an Antioxidant in Rosemary, Suppresses Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Through Down-Regulating Nuclear Factor-KappaB in Mouse Macrophages." Carcinogenesis 23 (June 2002): 983-991.

Offord, E. A., J. C. Gautier, O. Avanti, et al. "Photoprotective Potential of Lycopene, Beta-Carotene, Vitamin E, Vitamin C and Carnosic Acid in UVA-Irradiated Human Skin Fibroblasts." Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine 32 (June 15, 2002): 1293-1303.

ORGANIZATIONS

American Botanical Council. PO Box 144345. Austin, TX 78714-4345.

International Aromatherapy and Herb Association. 3541 West Acapulco Lane. Phoenix, AZ 85053-4625. (602) 938-4439. http://www.aztec.asu.edu./iaha/.

Clare Hanrahan

Rebecca J. Frey, PhD

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Hanrahan, Clare; Frey, Rebecca. "Rosemary." Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine. 2005. Encyclopedia.com. 30 Jun. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

Hanrahan, Clare; Frey, Rebecca. "Rosemary." Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine. 2005. Encyclopedia.com. (June 30, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3435100674.html

Hanrahan, Clare; Frey, Rebecca. "Rosemary." Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine. 2005. Retrieved June 30, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3435100674.html

Rosemary

Rosemary

Definition

Rosemary is an herb derived from an evergreen shrub, Rosmarinus officinalis, related to the mint or Lamiaceae family of plants. Rosemary is a native of the Mediterranean regions of Europe and the Near East; Tunisia is a major modern-day source of the plant. Rosemary can grow as tall as 5 ft, producing strongly scented, leathery leaves used in perfumes and seasonings. Its Latin name, Rosmarinus, means "ocean dew." Other names for rosemary include compass weed, compass plant, or polar plant. An interesting tradition about rosemary is that it grows best in gardens tended by forceful or strong-willed women; a Spanish folk saying has it that "where rosemary thrives the mistress is master."

The major chemical compounds found in essential oil of rosemary include eugenol, borneol, camphene, camphor, cineol, lineol, pinene, and terpineol. Compounds found in rosemary that are considered to be highly effective antioxidants include monoterpenoid ketone compounds, such as thujone, camphor, verbenone and carvone, as well as such phenols as methylchavicol, carvacrol, eugenol and thymole. Rosemary extract also contains numerous polyphenolic compounds that possess high antioxidant activity, including rosmanol, rosmaridiphenol, rosmarinic acid, carnosol, carnosic acid, and ursolic acid.

Purpose

Although rosemary is most familiar to contemporary Westerners as a kitchen herb used to add a spicy or slightly medicinal flavor to some foods, it was traditionally used as an antiseptic, astringent, and food preservative before the invention of refrigeration. It was burned in sickrooms to disinfect the air. Rosemary's antioxidant properties are still used to extend the shelf life of prepared foods.

Rosemary is also a well known "middle note" in the making of perfumes and aromatherapy products. The aroma of its essential oil lasts about two to three days, and is regarded as having energizing and invigorating qualities. It is thought to improve memory and the ability to concentrate, and has been used to relieve migraine headaches. Its astringent qualities make it appropriate for use in facial cleansers for oily skin. Rosemary is frequently added to compresses to heal bruises and sprains, and in topical salves, lotions, or creams to relieve muscle cramps or improve circulation. It is a favorite ingredient in hand creams for gardeners or for use in cold weather. The herb contains a flavonoid called diosmin, which has been shown to strengthen capillaries in the circulatory system. Some research studies are investigating the usefulness of rosemary in the treatment of varicose veins and hemorrhoids. The German Commission E has approved the use of rosemary for low blood pressure, and for painful joints or muscles. In addition, rosemary is still listed as a medicinal herb in the official United States Pharmacopoeia.

Several of the compounds in rosemary have been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects. As a result, some cancer researchers are studying rosemary as a natural non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, or NSAID. Since the use of NSAIDs is associated with a lowered risk of certain types of cancer in the general population, these researchers are investigating the possibility that rosemary may act as a cancer preventive.

