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Bacteria

Bacteria

Bacteria are very small organisms, usually consisting of one cell, that lack chlorophyll (a green pigment found in plants that allows for the production of food). Except for viruses, they are the smallest living things on Earth. Many bacteria are so small that a million of them, laid end-to-end, would measure no more than about five centimeters (two inches). The term bacteria is the plural form of the word bacterium, which represents a single organism.

Bacteria are found everywhere, in the air, soil, water, and inside your body and on your skin. They tend to multiply very rapidly under favorable conditions, forming colonies of millions or even billions of organisms within a space as small as a drop of water.

The Dutch merchant and amateur scientist Anton van Leeuwenhoek (16321723) was the first person to observe bacteria and other microorganisms. Using single-lens microscopes of his own design, he described bacteria and other microorganisms (calling them "animalcules") in a series of letters to the Royal Society of London between 1674 and 1723.

Today, bacteria are classified in the kingdom Procaryotae. This term refers to the fact that bacteria consist of prokaryotic cells, cells that do not contain a nucleus. (A nucleus is a structure that controls a cell's functions and contains genes. Genes carry the deoxyribonucleic acid [DNA] that determines the characteristics passed on from one generation to the next.) The genetic material of bacteria is contained, instead, within a single, circular chain of DNA.

Characteristics of bacteria

Bacteria are generally classified into three groups based on their shape. They are described as spherical (coccus), rodlike (bacillus), or spiral or corkscrew (spirochete [pronounced SPY-ruh-keet] or spirilla). Some bacteria also have a shape like that of a comma and are known as vibrio.

Words to Know

Aerobic bacteria: Bacteria that need oxygen in order to live and grow.

Anaerobic bacteria: Bacteria that do not require oxygen in order to live and grow.

Bacillus: A type of bacterium with a rodlike shape.

Capsule: A thick, jelly-like material that surrounds the surface of some bacteria cells.

Coccus: A type of bacterium with a spherical (round) shape.

Decomposers: Bacteria that break down dead organic matter.

Fimbriae: Short, hairlike projections that may form on the outer surface of a bacterial cell.

Fission: A form of reproduction in which a single cell divides to form two new cells.

Flagella: Whiplike projections on the surface of bacterial cells that make movement possible.

Pasteurization: A process by which bacteria in food are killed by heating the food to a particular temperature for some given period of time.

Pili: Projections that join pairs of bacteria together, making possible the transfer of genetic material between them.

Prokaryote: A cell that has no distinct nucleus.

Spirilla: A type of bacterium with a spiral shape.

Spirochetes: A type of bacterium with a spiral shape.

Toxin: A poisonous chemical.

Vibrio: A type of bacterium with a comma-like shape.

As the drawing of the anatomy of a typical bacterium shows, the cytoplasm of all bacteria is enclosed within a cell membrane that is itself surrounded by a rigid cell wall. Bacteria also produce a thick, jelly-like material on the surface of the cell wall. When that material forms a distinct outside layer, it is known as a capsule.

Many rod, spiral, and comma-shaped bacteria have whiplike limbs, known as flagella, attached to the outside of their cells. They use these flagella for movement by waving them back and forth. Other bacteria move simply by wiggling their whole cell back and forth. Some bacteria are unable to move at all.

Two other kinds of projections found on bacterial surfaces include fimbriae and pili. Fimbriae (pronounced FIM-bree-ay) are tiny bristles that allow bacteria to attach themselves to other objects or to surfaces.

Pili are tiny whiskers that allow bacterial cells to exchange genetic material with each other.

Bacterial growth

The term bacterial growth generally refers to the growth of a group of bacteria rather than a single cell. Single cells generally do not get larger in size, so the term growth refers to the reproduction of cells.

Bacteria most commonly reproduce by fission, the process by which a single cell divides to produce two new cells. The process of fission may take anywhere from 15 minutes to 16 hours, depending on the type of bacterium.

A number of factors influence the rate at which bacterial growth occurs, the most important of which are moisture, temperature, and pH. Bacteria

are about 80 to 90 percent water. If too much water passes into or out of a bacterial cell, the cell dies. The bacterial cell wall provides protection against the gain or loss of water in most ordinary circumstances. But conditions may be such as to produce an unusually large gain or loss of water.

