dandelion
dandelion. (Image by Nino Barbieri, CC)

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Dandelion

Dandelion

Description

Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale ) is a common meadow herb of the Asteraceae or sunflower family. There are about 100 species of dandelion, and all are beneficial. This sun-loving beauty is a native of Greece, naturalized in temperate regions throughout the world, and familiar to nearly everyone. The perennial dandelion grows freely wherever it can find a bit of earth and a place in the sun. Dandelion's nutritive and medicinal qualities have been known for centuries.

Dandelion's common name is derived from the French dent de lion, a reference to the irregular and jagged margins of the lance-shaped leaves. There are numerous folk names for this widely-used herb. They include pissabed, Irish daisy, blow ball, lion's tooth, bitterwort, wild endive, priest's crown, doonheadclock, yellow gowan, puffball, clock flower, swine snort, fortune-teller, and cankerwort. The generic name is thought to be derived from the Greek words taraxos, meaning disorder, and akos, meaning remedy. Another possible derivation is from the Persian tark hashgun, meaning wild endive, one of dandelion's common names. The specific designation officinale indicates that this herb was officially listed as a medicinal. Dandelion held a place in the United States National Formulary from 1888 until 1965, and the dried root of dandelion is listed in the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP).

Dandelion may be distinguished from other similar-looking herbs by the hollow, leafless flower stems that contain a bitter milky-white liquid also found in the root and leaves. The dark green dandelion leaves, with their irregular, deeply jagged margins, have a distinctive hairless mid-rib. The leaves are arranged in a rosette pattern, and may grow to 1.5 ft (45.7 cm) in length. They have a

lovely magenta tint that extends up along the inner rib of the stalkless leaf. When the plant is used as a dye, it yields this purple hue. Dandelion blossoms are singular and round, with compact golden-yellow petals. They bloom from early spring until well into autumn atop hollow stalks that may reach from 48 in (10.2ndash;20.3 cm) tall. The golden blossoms yield a pale yellow dye for wool. After flowering, dandelion develops a round cluster of achenes, or seed cases. As many as 200 of these narrow seed cases, each with a single seed, form the characteristic puffball. Each achene is topped with a white, feathery tuft to carry it on the breeze. Dandelion's tap root may grow fat, and reach as deep as 1.5 ft (45.7 cm) in loose soil. The root has numerous hairy rootlets. Dandelion is a hardy herb and will regrow from root parts left in the ground during harvest.

General use

Dandelion has a long history of folk use. Early colonists brought the herb to North America. The native people soon recognized the value of the herb and sought it out for its medical and nutritious benefits. The entire plant is important as a general tonic, particularly as a liver tonic. It may be taken as an infusion of the leaf, a juice extraction, a root decoction, or a tincture. Fresh leaves may be added to salads or cooked as a potherb. The juice extracted from the stem and leaf is the most potent part of the plant for medicinal purposes. It has been used to eradicate warts and soothe calluses, bee stings, or sores. Infusions of dandelion blossoms have been used as a beautifying facial, refreshing the skin.

Dandelion is a nutritive herb rich in potassium , calicum, and lecithin , with iron, magnesium, niacin, phosphorus , proteins, silicon, boron , and zinc . Dandelion provides several B vitamins along with vitamins C and E as well as vitamin P. Chemical constituents in the leaf include bitter glycosides, carotenoids , terpenoids, choline, potassium salts, iron, and other minerals. The root also has bitter glycosides, tannins, triterpenes, sterols, volatile oil, choline, asparagin, and inulin.

Many herbalists regard the dandelion as an effective treatment for liver disease, useful even in such extreme cases as cirrhosis . It cleanses the bloodstream and increases bile production, and is a good remedy for gall bladder problems as well. The herb is also a boon to such other internal organs as the pancreas, kidneys, stomach, and spleen. The dried leaf, taken as a tea, is used as a mild laxative to relieve constipation . Dandelion leaf is also a good natural source of potassium, and will replenish any potassium that may be lost due to the herb's diuretic action on the kidneys. This characteristic makes dandelion a safe diuretic in cases of water retention due to heart problems. The herb is useful in cases of anemia and hepatitis , and may lower elevated blood pressure. Dandelion may also provide relief for rheumatism and arthritis. Dandelion therapy, consisting of therapeutic doses of dandelion preparations taken over time, may help reduce stiffness and increase mobility in situations of chronic degenerative joint disease. The root, dried and minced, can used as a coffee substitute, sometimes combined with roasted acorns and rye.

