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Toledo: Recreation

Toledo: Recreation

Sightseeing

Fort Meigs, located near Toledo along the southern bank of the Maumee River west of Perrysburg, was the largest walled fortification in North America. Built in 1813 under the direction of General William Henry Harrison (who later became president of the United States), Fort Meigs is an impressive structure of earthworks and timber. Toledo's Old West End, covering 25 blocks, is one of the largest collections of late-Victorian architecture in the country; Frank Lloyd Wright studied the Old West End in preparing his plans for Oak Park, Illinois.

The freighter SS Willis was first launched in 1911 and served for many years on the Great Lakes as the largest ship of its type. Now restored, it is docked at International Park and open for tours. The Sauder Farm and Craft Village, a living-history museum in nearby Archbold, recaptures life in northwest Ohio in the 1830s. Wolcott House Museum in Maumee depicts life in the Maumee Valley from 1840 to 1860.

The Toledo Zoo, one of the nation's highest rated zoological parks, offers state-of-the-art exhibits, together with historical architecture, fully integrated to provide more than 4,000 animals with the best possible environment and offer visitors an exciting experience. An innovative exhibition called Africa! opened in May of 2004.

Toledo Center of Science & Industry (COSI) is located at the corner of Summit and Adams streets on the riverfront. With eight Exhibition Learning Worlds, a restaurant, and a retail store, COSI also offers exciting firsthand science learning and fun for visitors of all ages. There are opportunities to ride the high wire cycle, play virtual volleyball, or experience the full-motion simulator theater.

Located in a firehouse that dates from around 1920, the Toledo Firefighters Museum preserves 150 years of fire fighting in the city. Thousands of items are on exhibit, including many of large pieces of vintage fire fighting equipment. The Toledo Botanical Garden cultivates herbs, roses, azalea, rhododendron, and wildflowers; artists' studios and galleries are maintained on the grounds.

Toledo boasts 144 parks covering 2,367 acres. The Metroparks of the Toledo Area preserves 8,000 acres of parks in Lucas County. The nine metroparks of the Toledo area preserve sand dunes, tall grass prairies, upland woody swamp forests, and oak savannahs. The parks offer elevated views of the Maumee River Valley. From May through October, the Miami and Erie Canal Restoration at Providence Metropark features a mule-drawn canal boat that carries passengers along a one and one-fourth mile stretch of the original canal, through a working canal lock, and past the Isaac Ludwig Mill, which features heritage crafts and water-powered milling demonstrations. Oak Openings Preserve protects threatened and endangered plant species, while Pearson Preserve protects one of the few remnants of the Great Black Swamp. The metroparks present many free nature and history programs and capture a sense of the natural beauty of the area at the time it was first settled.

Arts and Culture

The Toledo Museum of Art was founded in 1912 when Edward Libbey made a contribution of money and land to help initiate the museum's first stage of construction. Today the museum's permanent collection represents holdings from diverse cultures and periods, including ancient Egyptian tombs, a medieval cloister, a French chateau, glass, furniture, silver, tapestries, and paintings by world masters.

Without a doubt, the cultural highlight of Toledo's downtown revitalization efforts is the Valentine Theatre. When it originally opened in 1895, the Valentine was the finest theatrical venue between New York and Chicago. The Valentine Theatre is also home of the Toledo Symphony and the Toledo Ballet. The intimate and acoustically superior 901-seat, $28 million theater allows for excellent viewing of the stage and projected English titles when necessary.

The Toledo Symphony Orchestra presents a full season of concerts in Peristyle Hall at the Toledo Museum of Art. Stranahan Theater hosts performances by the Toledo Opera Association and touring Broadway shows. Two community theater groups, Toledo Repertoire Theatre and the Village Players, stage several productions annually, while Junior Theatre Guild stages four annual professional family-oriented shows. The Toledo Ballet Association presents local and guest performers, sometimes in collaboration with the opera and symphony. Both the University of Toledo and Bowling Green State University schedule plays and other cultural events, many featuring well-known performing artists and speakers.