For example, if a bacterial cell is placed in a highly concentrated solution of salt water, water begins to pass out of a cell and into the salt water. The cell begins to shrink and is unable to carry on normal life functions. It cannot grow and will eventually die. On the other hand, an excess of water can be harmful to bacteria also. If water flows into a bacterial cell, the cell begins to swell and may eventually burst, resulting in the death of the cell.

All bacteria have a particular temperature range at which they can survive. For a specific type of bacteria, that range can be very high, very low, or somewhere in between, although it is always a narrow range. Most bacteria thrive at temperatures close to that of the human body (37°C or 98.6°F). But some bacteria prefer cold temperatures as low as freezing (0°C or 32°F), and others require very hot temperatures such as those found in hot springs (50°C to 90°C or 120°F to 200°F). The most extreme conditions in which bacteria have been found are around the hydrothermal vents near the Galapagos Islands. The temperatures near these cracks in the ocean floor is about 350°C (660°F), an environment just right, apparently, for the bacteria that live there.

Another factor affecting bacterial growth is pH, the acidity of a solution. Most bacteria require a pH of 6.7 to 7.5 (slightly more or less acidic than pure water). Other bacteria, however, can survive at a pH more severe than that of battery acid.

Finally, bacteria may or may not require oxygen to grow. Those that do need oxygen are called aerobic bacteria, while those that do not are known as anaerobic bacteria. Anaerobic bacteria have evolved ways of using substances other than oxygen, such as compounds of nitrogen, to obtain the energy they need to survive and grow.

Harmless, beneficial, and harmful bacteria

Bacteria can also be classified according to the effects they have on human life. Some bacteria are used to supply products that improve human life, others cause disease, while still others have no overall affect at all on human life.

Helpful bacteria. Bacteria make possible the digestion of foods in many kinds of animals. Cows, deer, sheep, and other ruminants, for example, have a large organ known as the rumen in which bacteria live and help break down cellulose fibers and other tough plant materials. In humans, bacteria known as Escherichia coli (E. coli ) occur everywhere in the digestive system, aiding in the breakdown of many kinds of foods. Bacteria are also responsible for the production of vitamin K and certain B vitamins.

Certain kinds of bacteria are also essential in the decay and decomposition of waste materials. Such bacteria are known as decomposers. Decomposers attack dead materials and break them down into simpler forms that can be used as nutrients by plants.

Finally, bacteria are involved in the production of many foods eaten humans. For example, bacteria that cause milk to become sour are used in the production of cottage cheese, buttermilk, and yogurt. Vinegar and sauerkraut are also produced by the action of bacteria on ethyl alcohol and cabbage, respectively.

Harmful bacteria. It seems likely, however, that most people know bacteria best because of the diseases they cause. Some of these diseases are produced when bacteria attack directly the tissues in a plant or animal. For example, fruits and vegetables that become discolored as they are growing may be under attack by bacteria.

Bacteria also attack organisms by releasing chemicals that are poisonous to plants and animals. Such poisons are known as toxins. A familiar toxin-producing bacterium is Clostridium tetani, responsible for the disease known as tetanus. Tetanus is a condition in which one's muscles are paralyzed, explaining its common name of lockjaw. A related bacterium, Clostridium botulinum, releases a toxin that causes the most severe form of food poisoning, botulism.

Some forms of dangerous bacteria live on the human skin, but cause no harm unless they are able to enter the blood stream through a break in the skin. Among these bacteria is Staphylococcus, responsible for the potentially fatal toxic shock syndrome. And although E. coli is helpful within the digestive system, if it is ingested and enters the bloodstream it causes severe cramping, diarrhea, and possibly even death.

Most forms of food preservation, such as freezing and drying, are designed to kill or inactivate bacteria that would otherwise damage food or cause disease. One of the most common methods of destroying bacteria in foods is pasteurization. Pasteurization is the process of heating a food product to a particular temperature for some given period of time. The temperature and time are selected to be sure that all bacteria in the food are killed by the process. The pasteurization of milk has made it possible to insure safe supplies of one of the most popular of all human foods.

