Entries

Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.West's Encyclopedia of American LawThe Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English Further reading

NON JS

Boycott

BOYCOTT


A boycott is an organized, deliberate effort by consumers, workers, or businesses to avoid trade that benefits another group, business, or an entire country whose policies they disagree with. For example, in the 1950s and 1960s civil rights groups boycotted businesses in the American South that discriminated against African Americans. The goal of such boycotts was not only to protest nonviolently but also to coerce the targeted businesses to change their policies by directly affecting their revenues. The term boycott is derived from a nineteenth century British estate manager named Charles Boycott (18321897). During the potato famine of 1880, Irish tenant farmers on Boycott's land told Boycott he had to reduce their rents so they could survive the famine. Boycott refused, and the farmers joined together to refrain from any interaction that might benefit Boycott and his sympathizers. Boycott never backed down, but he eventually moved out of Ireland.

A strike by workers against a business for higher wages or an embargo of one country by another are both boycotts intended to force change. Consumers who band together to avoid a store known for its high prices are practicing a boycott, as are companies that begin doing business with a new vendor to get their former partner to lower its prices. So-called primary boycotts are direct boycotts against the targeted business or group. For example, the civil-rights protestors of the 1950s and 1960s directly boycotted the very storeowners who refused to serve them. Secondary boycotts are directed against a third party who does business with the targeted business or group. For example, citizens protesting South Africa's formerly racist social policies boycotted U.S. companies that did business in South Africa. In the nineteenth century United States it was quite common for farmers to boycott railroads to get them to lower their freight haulage rates. U.S. labor unions also frequently told their members to avoid purchasing products from nonunionized businesses, and non-unionized businesses used the reverse tactic on unionized firms. During the Great Depression (19291939), for example, the National Metal Trades Association encouraged its member firms to boycott metal firms whose workforce had unionized or was considering doing so. In a landmark 1921 ruling, Duplex Printing Press v. Deering, the Supreme Court decided that unions could be sued for the damages caused by their secondary boycotts. In 1947 the Taft-Hartley Act outlawed secondary boycotts and strikes completely.

See also: Taft-Hartley Act

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Boycott." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History. 1999. Encyclopedia.com. 29 Jul. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Boycott." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History. 1999. Encyclopedia.com. (July 29, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3406400115.html

"Boycott." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History. 1999. Retrieved July 29, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3406400115.html

boycott

boycott, concerted economic or social ostracism of an individual, group, or nation to express disapproval or coerce change. The practice was named (1880) after Capt. Charles Cunningham Boycott, an English land agent in Ireland whose ruthlessness in evicting tenants led his employees to refuse all cooperation with him and his family. In the United States the boycott has been used chiefly in labor disputes; consumer and business groups have also resorted to the method. Boycotts may be either primary or secondary. A typical example of a primary boycott is the refusal of aggrieved employees and their supporters to purchase the goods or services of an employer. A secondary boycott occurs when the aggrieved party attempts either to boycott a third party or to coerce it into joining an ongoing boycott. Thus, workers instituting a boycott may refuse to patronize firms that continue to deal with the initially boycotted party. Similarly, a secondary boycott would occur if workers struck an employer in order to force him to join the boycott of another firm. In the United States, such secondary actions are prohibited by both the Taft-Hartley Act (1947) and the Landrum-Griffin Act (1959), although little has been done to enforce the ban. Beginning in the late 1960s, the United Farm Workers union employed a series of boycotts in an attempt to gain recognition as the sole bargaining agent for grape and lettuce fieldworkers. The boycott has been used as a weapon in political and racial conflicts. Outstanding examples are the refusal of American colonials to buy British goods after the passage of the Stamp Act (1765), the Chinese boycott of U.S. goods (1905) because of the poor treatment of Chinese in America, the refusal of Gandhi's followers to buy British-made goods in India, and the Arab League boycott (1948) of all companies dealing with the state of Israel. The legal status of the boycott differs with various governments.

See H. W. Laidler, Boycotts and the Labor Struggle (1914, repr. 1968).

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"boycott." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. 2016. Encyclopedia.com. 29 Jul. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"boycott." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. 2016. Encyclopedia.com. (July 29, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-boycott.html

"boycott." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. 2016. Retrieved July 29, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-boycott.html

Boycott

BOYCOTT

A lawful concerted attempt by a group of people to express displeasure with, or obtain concessions from, a particular person or company by refusing to do business with them. An unlawful attempt that is prohibited by thesherman anti-trust act(15 U.S.C.A. § 1 et seq.), to adversely affect a company through threat, coercion, or intimidation of its employees, or to prevent others from doing business with said company. A practice utilized in labor disputes whereby an organized group of employees bands together and refrains from dealing with an employer, the legality of which is determined by applicable provisions of statutes governing labor-management relations.