Festivals and Holidays

Many festivals celebrate Toledo's history and its ethnic diversity. The festival season starts Memorial Day weekend with the Rock, Rhythm 'n Blues Festival in downtown Toledo. Through the summer, Rallies by the River offer music and refreshments at Promenade Park on Friday evenings. In June, the Old West End Festival opens restored Victorian homes to the public. The Crosby Festival of the Arts is held in late June at the Toledo Botanical Garden. The annual fireworks display takes place downtown on the river. Also in July, the Lucas County Fair is held at the fairgrounds. The Northwest Ohio Rib-Off takes place in August at Promenade Park.

Sports for the Spectator

The Toledo Mud Hens, the Triple A farm team for professional baseball's Detroit Tigers, compete in the International League with home games at Fifth Third Field. The Toledo Storm, East Coast Hockey League affiliates for the National Hockey League's Detroit Red Wings, entertain fans at Toledo Sports Arena. Raceway Park presents harness racing on a spiral-banked five-eighths mile track from March to December. Stock car racing is on view at Toledo Speedway. The University of Toledo Rockets and the Bowling Green State University Falcons field teams in Mid-American Conference sports.

Sports for the Participant

Toledo, the largest port on Lake Erie, offers some of the best fishing in the world. Walleye season runs from May to August, followed by perch in the fall; white and smallmouth bass are other popular catches. Ice fishing is available in January and February. Toledo maintains one of Ohio's best park systems, with more than 140 areas for sports and relaxation. The Lucas County Recreation Department provides facilities for swimming, tennis, track, handball, and softball. Toledo Area Metroparks offer boating, cycling, hiking, jogging, water and field sports, and fitness trails on over 6,600 acres. Toledo boasts some of the finest golf courses in the country. The Toledo Roadrunners Club has been holding the Glass City Marathon for more than 29 years; runners race along country roads and through neighboring communities and downtown Toledo. The race pays tribute to the memory of Sy Mah, a Toledo runner who once held the Guinness World Book record for running 524 marathons in his lifetime.

Shopping and Dining

Unique shopping opportunities in Toledo and environs include glass factory outlet stores, featuring all types and styles of glassware; flea markets; the Erie Street Market; and art galleries. Four major shopping centers are located in the area.

Among Toledo's hundreds of restaurants is Tony Packo's Cafe, celebrated by Corporal Klinger, a character on the television program "M*A*S*H." Featuring an extensive Tiffany lamp collection, the restaurant serves a distinctive hot dog, Hungarian hamburgers, and a vegetable soup with Hungarian dumplings. The Docks on the Maumee River offer a variety of interesting restaurants; these include Gumbo's, Real Seafood Co., Zia's Italian, Tango's Mexican Cantina, and Cousino's Navy Bistro.

Visitor Information: The Greater Toledo Convention and Visitors Bureau, 401 Jefferson Avenue, Toledo, OH 43604; telephone (419)321-6404; toll-free (800)243-4667

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Toledo: Economy

Toledo: Economy

Major Industries and Commercial Activity

Manufacturing comprises about one-fifth of Toledo's economic base. Nearly 1,000 manufacturing facilities are located in the metropolitan area. Such manufacturing facilities include automotive assembly and parts production, glass, plastic, and metal parts. Toledo is home to the headquarters of such corporations as The Andersons, Dana Corporation, Libbey, Inc., Libbey-Owens-Ford Company, Owens Corning, Owens-Illinois, and Seaway Food Town. Major employers include DaimlerChrysler, General Motors/Powertrain, ProMedica Health Systems, and Toledo Public Schools. With 10 major financial institutions, Toledo is also a banking and finance center for northwestern Ohio.

Medical and technologically-oriented businesses are a major force in the local economy; Lucas County ranks among the 50 counties in the United States that account for 50 percent of medical industry production. Several private testing laboratories and manufacturers of medical instruments and allied products are located in the Toledo area. In addition, more than 400 plastics, metalworking, and electronics companies adapt engineering and production capabilities to the medical device and instrument industries. With its many nearby universities and large public school system, education is also an economic pillar. The Medical College of Ohio is the eighth largest employer in Toledo, and contributes nearly $500 million to the economy per year.