Hardy survivors

In October 2000, a team of biologists claimed to have revived a bacterium that existed 250 million years ago, well before the age of the dinosaurs. They found the bacterium in a drop of fluid trapped in a crystal of rock salt that had been excavated from an air duct supplying a radioactive waste dump 1,850 feet (564 meters) below Earth's surface near Carlsbad, New Mexico. When the biologists drilled into the pocket of fluid in the crystal and mixed nutrients with the fluid, bacteria soon appeared. However, other scientists quickly suggested that the bacteria that grew was simply modern bacteria that had infected the crystal sample. The questioning scientists also pointed out that it would be impossible for the bacterium's DNA (a complex molecule that stores and transmits genetic information) to have survived more than a few thousand years, at best.

Regardless of the debate, bacteria have been around since the dawn of life on Earth, and they have continued to evolve. A major problem facing the medical community today is the ability of disease-causing bacteria to develop a resistance to antibiotics and other antibacterial drugs. These types of bacteria have been able to change their forms or have even been able to secrete enzymes that destroy the antibiotics. Since the

development and use of antibiotics in the 1940s, most known bacterial diseases have developed a resistance to at least one type of antibiotic.

[See also Antibiotics; Antiseptics; Fermentation ]

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bacteria

bacteria [pl. of bacterium], microscopic unicellular prokaryotic organisms characterized by the lack of a membrane-bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. Once considered a part of the plant kingdom, bacteria were eventually placed in a separate kingdom, Monera. Bacteria fall into one of two groups, Archaebacteria (ancient forms thought to have evolved separately from other bacteria) and Eubacteria. A recently proposed system classifies the Archaebacteria, or Archaea, and the Eubacteria, or Bacteria, as major groupings (sometimes called domains) above the kingdom level.

Bacteria were the only form of life on earth for 2 billion years. They were first observed by Antony van Leeuwenhoek in the 17th cent.; bacteriology as an applied science began to develop in the late 19th cent. as a result of research in medicine and in fermentation processes, especially by Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch.

Bacteria are remarkably adaptable to diverse environmental conditions: they are found in the bodies of all living organisms and on all parts of the earth—in land terrains and ocean depths, in arctic ice and glaciers, in hot springs, and even in the stratosphere. Our understanding of bacteria and their metabolic processes has been expanded by the discovery of species that can live only deep below the earth's surface and by species that thrive without sunlight in the high temperature and pressure near hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor. There are more bacteria, as separate individuals, than any other type of organism; there can be as many as 2.5 billion bacteria in one gram of fertile soil.

Characteristics

Bacteria are grouped in a number of different ways. Most bacteria are of one of three typical shapes—rod-shaped (bacillus), round (coccus, e.g., streptococcus), and spiral (spirillum). An additional group, vibrios, appear as incomplete spirals. The cytoplasm and plasma membrane of most bacterial cells are surrounded by a cell wall; further classification of bacteria is based on cell wall characteristics (see Gram's stain). They can also be characterized by their patterns of growth, such as the chains formed by streptococci. Many bacteria, chiefly the bacillus and spirillum forms, are motile, swimming about by whiplike movements of flagella; other bacteria have rigid rodlike protuberances called pili that serve as tethers.

Some bacteria (those known as aerobic forms) can function metabolically only in the presence of free or atmospheric oxygen; others (anaerobic bacteria) cannot grow in the presence of free oxygen but obtain oxygen from compounds. Facultative anaerobes can grow with or without free oxygen; obligate anaerobes are poisoned by oxygen.

Reproduction

In bacteria the genetic material is organized in a continuous strand of DNA. This circle of DNA is localized in an area called the nucleoid, but there is no membrane surrounding a defined nucleus as there is in the eukaryotic cells of protists, fungi, plants, and animals (see eukaryote). In addition to the nucleoid, the bacterial cell may include one or more plasmids, separate circular strands of DNA that can replicate independently, and that are not responsible for the reproduction of the organism. Drug resistance is often conveyed via plasmid genes.