Preparations

All parts of the dandelion have culinary and medicinal value. It is best to harvest fresh young dandelion leaves in the spring. The small, young leaves are less bitter, and may be eaten uncooked in salads. Larger leaves can be lightly steamed to reduce bitterness. Leaves gathered in the fall are naturally less bitter. Dandelion blossoms, traditionally used in wine making, may be gathered throughout the flowering season. The deep, fleshy taproot should be gathered in the fall. It takes careful digging and loosening to extract the root intact, although any root parts left in the soil will eventually produce another plant. The root should be washed. Thicker roots should be sliced down their length to facilitate drying. The pieces should be spread out on a paper-lined tray in a light, airy room out of direct sunlight and stored in tightly sealed dark glass containers. Dried dandelion root may be somewhat less potent than the fresh root.

Leaf infusion: Place 2 oz of fresh dandelion leaf, less if dried, in a warmed glass container. Bring 2.5 cups of fresh nonchlorinated water to the boiling point and add it to the herbs. Cover the mixture and steep for 1520 minutes, then strain. Drink the infusion warm or cold throughout the day, up to three cups per day. The prepared tea can be kept for about two days in the refrigerator.

Tincture: Combine 4 oz of finely-cut fresh dandelion root and leaf (or 2 oz of dry powdered herb) with 1 pt of brandy, gin, or vodka in a glass container. The alcohol should be enough to cover the plant parts and have a 50/50 ratio of alcohol to water. Cover and store the mixture away from light for about two weeks, shaking several times each day. Strain and store in a tightly capped dark glass bottle. A standard dose is 1015 drops of the tincture in water, up to three times a day.

Precautions

Dandelion acts as a cholagogue, which means that it increases the flow of bile. It should not be used by persons with closure of the biliary ducts and other biliary ailments.

Side effects

Dandelion is a safe and nutritious herb widely used throughout the world. No health hazards have been reported when dandelion is used in designated therapeutic doses. According to the PDR For Herbal Medicine, however, some "superacid gastric complaints" could be triggered by using the herb. Dandelion stems contain a liquid latex substance that may be irritating to the skin of senstitive persons.

Interactions

No interactions have been reported between dandelion and standard medications.

Resources

BOOKS

Duke, James A., Ph.D. The Green Pharmacy. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press, 1997.

Foster, Steven, and James A. Duke. Peterson Field Guides, Eastern/Central Medicinal Plants. Boston-New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1990.

Hoffmann, David. The New Holistic Herbal. 2nd ed. Boston: Element, 1986.

Hutchens, Alma R. A Handbook of Native American Herbs.

Boston: Shambhala Publications, Inc., 1992.

PDR for Herbal Medicines. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, 1998.

Tyler, Varro E., Ph.D. Herbs of Choice. New York: The Haworth Press, Inc., 1994.

Weiss, Gaea, and Shandor Weiss. Growing & Using the Healing Herbs. New York: Wings Books, 1992.

OTHER

Hoffmann, David L. "Dandelion." In Herbal Materia Medica. Health World Online. http://www.healthy.net.