Items and goods produced: automotive and truck components, health care products, glass products, fiberglass, packaged foods, plastic and paper products, building materials, furniture, metal products

Incentive ProgramsNew and Existing Companies

The Regional Growth Partnership, Inc. (RGP) is the principal agency for facilitating business expansion and location in the Toledo metropolitan area. Created as a non-profit public/private partnership, the RGP is charged with the mission of creating employment and capital investment needed to generate economic growth in greater Toledo and northwest Ohio. The RGP works closely with all public and private economic development organizations. The RGP provides customized services to fit the individual needs of each business client. Services include customized location proposals and sales presentations, comprehensive site and facility searches, project financial and incentive packaging, labor market information, other market and community data, regional evaluation tours, and leadership networking. A number of tax incentives, technology, and training assistance programs are available at the state and local level.

Economic Development Information: Regional Growth Partnership, 300 Madison Avenue, Suite 270, Toledo, OH 43604; telephone (419)252-2700; fax (419)252-2724

Development Projects

The economy continues to thrive in Toledo. Production of Jeep Liberty began in April of 2001 at the new Jeep assembly plant. Major university projects include the Toledo Science and Technology Center, a program to stimulate economic development by creating jobs and assisting local businesses. Downtown Toledo, Inc. is an ongoing public-private partnership made up of local business leaders, property owners, and citizens. It was created to enhance the quality of life and economy of the downtown Toledo area.

Significant investment has been made at the University of Toledo and Owens Community College. The Medical College of Ohio Cancer Center Institute opened in January of 2000.

Commercial Shipping

Toledo is situated at the center of a major market area; located within 500 miles of the city are 43 percent and 47 percent, respectively, of U.S. and Canadian industrial markets. A commercial transportation network, consisting of a Great Lakes port, railroads, interstate highways, and two international airports, provides access to this market area as well as points throughout the nation and the world.

Toledo is served by both Toledo Express in Toledo and Detroit Metropolitan Airport in nearby Detroit, Michigan. Toledo Express, served by seven airlines, carries passengers and is a major air freight center. Named one of the five best small airports in the Midwest, Toledo Express is the international hub for Burlington Air Express. It has recently begun a 4-year, $22 million renovation project. Detroit Metropolitan Airport is within a 50-minute drive.

The Port of Toledo, on the Maumee River, is a 150-acre domestic and international shipping facility that includes a general cargo center, mobile cargo handling gear, and covered storage space. In 2004 the port handled 122,514 tons of cargo. Designated as a Foreign Trade Zone, the complex affords shippers deferred duty payments and tax savings on foreign goods.

Toledo is served by four railroad systems, which provide direct and interline shipping; Norfolk/Southern maintains piggyback terminal facilities in the city. More than 90 truck firms link Toledo with all major metropolitan areas in the United States and points throughout Canada.

Labor Force and Employment Outlook

Farming, industrial production, and agriculture contribute to the area's growing economy. Manufacturing accounts for about 18 percent of the jobs in metropolitan Toledo. The Toledo area has a strong automotive industry base and is one of the top three machine tooling centers in the United States. The area has experienced strong growth in the steel, metals, and plastic industries. Retail and service businesses continue to expand.

Businesses in Toledo have access to graduates from at least 20 higher educational institutions within a one-hour drive of the city.

The following is a summary of data regarding the Toledo metropolitan area labor force, 2004 annual averages:

Size of nonagricultural labor force: 329,600

Number of workers employed in . . .

construction and mining: 15,800

manufacturing: 51,300

trade, transportation and utilities: 64,800

information: 4,700

financial activities: 13,200

professional and business services: 34,600

educational and health services: 46,700

leisure and hospitality: 32,900

other services: 15,400

government: 50,200

Average hourly earnings of production workers employed in manufacturing: $21.87

Unemployment rate: 7.4% (March 2005)

Largest manufacturing/utility employers Number of employees
DaimlerChrysler Corp./Toledo 5,583
GM Corp./Powertrain Div. Corp. 3,860
Libbey, Inc. 1,329
Dana Corporation. 1,225
Owens-Illinois, Inc. 1,200

Cost of Living

The following is a summary of data regarding several key cost of living factors in the Toledo area.