Reproduction is chiefly by binary fission, cell division yielding identical daughter cells. Some bacteria reproduce by budding or fragmentation. Despite the fact that these processes should produce identical generations, the rapid rate of mutation possible in bacteria makes them very adaptable. Some bacteria are capable of specialized types of genetic recombination, which involves the transfer of nucleic acid by individual contact (conjugation), by exposure to nucleic acid remnants of dead bacteria (transformation), by exchange of plasmid genes, or by a viral agent, the bacteriophage (transduction). Under unfavorable conditions some bacteria form highly resistant spores with thickened coverings, within which the living material remains dormant in altered form until conditions improve. Others, such as the radioactivity-resistant Deinococcus radiodurans, can withstand serious damage by repairing their own DNA.

Nutrition

Most bacteria are heterotrophic, living off other organisms. Most of these are saprobes, bacteria that live off dead organic matter. The bacteria that cause disease are heterotrophic parasites. There are also many non-disease-causing bacterial parasites, many of which are helpful to their hosts. These include the "normal flora" of the human body.

Autotrophic bacteria manufacture their own food by the processes of photosynthesis and chemosynthesis (see autotroph). The photosynthetic bacteria include the green and purple bacteria and the cyanobacteria. Many of the thermophilic archaebacteria are chemosynthetic autotrophs.

Beneficial Bacteria

Harmless and beneficial bacteria far outnumber harmful varieties. Thousands of bacterial species live commensally in humans, and many provide health benefits to humans, aiding in digestion, for example, or helping to prevent the establishment of colonies of pathogenic bacteria. Because they are capable of producing so many enzymes necessary for the building up and breaking down of organic compounds, bacteria are employed extensively by humans—for soil enrichment with leguminous crops (see nitrogen cycle), for preservation by pickling, for fermentation (as in the manufacture of alcoholic beverages, vinegar, and certain cheeses), for decomposition of organic wastes (in septic tanks, in some sewage disposal plants, and in agriculture for soil enrichment) and toxic wastes, and for curing tobacco, retting flax, and many other specialized processes. Bacteria frequently make good objects for genetic study: large populations grown in a short period of time facilitate detection of mutations, or rare variations.

Pathogenic Bacteria

Bacterial parasites that cause disease are called pathogens. Among bacterial plant diseases are leaf spot, fire blight, and wilts; animal diseases caused by bacteria include tuberculosis, cholera, syphilis, typhoid fever, and tetanus. Some bacteria attack the tissues directly; others produce poisonous substances called toxins. Natural defense against harmful bacteria is provided by antibodies (see immunity). Certain bacterial diseases, e.g., tetanus, can be prevented by injection of antitoxin or of serum containing antibodies against specific bacterial antigens; immunity to some can be induced by vaccination; and certain specific bacterial parasites are killed by antibiotics.

New strains of more virulent bacterial pathogens, many of them resistant to antibiotics, have emerged in recent years. Many believe this to be due to the overuse of antibiotics, both in prescriptions for minor, self-limiting ailments and as growth enhancers in livestock; such overuse increases the likelihood of bacterial mutations. For example, a variant of the normally harmless Escherichia coli has caused serious illness and death in victims of food poisoning. See also drug resistance.

Bibliography

See P. Singleton, Introduction to Bacteria (1992); W. Biddle, A Field Guide to Germs (1995).

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bacteria

bacteria A diverse group of ubiquitous microorganisms all of which consist of only a single cell that lacks a distinct nuclear membrane and has a cell wall of a unique composition (see illustration). Bacteria constitute the prokaryotic organisms of the living world. However, their classification is a controversial issue. It is now recognized, on the basis of differences in ribosomal RNA structure and nucleotide sequences (see molecular systematics), that prokaryotes form two evolutionarily distinct groups. Traditionally these were placed in a single kingdom, variously named Bacteria or Prokaryotae, which was divided into two subkingdoms: Archaea (archaebacteria), including the descendants of ancient bacterial groups; and Eubacteria, representing the vast majority of present-day bacteria. However, it is now recognized that these groups of prokaryotes are so distinct that they should each be raised to the status of domain: Archaea (the archaebacteria, containing a variable number of kingdoms) and Bacteria (containing a single kingdom, Eubacteria). Generally speaking, the term ‘bacteria’ includes both archaebacteria and eubacteria.