A classic example of this is a consumer boycott whereby a group of customers refuses to purchase a particular product in order to indicate their dissatisfaction with excessive prices or the offensive actions of a particular manufacturer or producer.

cross-references

Labor Law.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Boycott." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. 2005. Encyclopedia.com. 29 Jul. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Boycott." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. 2005. Encyclopedia.com. (July 29, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3437700599.html

"Boycott." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. 2005. Retrieved July 29, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3437700599.html

boycott

boy·cott / ˈboiˌkät/ • v. [tr.] withdraw from commercial or social relations with (a country, organization, or person) as a punishment or protest. ∎  refuse to buy or handle (goods) as a punishment or protest. ∎  refuse to cooperate with or participate in (a policy or event). • n. a punitive ban that forbids relations with other bodies, cooperation with a policy, or the handling of goods. ORIGIN: from the name of Captain C. C. Boycott (1832–97), an English land agent in Ireland, so treated in 1880, in an attempt instigated by the Irish to get rents reduced.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"boycott." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. 2009. Encyclopedia.com. 29 Jul. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"boycott." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. 2009. Encyclopedia.com. (July 29, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O999-boycott.html

"boycott." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. 2009. Retrieved July 29, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O999-boycott.html

boycott

boycott Refusal to deal with a person, organization or country, either in terms of trade or other activities, such as sport. The term originated in 1880, when Irish tenant farmers refused to work for, supply or speak with Captain Charles Boycott, an agent of their landlord. Boycotts can be powerful protest tools, if they have sufficient support. See also embargo

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"boycott." World Encyclopedia. 2005. Encyclopedia.com. 29 Jul. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"boycott." World Encyclopedia. 2005. Encyclopedia.com. (July 29, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O142-boycott.html

"boycott." World Encyclopedia. 2005. Retrieved July 29, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O142-boycott.html

boycott

boycott withdraw from commercial or social relations with (a country, organization, or person) as a punishment or protest, from the name of Captain Charles C. Boycott (1832–97), an Irish land agent so treated in 1880, in an attempt instigated by the Irish Land League to get rents reduced.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

ELIZABETH KNOWLES. "boycott." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 2006. Encyclopedia.com. 29 Jul. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

ELIZABETH KNOWLES. "boycott." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 2006. Encyclopedia.com. (July 29, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O214-boycott.html

ELIZABETH KNOWLES. "boycott." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 2006. Retrieved July 29, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O214-boycott.html

boycott

boycott XIX (first used of the action of the Irish Land League against those who incurred its hostility). f. name of Captain C. C. Boycott (1832–97), who was a victim of such treatment as agent for the estates of the earl of Erne, Co. Mayo, Ireland, at the hands of the tenants.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

T. F. HOAD. "boycott." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. 1996. Encyclopedia.com. 29 Jul. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

T. F. HOAD. "boycott." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. 1996. Encyclopedia.com. (July 29, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O27-boycott.html

T. F. HOAD. "boycott." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. 1996. Retrieved July 29, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O27-boycott.html

boycott

boycottallot, begot, Bernadotte, blot, bot, capot, clot, cocotte, cot, culotte, dot, forgot, garrotte (US garrote), gavotte, got, grot, hot, jot, knot, lot, Mayotte, motte, not, Ott, outshot, plot, pot, rot, sans-culotte, Scot, Scott, shallot, shot, slot, snot, sot, spot, squat, stot, swat, swot, tot, trot, twat, undershot, Wat, Watt, what, wot, yacht •robot • hotshot • peridot • microdot •Wyandot • polka dot • fylfot • mascot •Caldecott • carrycot • apricot •boycott • dovecote • sandlot • melilot •polyglot • Camelot • ocelot •monoglot • sub-plot • Lancelot •cachalot • counterplot • Wilmot •guillemot • motmot • bergamot

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"boycott." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. 2007. Encyclopedia.com. 29 Jul. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"boycott." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. 2007. Encyclopedia.com. (July 29, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O233-boycott.html

"boycott." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. 2007. Retrieved July 29, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O233-boycott.html

Facts and information from other sites