2004 (3rd Quarter) ACCRA Average House Price: $212,283

2004 (3rd Quarter) ACCRA Cost of Living Index: 95.4 (U.S. average = 100.0)

State income tax rate: 2.25%

State sales tax rate: 6.0% (food and prescription drugs are exempt)

Local income tax rate: 2.25%

Local sales tax rate: 1.25% (county)

Property tax rate: 60.65 mills (2002)

Economic Information: Regional Growth Partnership, 300 Madison Avenue, Suite 270, Toledo, OH 43604; telephone (419)252-2700

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Toledo: History

Toledo: History

French, British Settle Maumee Valley

As early as 1615 Etienne Brule, Samuel de Champlain's French-Canadian scout, discovered the Erie tribe of Native Americans living at the mouth of the Maumee River, the largest river that flows into the Great Lakes. Robert Cavelier, sieur de La Salle, claimed the territory in the name of France's King Louis XIV in 1689, and French trading posts were subsequently established in the Maumee Valley. A century later the British built Fort Miami there. Following the French and Indian War in 1763, France ceded all claims in the territory to Britain, who annexed the region to the Canadian Province of Quebec in 1774. At the end of the American Revolution, the region became part of the United States and was designated as part of the Northwest Territory in 1787. Renegade agents incited Native American warriors to attack settlers in the area; when American military forces were sent there in 1790, the native tribes prevailed. Four years later, General Anthony Wayne defeated 2,000 Native Americans at the Battle of Fallen Timbers southwest of present-day Toledo. General Wayne then directed the building of several forts, of which one was Fort Industry, constructed at the present site of Toledo.

At the outbreak of the War of 1812 the few settlers in the vicinity fled. In January, 1813, General William Henry Harrison, later President of the United States, erected Fort Meigs, a massive fortification enclosing 9 acres, which became known as the "Gibraltar of the Northwest." In the Battle of Lake Erie, off Put-In-Bay, the U. S. Navy's young Commodore Perry defeated the British naval force, followed by Harrison's defeat of General Proctor at the Battle of the Thames. These victories re-secured the Northwest Territory for the United States. After the war, a permanent settlement was formed on the northwest side of the Maumee River near the mouth of Swan Creek. In 1817 an Indian treaty conveyed most of the remaining land in the area to the federal government. The village of Port Lawrence near Fort Industry was formed by a Cincinnati syndicate in 1817, but it failed in 1820 and was then revived. Port Lawrence voted in 1835 to consolidate with the settlement of Vistula, one mile away, and the two were incorporated as Toledo in 1837.

The choice of the name of Toledo for the new city is shrouded in local legend. Popular versions give credit to a merchant who suggested Toledo because it "is easy to pronounce, is pleasant in sound, and there is no other city of that name on the American continent." Whatever the source, friendly relations with the city of Toledo, Spain, have resulted. The Hispanic government awarded The Blade, the city's oldest newspaper, the royal coat of arms, and the University of Toledo has permission to use the arms of Spain's Ferdinand and Isabella as its motif.

Border Dispute Precedes Industrial Growth

The "Toledo War" of 1835-36 between Ohio and Michigan over their common boundary did not involve bloodshed but it did result in federal intervention to resolve the dispute. Governor Robert Lucas of Ohio led a force of 1,000 soldiers to Perrysburg in March 1835, with the intent of driving Michigan militia from Toledo, but emissaries sent by President Andrew Jackson arranged a truce. Governor Lucas held a special session of the legislature in June, creating Lucas County out of the land in Wood County involved in the dispute. The new county held court in Toledo on the first Monday of September, which proved it had exercised jurisdiction over the disputed territory by holding a Court of Common Pleas in due form of law. Finally, Congress settled the issue by stipulating that the condition of Michigan's entrance into the Union would award Ohio the contested land and Michigan, in compensation, would receive what is now the state's Upper Peninsula.