Clare Hanrahan

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dandelion

dandelion [Eng. form of Fr.,=lion's tooth], any plant of the genus Taraxacum of the family Asteraceae (aster family), perennial herbs of wide distribution in temperate regions. The dandelion has a rosette of deep-toothed leaves (the name is usually attributed to this) and a bright yellow flower followed in fruit by a round head of white down, an adaptation for wind distribution of the seedlike fruits. The common dandelion (T. officinale) is native to Europe but widely naturalized. Although it is considered in the N United States chiefly as a lawn pest because of the easily dispersed seeds and the deep root, it is also cultivated both for medicine and for food. The young leaves resemble chicory and are used for salad greens and as a potherb, especially in Europe. The roots may be roasted and used as a coffee substitute. The flower heads are utilized for dandelion wine and are good forage for bees. In medicine the roots have been dried and used chiefly as a bitter tonic and laxative. The Russian dandelion (T. kok-saghyz) has been cultivated for the milky juice typical of the genus, as a source of rubber. Dandelions are classified in the division Magnoliophyta, class Magnoliopsida, order Asterales, family Asteraceae.

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dandelion

dandelion The leaves of the weed Taraxacum officinale may be eaten as a salad or cooked. In France dandelion greens are known as pis‐en‐lit because of their diuretic action. A 50‐g portion of the leaves is a good source of vitamins C and A (4000 μg carotene); a source of calcium and iron; supplies 25 kcal (105 kJ). The root can be cooked as a vegetable, or may be roasted and used as a substitute for coffee.

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DAVID A. BENDER. "dandelion." A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. 2005. Encyclopedia.com. 28 Sep. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

DAVID A. BENDER. "dandelion." A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. 2005. Encyclopedia.com. (September 28, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O39-dandelion.html

DAVID A. BENDER. "dandelion." A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. 2005. Retrieved September 28, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O39-dandelion.html

dandelion

dan·de·li·on / ˈdandiˌlīən/ • n. a widely distributed plant (genus Taraxacum) of the daisy family, with a rosette of leaves, bright yellow flowers followed by globular heads of seeds with downy tufts, and stems containing a milky latex. ORIGIN: late Middle English: from French dent-de-lion, translation of medieval Latin dens leonis ‘lion's tooth.’

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"dandelion." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. 2009. Encyclopedia.com. 28 Sep. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"dandelion." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. 2009. Retrieved September 28, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O999-dandelion.html

dandelion

dandelion a widely distributed yellow-flowered weed of the daisy family. The name (recorded from late Middle English) comes from French dent-de-lion, translation of medieval Latin dens lionis ‘lion's tooth’, because of the jagged shape of the leaves.
dandelion clock the downy spherical seed head of a dandelion, from the child's game of blowing away the seeds to find out what time it is.

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ELIZABETH KNOWLES. "dandelion." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 2006. Encyclopedia.com. 28 Sep. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

ELIZABETH KNOWLES. "dandelion." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 2006. Encyclopedia.com. (September 28, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O214-dandelion.html

ELIZABETH KNOWLES. "dandelion." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 2006. Retrieved September 28, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O214-dandelion.html

dandelion

dandelion Widespread perennial weed, with leaves growing from the base and yellow composite flowers. It reproduces by means of parachute seeds. The leaves are used in salads; the flowers in winemaking. Family Asteraceae (Compositae); species Taraxacum officinale.

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"dandelion." World Encyclopedia. 2005. Encyclopedia.com. 28 Sep. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"dandelion." World Encyclopedia. 2005. Retrieved September 28, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O142-dandelion.html

dandelion

dandelion XV (dent de lyon). — F. dent-de-lion, rendering medL. dēns leōnis ‘lion's tooth’; so called from the toothed leaves.

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T. F. HOAD. "dandelion." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. 1996. Encyclopedia.com. 28 Sep. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

T. F. HOAD. "dandelion." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. 1996. Encyclopedia.com. (September 28, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O27-dandelion.html

T. F. HOAD. "dandelion." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. 1996. Retrieved September 28, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O27-dandelion.html

dandelion

dandelion See TARAXACUM.

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MICHAEL ALLABY. "dandelion." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. 1998. Encyclopedia.com. 28 Sep. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

MICHAEL ALLABY. "dandelion." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. 1998. Encyclopedia.com. (September 28, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O7-dandelion.html

MICHAEL ALLABY. "dandelion." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. 1998. Retrieved September 28, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O7-dandelion.html

dandelion

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"dandelion." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. 2007. Encyclopedia.com. 28 Sep. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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