Bacteria can be characterized in a number of ways, for example by their reaction with Gram's stain or on the basis of their metabolic requirements (e.g. whether or not they require oxygen: see aerobic respiration; anaerobic respiration) and shape. A bacterial cell may be spherical (see coccus), rodlike (see bacillus), spiral (see spirillum), comma-shaped (see vibrio), corkscrew-shaped (see spirochaete), or filamentous, resembling a fungal cell. The majority of bacteria range in size from 0.5 to 5 μm. Many are motile, bearing flagella, possess an outer slimy capsule, and produce resistant spores (see endospore). In general bacteria reproduce only asexually, by simple division of cells, but a few groups undergo a form of sexual reproduction (see conjugation). Bacteria are largely responsible for decay and decomposition of organic matter, producing a cycling of such chemicals as carbon (see carbon cycle), oxygen, nitrogen (see nitrogen cycle), and sulphur (see sulphur cycle). A few bacteria obtain their food by means of photosynthesis, including the Cyanobacteria; some are saprotrophs; and others are parasites, causing disease. The symptoms of bacterial infections are produced by toxins.

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bacteria

bacteria Unicellular micro‐organisms, ranging between 0.5 to 5 μm in size. They may be classified on the basis of their shape: spherical (coccus), rodlike (bacilli), spiral (spirillum), comma‐shaped (vibrio), corkscrew‐shaped (spirochaetes), or filamentous. Other classifications are based on whether or not they are: stained by Gram's stain; aerobic or anaerobic; and autotrophic or heterotrophic. Some form spores that are resistant to heat and sterilizing agents.

Bacteria are responsible for much food spoilage, and for disease (pathogenic bacteria), but they are also made use of, for example in the pickling process and fermentation of milk, as well as in the manufacture of vitamins and amino acids and a variety of enzymes and hormones.

Between 45 and 85% of the dry matter of bacteria is protein, and some can be grown on petroleum residues or methanol for use in animal feed.

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DAVID A. BENDER. "bacteria." A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. 2005. Encyclopedia.com. 25 Aug. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

DAVID A. BENDER. "bacteria." A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. 2005. Encyclopedia.com. (August 25, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O39-bacteria.html

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bacteria

bacteria Simple, unicellular, microscopic organisms. They lack a clearly defined nucleus and most are without chlorophyll. Many are motile, swimming by means of whip-like flagella. Most multiply by fission. In adverse conditions, many can remain dormant inside highly resistant spores with thick protective coverings. Bacteria may be aerobic or anaerobic. Although pathogenic bacteria are a major cause of human disease, many bacteria are harmless or even beneficial to humans by providing an important link in food chains, by decomposing plant and animal tissue, or converting free nitrogen and sulphur into amino acids and other compounds that plants and animals can use. Some contain a form of chlorophyll and carry out photosynthesis. Bacteria belong to the kingdom Prokaryotae. See also Archaebacteria; Eubacteria

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bacteria

bacteria (bak-teer-iă) pl. n. (sing. bacterium) a group of microorganisms all of which lack a distinct nuclear membrane and most of which have a cell wall of unique composition. Most bacteria are unicellular; the cells may be spherical (see coccus), rodlike (see bacillus), spiral (see Spirillum), comma-shaped (see Vibrio) or corkscrew-shaped (see spirochaete). Generally, they range in size between 0.5 and 5 μm. Motile species bear one or more fine hairs (flagella) arising from their surface. Bacteria reproduce asexually by simple division of cells. They live in soil, water, or air or as parasites of humans, animals, and plants. Some parasitic bacteria cause diseases by producing poisons (see endotoxin, exotoxin).
bacterial adj.

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"bacteria." A Dictionary of Nursing. 2008. Encyclopedia.com. 25 Aug. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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bacteria

bacteria From the Greek ‘small rod’, these are single-celled microscopic organisms found everywhere in the environment and on the human body. They are visible with a light microscope. They are usually harmless, but some are the cause of disease in plants, animals, and humans. They may be broadly split into ‘Gram positive’ and ‘Gram negative’, depending on their reaction to certain stains (described by Gram, a Danish physician in 1884); or into rod-shaped (bacilli) and spherical (cocci). They replicate by fission (splitting), and most have a complex cell wall structure.

Angharad Puw Davies


See microorganisms.