Description

Essential oil and extract of rosemary are prepared for use in aromatherapy by steam distillation from the leaves and flowers of the plant during its second year of growth. The leaves can also be stripped from the stems of the second-year plant and dried for internal use. Although rosemary is more commonly used to flavor dishes rather than as a separate item in the diet, it can be taken as a tea.

Recommended dosages

Rosemary tea is made by pouring 1 cup of boiling water into a cup containing 1 teaspoon of the dried leaves. Tea made from fresh rosemary leaves require .35 ounces.52 ounces of the herb. The tea may be taken up to three times daily.

Essential oil of rosemary should not be used full-strength on the skin, as it has been reported to cause skin irritation. When it is diluted, as in a carrier oil for massage or in a salve, hand cream, or facial cleanser, it is safe for use as often as desired. In aromatherapy rosemary oil can be used in burners, potpouri, or in sachets.

Precautions

Rosemary tea should not be taken by pregnant or lactating women, although they may safely use it in cooking to season food. Children under six months of age also should not be given rosemary tea. Rosemary should not be taken by persons with epilepsy, ulcerative colitis, or high blood pressure.

Side effects

When rosemary is harvested appropriately and used within recommended guidelines, side effects are minimal. A few instances of allergic skin reactions to topical preparations containing rosemary have been reported.

Recent European research has shown that rosemary interferes with the absorption of iron in the diet, which indicates that it should not be used internally by persons with iron deficiency anemia.

Interactions

Rosemary is not known to interact with any current Western prescription medications.

Resources

BOOKS

Medical Economics Staff. PDR for Herbal Medicines. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, 1998.

Pelletier, Kenneth R., MD. "Western Herbal Medicine: Nature's Green Pharmacy." Chapter 6 in The Best Alternative Medicine. New York: Simon and Schuster,2002.

Price, Shirley. Practical Aromatherapy. Second edition, revised. London, UK: Thorsons, 1994.

PERIODICALS

Fahim, Fawzia A., and others. "Allied Studies on the Effect of Rosmarinus officinalis L. on Experimental Hepatotoxicity and Mutagenesis." International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 50 (November 1999): 413.

Samman, Samir, Brittmarie Sandstrom, Maja Bjorndal Toft, and others. "Green Tea or Rosemary Extract Added to Foods Reduces Nonheme Iron Absorption." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 73 (March 2001): 607.

Tyler, Varro E. "Nature's Surprising Antioxidants." Prevention 51 (December 1999): 105.

Wargovich, Michael J., and others. "Herbals, Cancer Prevention, and Health." Journal of Nutrition 131 (November 2001): 3034S-3036S.

OTHER

American Botanical Council. PO Box 144345. Austin, TX 78714-4345.

National Association for Holistic Aromatherapy (NAHA). 4509 Interlake Avenue North, #233, Seattle, WA 98103-6773. (888) ASK-NAHA or (206) 547-2164. <www.naha.org>.

Rebecca J. Frey, Ph.D.

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Frey, Rebecca J.. "Rosemary." Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders. 2003. Retrieved June 30, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3405700334.html

rosemary

rosemary the aromatic leaves of rosemary are an emblem of remembrance, and are particulary associated with the words of Ophelia in Shakespeare' Hamlet, ‘There's rosemary for remembrance’.

In traditional belief, rosemary grows best in the garden of a woman who dominates her husband; it is also associated with the Virgin Mary on the Flight into Egypt (as in the story that on the way, having washed her clothes, she hung her blue robe on a rosemary bush to dry).

The name is recorded from Middle English (in form rosmarine), and is based on Latin ros marinus ‘dew of the sea’; it was later understood as primarily associated with rose and Mary (for the Virgin).