Toledo in the mid-nineteenth century benefitted from the opening of new canals, the establishment of businesses along the river bank to accommodate trade and new shipping industries, and the arrival of the railroad. Prosperity continued during the Civil War, and by the end of the century the city became a major rail center in the United States. During the 1880s Toledo's industrial base, spurred by the discovery of inexpensive fuel, attracted glass-making entrepreneurs. Edward Libbey established a glassworks in Toledo, and then hired Michael Owens to supervise the new plant. The two pioneers revolutionized the glass business with inventions that eliminated child labor and streamlined production. Edward Ford arrived in the Toledo region in 1896 to found the model industrial town of Rossford and one of the largest plate-glass operations of its time.

Two politicians stand out in the history of Toledo. Samuel M. "Gold Rule" Jones was elected mayor on a nonpartisan ticket and emerged as a national figure. His reform efforts in city government introduced one of the first municipal utilities, the eight-hour workday for city employees, and the first free kindergartens, public playgrounds, and band concerts. Mayor Brand Whitlock continued Jones's reforms by securing a state law for the nonpartisan election of judges and Ohio's initiative and referendum law in 1912.

John Willys moved his Overland automobile factory from Indianapolis to Toledo in 1908, and, in time, automotive-parts manufacture flourished in the area; the industry was firmly established by such firms as Champion Spark Plug and Warner Manufacturing Company, maker of automobile gears. A strike by Auto-Lite workers in 1934 was marred by violence and prompted the intervention of U.S. troops and the Federal Department of Labor; the resolution of this strike, which received national attention, helped contribute to the unionization of the automotive industries. The Toledo Industrial Peace Board, set up in 1935 to resolve labor disputes by round-table discussion, served as a model for similar entities in other cities.

An All-American City

Toledo today boasts amenities and points of interest including the University of Toledo, the Medical College of Ohio at Toledo, a symphony, ballet and opera company, the Toledo Museum of Art, the Toledo Zoo, and the Anthony Wayne suspension bridge (1931). The site of the battle of Fallen Timbers, a national historic landmark, is in a nearby state park. Toledo's commitment to arts and culture is evident, as is its focus on neighborhood revitalization. A renewed vitality, even in the face of diminishing central-city residents, has city planners looking toward the future.

Historical Information: Toledo-Lucas County Public Library, History-Travel-Biography Department, 325 Michigan Street, Toledo, OH 43624; telephone (419)259-5207

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Toledo: Education and Research

Toledo: Education and Research

Elementary and Secondary Schools

Public elementary and secondary schools in Toledo are administered by the Toledo Public Schools system, the fourth largest public school system in the state of Ohio, with just over 35,000 students. Five partisan board of education members select a superintendent. Washington Local Schools serve much of the northwest area of the city.

The following is a summary of data regarding Toledo public schools as of the 20022003 school year.

Total enrollment: 35,533

Number of facilities elementary schools: 47

junior high schools: 7

senior high schools: 8

Student/teacher ratio: 2325:1

Teacher salaries

minimum: $32,697

maximum: $65,520

Funding per pupil: $7,838

The Catholic Diocese of Toledo operates an extensive parochial school system in the city and surrounding area. Other private and church-related schools also offer educational alternatives.

Public Schools Information: Toledo Public Schools, 420 East Manhattan, Toledo, OH 43608; telephone (419)729-8200

Colleges and Universities

The University of Toledo's eight colleges enroll nearly 21,000 students and offer degrees in undergraduate and graduate fields, including engineering and pharmacy. The Medical College of Ohio (MCO) grants a medical degree as well as graduate degrees in medical science and industrial hygiene; MCO conducts joint educational programs and collaborative research with area businesses and educational institutions. Owens Community College offers two-year programs in biomedical equipment, computer-integrated manufacturing, and glass engineering, among others.