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COLIN BLAKEMORE and SHELIA JENNETT. "bacteria." The Oxford Companion to the Body. 2001. Encyclopedia.com. 25 Aug. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Bacteria

32. Bacteria

bacteriology
the branch of biology that studies and classifies bacteria. bacteriologist, n. bacteriologic, bacteriological , adj.
chromatophobia
a strong resistance by bacteria to absorbing stains. chromatophobic, adj.
hemophile, haemophile
a bacterium that grows well in the presence of hemoglobin. hemophilic, adj.
microbiology
the branch of biology that studies microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and pathogenic protozoa. microbiologist, n.
microphobia, microbiophobia
an abnormal fear of microorganisms. microphobic, adj.

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bacterium

bac·te·ri·um / bakˈti(ə)rēəm/ • n. (pl. -te·ri·a / -ˈti(ə)rēə/ ) a member of a large group of unicellular microorganisms that have cell walls but lack organelles and an organized nucleus, including some that can cause disease. DERIVATIVES: bac·te·ri·al / -ˈti(ə)rēəl/ adj. ORIGIN: mid 19th cent.: modern Latin, from Greek baktērion, diminutive of baktēria ‘staff, cane’ (because the first ones to be discovered were rod-shaped). Compare with bacillus.

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bacterium

bacterium XIX. — modL. — Gr. baktḗrion, dim. of baktēríā staff, cane. Cf. bacillus.

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T. F. HOAD. "bacterium." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. 1996. Encyclopedia.com. 25 Aug. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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bacteria

bac·te·ri·a / bakˈti(ə)rēə/ • plural form of bacterium.

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bacterium

bacterium
1. A single bacterial cell.

2. A particular prokaryotic organism (see PROKARYOTE).

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MICHAEL ALLABY. "bacterium." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. 1998. Encyclopedia.com. 25 Aug. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Bacteria

Bacteria The domain comprising the kingdom Eubacteria.

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Bacteria

Bacteria The only kingdom in the domain Eubacteria.

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bacteria

bacteria The only kingdom in the domain Eubacteria.

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MICHAEL ALLABY. "bacteria." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. 1998. Encyclopedia.com. 25 Aug. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

MICHAEL ALLABY. "bacteria." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. 1998. Encyclopedia.com. (August 25, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O7-bacteria.html

MICHAEL ALLABY. "bacteria." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. 1998. Retrieved August 25, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O7-bacteria.html

bacterium

bacterium (bak-teer-iŭm) n. see bacteria.

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"bacterium." A Dictionary of Nursing. 2008. Encyclopedia.com. 25 Aug. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"bacterium." A Dictionary of Nursing. 2008. Encyclopedia.com. (August 25, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O62-bacterium.html

"bacterium." A Dictionary of Nursing. 2008. Retrieved August 25, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O62-bacterium.html

bacteria

bacteriabarrier, carrier, farrier, harrier, tarrier •Calabria, Cantabria •Andrea • Kshatriya • Bactria •Amu Darya, aria, Zaria •Alexandria •Ferrier, terrier •destrier •aquaria, area, armamentaria, Bavaria, Bulgaria, caldaria, cineraria, columbaria, filaria, frigidaria, Gran Canaria, herbaria, honoraria, malaria, pulmonaria, rosaria, sacraria, Samaria, solaria, tepidaria, terraria •atria, gematria •Assyria, Illyria, Styria, SyriaLaurier, warrior •hypochondria, mitochondria •Austria •auditoria, ciboria, conservatoria, crematoria, emporia, euphoria, Gloria, moratoria, phantasmagoria, Pretoria, sanatoria, scriptoria, sudatoria, victoria, Vitoria, vomitoria •Maurya •courier, Fourier •currier, furrier, spurrier, worrier •Cumbria, Northumbria, Umbria •Algeria, anterior, bacteria, Bashkiria, cafeteria, criteria, cryptomeria, diphtheria, exterior, hysteria, Iberia, inferior, interior, Liberia, listeria, Nigeria, posterior, Siberia, superior, ulterior, wisteria •Etruria, Liguria, Manchuria, Surya

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"bacteria." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. 2007. Encyclopedia.com. 25 Aug. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"bacteria." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. 2007. Encyclopedia.com. (August 25, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O233-bacteria.html

"bacteria." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. 2007. Retrieved August 25, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O233-bacteria.html

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