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ELIZABETH KNOWLES. "rosemary." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 2006. Encyclopedia.com. 30 Jun. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

ELIZABETH KNOWLES. "rosemary." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 2006. Encyclopedia.com. (June 30, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O214-rosemary.html

ELIZABETH KNOWLES. "rosemary." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 2006. Retrieved June 30, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O214-rosemary.html

rosemary

rosemary [ultimately from Lat.,=dew of the sea], widely cultivated evergreen and shrubby perennial (Rosmarinus officinalis) of the family Labiatae (mint family), fairly hardy and native to the Mediterranean region. It has small light-blue flowers. The aromatic leaves, whitish beneath, are used for seasoning, and the oil is used in perfume and medicine. From ancient times rosemary has been regarded as a token of constancy and remembrance. In Hamlet (iv:5) Ophelia says, "There's rosemary, that's for remembrance." There is a prostrate variety. Rosemary is classified in the division Magnoliophyta, class Magnoliopsida, order Lamiales, family Labiatae.

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rosemary

rosemary evergreen shrub. XV. alt., by assoc. with ROSE and MARY, of †rosmarine (XIV), either inmed. — L. rōs marīnus ‘sea-dew’, late L. rōsmarīnum, or through (i) OF. rosmarin (mod. romarin) or (ii) MDu. rosemarine (Du. ros(e)-marijn).

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T. F. HOAD. "rosemary." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. 1996. Encyclopedia.com. 30 Jun. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

T. F. HOAD. "rosemary." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. 1996. Encyclopedia.com. (June 30, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O27-rosemary.html

T. F. HOAD. "rosemary." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. 1996. Retrieved June 30, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O27-rosemary.html

rosemary

rose·mar·y / ˈrōzˌmerē/ • n. an evergreen aromatic shrub (Rosmarinus officinalis) of the mint family, native to southern Europe. The narrow leaves are used as a culinary herb, in perfumery, and as an emblem of remembrance.

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rosemary

rosemary Perennial evergreen herb of the mint family. It has small, needle-like leaf clusters of small pale-blue flowers. Sprigs of rosemary are commonly used as a flavouring. Family Lamiaceae/Labiatae; species Rosmarinus officinalis.

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"rosemary." World Encyclopedia. 2005. Encyclopedia.com. 30 Jun. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"rosemary." World Encyclopedia. 2005. Retrieved June 30, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O142-rosemary.html

rosemary

rosemary A bushy shrub, Rosmarinus officinalis, cultivated commercially for its essential oil, used in medicine and perfumery. The leaves are used to flavour soups, sauces and meat.

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DAVID A. BENDER. "rosemary." A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. 2005. Encyclopedia.com. 30 Jun. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

DAVID A. BENDER. "rosemary." A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. 2005. Encyclopedia.com. (June 30, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O39-rosemary.html

DAVID A. BENDER. "rosemary." A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. 2005. Retrieved June 30, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O39-rosemary.html