Within commuting distance of Toledo are Bowling Green State University and the University of Michigan.

Libraries and Research Centers

Toledo is home to about two dozen libraries operated by public agencies, private organizations, and corporations. The ToledoLucas County Public Library houses about 2.3 million books and has an annual circulation of over 6 million; the library system includes 18 branches and two bookmobiles located throughout the city and the county. The University of Toledo, the Medical College of Ohio at Toledo, and Owens Community College maintain campus libraries. Other libraries are associated with the Toledo Museum of Art, companies such as Libbey-Owens-Ford, law firms, hospitals, and churches and synagogues.

The Medical College of Ohio (MCO) in Toledo is active in medical research and development. MCO has created the Health Technology Park to house college facilities and the Northwest Ohio Health Technology Center (NOHTC), which serves as a research and development incubator for private companies and academic institutions.

Research and development is also conducted at the University of Toledo's Polymer and Thin Films Institute and Eitel Institute for Silicate Research as well as at Edison Industrial Systems Center. The federally-funded National Center for Tooling and Precision Products research is housed at the University of Toledo. The National Drosophilia Species Resource Center, affiliated with nearby Bowling Green State University, is internationally known for fruit-fly research.

Public Library Information: Toledo-Lucas County Public Library, 325 Michigan Street, Toledo, OH 43624-1332; telephone (419)259-5207; fax (419)255-1332

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Toledo: Population Profile

Toledo: Population Profile

Metropolitan Area Residents

1980: 617,000

1990: 614,128

2000: 618,203

Percent change, 19902000: -0.7%

U.S. rank in 1980: 55th

U.S. rank in 1990: Not reported

U.S. rank in 2000: 69th

City Residents

1980: 354,635

1990: 332,943

2000: 313,619

2003 estimate: 298,242

Percent change, 19902000: -5.8%

U.S. rank in 1980: 40th

U.S. rank in 1990: Not reported

U.S. rank in 2000: 66th

Density: 3,890 people per square mile (2000)

Racial and ethnic characteristics (2000)

White: 220,261

Black or African American: 73,854

American Indian and Alaska Native: 970

Asian: 3,233

Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander: 76

Hispanic or Latino (may be of any race): 313,619

Other: 7,166

Percent of residents born in state: 77.4 % (2000)

Age characteristics (2000)

Population under 5 years old: 22,849

Population 5 to 9 years old: 23,879

Population 10 to 14 years old: 22,737

Population 15 to 19 years old: 22,343

Population 20 to 24 years old: 24,977

Population 25 to 34 years old: 47,580

Population 35 to 44 years old: 45,816

Population 45 to 54 years old: 38,256

Population 55 to 59 years old: 12,993

Population 60 to 64 years old: 10,989

Population 65 to 74 years old: 20,799

Population 75 to 84 years old: 15,374

Population 85 years and older: 5,027

Median age: 33.2 years

Births (2003)

Total number: 6,075

Deaths (2003)

Total number: 4,601

Money income (1999)

Per capita income: $17,388

Median household income: $32,546

Total households: 128,925

Number of households with income of . . .

less than $10,000: 18,198

$10,000 to $14,999: 11,090

$15,000 to $24,999: 20,117

$25,000 to $34,999: 18,859

$35,000 to $49,999: 20,942

$50,000 to $74,999: 23,201

$75,000 to $99,999: 9,798

$100,000 to $149,999: 5,035

$150,000 to $199,999: 908

$200,000 or more: 694

Percent of families below poverty level: 14.2% (58.1% of which were female householder families with related children under 5 years)

