Urdu


Urdu

Urdu (ōōr´dōō), language belonging to the Indic group of the Indo-Iranian subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages. The official tongue of Pakistan, Urdu is also one of the 15 languages recognized in the 1950 Indian constitution. Urdu has been described as the written or literary variant of Hindustani that is used by Muslims. It is written in a modified form of the Arabic alphabet, and its basically Indic vocabulary has been enriched by borrowings from Arabic and Persian. Grammatically and phonetically, however, Urdu is an Indic language. About 100 million persons in Pakistan and India understand Urdu.

See M. C. Saihgal, Hindustani Grammar (Urdu edition, 1945); E. Bender, Urdu Grammar and Reader (1967); F. Southworth, Student's Hindi-Urdu Reference Manual (1971); W. Bright and S. A. Kahn, The Urdu Writing System (1976).

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"Urdu." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. 2014. Encyclopedia.com. 24 Nov. 2014 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Urdu." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. 2014. Encyclopedia.com. (November 24, 2014). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-Urdu.html

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URDU

URDU. An Indo-Aryan language of the Indian subcontinent, associated with the Moghul Empire, in which Persian was the court language. It is used especially by Muslims and written in a variant of the Perso-Arabic script. Closely related to Hindi, Urdu has a similar pronunciation and grammar but a more heavily Persianized and Arabicized vocabulary. It is the national language of Pakistan and is its co-official language with English. In India, it is the state language of the state of Jammu and Kashmir, and associate state language of the state of Uttar Pradesh. It is spoken as a first language by c.30m and as a second language by c.100m people in India and Pakistan, and some thousands of people of Indo-Pakistani origin in Fiji, Guyana, South Africa, the UK, and the US. See BANGLADESH, HINDI, HINDI-URDU, INDIAN ENGLISH, PAKISTANI ENGLISH.

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TOM McARTHUR. "URDU." Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. 1998. Encyclopedia.com. 24 Nov. 2014 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

TOM McARTHUR. "URDU." Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. 1998. Encyclopedia.com. (November 24, 2014). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O29-URDU.html

TOM McARTHUR. "URDU." Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. 1998. Retrieved November 24, 2014 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O29-URDU.html

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Urdu

Urdu Language belonging to the Indic group of the Indo-Iranian sub-family of Indo-European languages. It is the official language of Pakistan but is used as a first language by less than 10% of the population. It is also spoken by most Muslims in India. Urdu has virtually the same grammar as Hindi, the chief difference being that Urdu is written in the Arabic script. Both derive from Sanskrit.

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"Urdu." World Encyclopedia. 2005. Encyclopedia.com. 24 Nov. 2014 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Urdu." World Encyclopedia. 2005. Encyclopedia.com. (November 24, 2014). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O142-Urdu.html

"Urdu." World Encyclopedia. 2005. Retrieved November 24, 2014 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O142-Urdu.html

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Urdu

Urdu an Indic language closely related to Hindi but written in the Persian script and having many loanwords from Persian and Arabic. It is the official language of Pakistan, and is also widely used in India and elsewhere, with about 50 million speakers worldwide.

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ELIZABETH KNOWLES. "Urdu." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 2006. Encyclopedia.com. 24 Nov. 2014 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

ELIZABETH KNOWLES. "Urdu." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 2006. Encyclopedia.com. (November 24, 2014). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O214-Urdu.html

ELIZABETH KNOWLES. "Urdu." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 2006. Retrieved November 24, 2014 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O214-Urdu.html

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Urdu

Ur·du / ˈoŏrdoō; ˈər-/ • n. a form of Hindustani written in Persian script, with many loanwords from Persian and Arabic. It is an official language of Pakistan and is widely used in India and elsewhere.

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"Urdu." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. 2009. Encyclopedia.com. 24 Nov. 2014 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Urdu." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. 2009. Encyclopedia.com. (November 24, 2014). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O999-urdu.html

"Urdu." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. 2009. Retrieved November 24, 2014 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O999-urdu.html

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Urdu

Urdusadhu, Tamil Nadu •hairdo • Pompidou • fondue •hoodoo, kudu, voodoo •Urdu • amadou • Xanadu

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"Urdu." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. 2007. Encyclopedia.com. 24 Nov. 2014 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Urdu." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. 2007. Encyclopedia.com. (November 24, 2014). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O233-Urdu.html

"Urdu." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. 2007. Retrieved November 24, 2014 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O233-Urdu.html

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