rosemary

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expansionary •concessionary, confessionary, discretionary •confectionery, insurrectionary, lectionary •deflationary, inflationary, probationary, stationary, stationery •expeditionary, petitionary, prohibitionary, traditionary, transitionary •dictionary • cautionary •ablutionary, counter-revolutionary, devolutionary, elocutionary, evolutionary, revolutionary, substitutionary •functionary •diversionary, reversionary •fernery, quaternary, ternary •peppery • extempore • weaponry •apery, drapery, japery, napery, papery, vapoury (US vapory) •frippery, slippery •coppery, foppery •popery • dupery • trumpery •February • heraldry • knight-errantry •arbitrary • registrary • library •contrary • horary • supernumerary •itinerary • honorary • funerary •contemporary, extemporary, temporary •literary • brasserie • chancery •accessory, intercessory, pessary, possessory, tesserae •dispensary, incensory, ostensory, sensory, suspensory •tracery •pâtisserie, rotisserie •emissary • dimissory •commissary, promissory •janissary • necessary • derisory •glossary • responsory • sorcery •grocery • greengrocery •delusory, illusory •compulsory • vavasory • adversary •anniversary, bursary, cursory, mercery, nursery •haberdashery •evidentiary, penitentiary, plenipotentiary, residentiary •beneficiary, fishery, judiciary •noshery • gaucherie • fiduciary •luxury • tertiary •battery, cattery, chattery, flattery, tattery •factory, manufactory, olfactory, phylactery, refractory, satisfactory •artery, martyry, Tartary •mastery, plastery •directory, ex-directory, interjectory, rectory, refectory, trajectory •peremptory •alimentary, complementary, complimentary, documentary, elementary, parliamentary, rudimentary, sedimentary, supplementary, testamentary •investigatory •adulatory, aleatory, approbatory, celebratory, clarificatory, classificatory, commendatory, congratulatory, consecratory, denigratory, elevatory, gyratory, incantatory, incubatory, intimidatory, modificatory, participatory, placatory, pulsatory, purificatory, reificatory, revelatory, rotatory •natatory • elucidatory • castigatory •mitigatory • justificatory •imprecatory • equivocatory •flagellatory • execratory • innovatory •eatery, excretory •glittery, jittery, skittery, twittery •benedictory, contradictory, maledictory, valedictory, victory •printery, splintery •consistory, history, mystery •presbytery •inhibitory, prohibitory •hereditary • auditory • budgetary •military, paramilitary •solitary • cemetery • limitary •vomitory • dormitory • fumitory •interplanetary, planetary, sanitary •primogenitary • dignitary •admonitory, monitory •unitary • monetary • territory •secretary • undersecretary •plebiscitary • repository • baptistery •transitory •depositary, depository, expository, suppository •niterie •Godwottery, lottery, pottery, tottery •bottomry • watery • psaltery •coterie, notary, protonotary, rotary, votary •upholstery •bijouterie, charcuterie, circumlocutory •persecutory • statutory • salutary •executory •contributory, retributory, tributary •interlocutory •buttery, fluttery •introductory • adultery • effrontery •perfunctory • blustery • mediatory •retaliatory • conciliatory • expiatory •denunciatory, renunciatory •appreciatory, depreciatory •initiatory, propitiatory •dietary, proprietary •extenuatory •mandatary, mandatory •predatory • sedentary • laudatory •prefatory • offertory • negatory •obligatory •derogatory, interrogatory, supererogatory •nugatory •expurgatory, objurgatory, purgatory •precatory •explicatory, indicatory, vindicatory •confiscatory, piscatory •dedicatory • judicatory •qualificatory • pacificatory •supplicatory •communicatory, excommunicatory •masticatory • prognosticatory •invocatory • obfuscatory •revocatory • charlatanry •depilatory, dilatory, oscillatory •assimilatory • consolatory •voluntary • emasculatory •ejaculatory •ambulatory, circumambulatory, perambulatory •regulatory •articulatory, gesticulatory •manipulatory • copulatory •expostulatory • circulatory •amatory, declamatory, defamatory, exclamatory, inflammatory, proclamatory •crematory • segmentary •lachrymatory •commentary, promontory •informatory, reformatory •momentary •affirmatory, confirmatory •explanatory • damnatory •condemnatory •cosignatory, signatory •combinatory •discriminatory, eliminatory, incriminatory, recriminatory •comminatory • exterminatory •hallucinatory • procrastinatory •monastery • repertory •emancipatory • anticipatory •exculpatory, inculpatory •declaratory, preparatory •respiratory • perspiratory •vibratory •migratory, transmigratory •exploratory, laboratory, oratory •inauguratory • adjuratory •corroboratory • reverberatory •refrigeratory • compensatory •desultory • dysentery •exhortatory, hortatory •salutatory • gustatory • lavatory •inventory •conservatory, observatory •improvisatory •accusatory, excusatory •lathery •feathery, heathery, leathery •dithery, slithery •carvery •reverie, severy •Avery, bravery, knavery, quavery, Savery, savory, savoury, slavery, wavery •thievery •livery, quivery, shivery •silvery •ivory, salivary •ovary •discovery, recovery •servery • equerry • reliquary •antiquary • cassowary • stipendiary •colliery • pecuniary • chinoiserie •misery • wizardry • citizenry •advisory, provisory, revisory, supervisory •causerie, rosary

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"rosemary." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. 2007. Encyclopedia.com. 30 Jun. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"rosemary." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. 2007. Encyclopedia.com. (June 30, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O233-rosemary.html

"rosemary." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. 2007. Retrieved June 30, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O233-rosemary.html

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