2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 26,717

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Toledo

TOLEDO

TOLEDO, the fourth largest city in Ohio in the early twenty-first century, began in 1680 as a French trading post. Ceded to the British in 1763, it became part of the U.S. Northwest Territory in 1787. Canals and railroads helped establish Toledo as a major inland port and center of industry. During the Progressive Era, Toledo won national recognition for urban reform. Historically, Toledo has been a major producer of glass and automotive products, but these industries declined, and from 1970 to 2000 employment in the Toledo metropolitan area decreased markedly. During this same period, population declined from 383,062 to 313,619, although city leaders question the accuracy of the 2000 federal census. Toledo has experienced other problems. A 1967 race riot caused extensive property damage, injuries, and arrests. Public schools were closed for several weeks in 1976 and 1978 because of teacher strikes. In July 1979 a bitter dispute between the city government and police and firemen led to a two-day general strike and costly arson fires. In the 1980s and 1990s, Toledo sought to emphasize its strong medical, cultural, and higher educational institutions. New downtown buildings and the Portside festival marketplace along the Maumee River were indicative of business leaders' commitment to the city.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Jones, Marnie. Holy Toledo: Religion and Politics in the Life of "Golden Rule" Jones. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1998.

Korth, Philip A., and Margaret R. Beegle. I Remember Like Today: The Auto-Lite Strike of 1934. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1988.

McGucken, William. Lake Erie Rehabilitated: Controlling Cultural Eutrophication, 1960s–1990s. Akron, Ohio: University of Akron Press, 2000.

John B.Weaver/a. e.

See alsoBoundary Disputes Between States ; Canals ; Great Lakes ; Labor ; Michigan, Upper Peninsula of ; Northwest Territory ; Ohio ; Railroads .

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Toledo (city, United States)

Toledo (təlē´dō), city (1990 pop. 332,943), seat of Lucas co., NW Ohio, on the Maumee River at its junction with Lake Erie; inc. 1837. With a natural harbor and its railroads and highways, Toledo is a port of entry and one of the chief shipping centers on the Great Lakes. Oil, coal, farm products, and motor vehicle parts are exported; iron ore is the principal import. Toledo is also an industrial and commercial center, with oil refineries, a glassmaking industry, shipyards, and plants that manufacture vehicles, powertrain assemblies, machinery, and chemicals. The health-care industry is also significant.

Gen. Anthony Wayne built Fort Industry there in 1794 after the battle of Fallen Timbers. The city was settled (1817) as Port Lawrence on that site and in 1833 was consolidated with nearby Vistula as Toledo. In 1835–36 occurred the "Toledo War," an Ohio-Michigan boundary dispute, which was settled by Congress in favor of Ohio when Michigan became a state.

Toledo grew and prospered with the opening of the canals in the 1840s, the arrival of numerous railroad lines, the development of the Ohio coal fields, the tapping of gas and oil deposits in the late 19th cent., and the establishment of the Libbey glassworks in 1888. When Samuel M. Jones became mayor in 1897, an era of municipal reform was initiated. Jones died in 1904 and was succeeded by Brand Whitlock. The Toledo plan of labor conciliation (1946) has been adopted by other cities.

The city is the seat of the Univ. of Toledo. Points of interest include the Toledo Museum of Art with its Glass Pavilion, a large zoo, and the Anthony Wayne suspension bridge (1931). The site of the battle of Fallen Timbers, a national historic landmark, is in a nearby state park.

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Toledo: Communications

Toledo: Communications

Newspapers and Magazines

The major daily newspaper in Toledo is The Blade. The Toledo Journal is a weekly African American newspaper. Several neighborhood newspapers, as well as scholarly, academic, and religious journals, and special-interest tabloids and magazines are also published in the city, including the Toledo Union Journal, a bimonthly labor newspaper.

Television and Radio

Toledo is the broadcast media center for northwestern Ohio and parts of southeastern Michigan. Television viewers receive programs from six stationsone public and five commercialbased in the city. Twelve AM and FM radio stations schedule a complete range of music, news, information, and public interest features; one broadcasts performances by local cultural groups.

Media Information: The Toledo Blade Company, 541 N. Superior Street, Toledo, OH 43660; telephone 1-800-724-6000

Toledo Online

The Blade. Available www.toledoblade.com

City of Toledo Home Page. Available www.ci.toledo.oh.us/Homepage.html

Greater Toledo Convention and Visitors Bureau. Available www.toledocvb.com

Regional Growth Partnership. Available www.rgp.org

Toledo Area Chamber of Commerce. Available www.toledochamber.com

Toledo-Lucas County Public Library. Available www.library.toledo.oh.us

Selected Bibliography

Geha, Joseph, Through and Through: Toledo Stories (Saint Paul: Graywolf Press, 1990)

Jones, Marnie, Holy Toledo: Religion and Politics in the Life of 'Golden Rule' Jones (University Press of Kentucky, 1998)

Toledo Museum of Art et al. Toledo Treasures: Selections from the Toledo Museum of Art (Hudson Hills Press, 1995)

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Toledo

Toledo

Toledo: Introduction
Toledo: Geography and Climate
Toledo: History
Toledo: Population Profile
Toledo: Municipal Government
Toledo: Economy
Toledo: Education and Research
Toledo: Health Care
Toledo: Recreation
Toledo: Convention Facilities
Toledo: Transportation
Toledo: Communications

The City in Brief

Founded: 1817 (incorporated 1837)

Head Official: Mayor Jack Ford (since 2001)

City Population

1980: 354,635

1990: 332,943

2000: 313,619

2003 estimate: 298,242

Percent change, 19902000: -5.8%

U.S. rank in 1980: 40th

U.S. rank in 1990: Not reported

U.S. rank in 2000: 66th

Metropolitan Area Population

1980: 617,000

1990: 614,128

2000: 618,203

Percent change, 19902000: -0.7%

U.S. rank in 1980: 55th

U.S. rank in 1990: Not reported

U.S. rank in 2000: 69th

Area: 81 square miles (2000)

Elevation: 615 feet above sea level

Average Annual Temperature: 48.5° F

Average Annual Precipitation: 33 inches

Major Economic Sectors: Services, wholesale and retail trade, manufacturing, government

Unemployment Rate: 7.4% (March 2005)

Per Capita Income: $17,388 (1999)

2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 26,717

Major Colleges and Universities: University of Toledo;

Davis College; Stautzenberger College; Medical College of Ohio; Owens Community College

Daily Newspaper: The Toledo Blade

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Toledo: Transportation

Toledo: Transportation

Approaching the City

Toledo Express Airport is served by five commercial airlines providing direct and connecting flights to major cities throughout the United States. The airport also handles corporate and private aircraft. Additional general aviation services are available at Metcalf Field, operated by the Port Authority and located south of the city. Detroit Metropolitan Airport, less than an hour's drive from Toledo, is served by international as well as domestic flights.

A network of interstate, federal, and state highways facilitates access into and around the city and links Toledo to points in all sectors of the nation. Interstate 75 extends north through Michigan and south through Florida; the Ohio Turn-pike (I-80 and I-90) connects Toledo with the East and West Coasts. Other highways include U.S. 24, 25, 20, and 23.

Amtrak provides east-west rail service to Toledo plus daily service from Detroit. Greyhound and Trailways buses travel into the city.

Traveling in the City

Streets in the city of Toledo are laid out on a grid pattern; downtown streets are tilted on a northwest-southeast axis to conform to the Maumee River. Toledo's bus-based public transportation system, TARTA, schedules routes throughout the city and suburban areas. Boat, train, trolley, and horse-drawn carriage tours are available.

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Toledo: Convention Facilities

Toledo: Convention Facilities

The principal meeting and convention site in Toledo is the SeaGate Convention Centre, situated downtown one block from the Maumee River; connected to the convention center is the University of Toledo at SeaGate Center facility. When combined, the three-level complex features 75,000 square feet of multipurpose space, which can be divided into three separate halls, and 25 meeting rooms. Hotels and motels provide additional meeting space, accommodating groups ranging from 12 to 800 participants; more than 7,000 guest rooms are available in the greater Toledo area.

Convention Information: The Greater Toledo Convention and Visitors Bureau, 401 Jefferson Avenue, Toledo, OH 43604; telephone (419)321-6404; toll-free (800)243-4667. SeaGate Convention Center, 401 Jefferson Avenue, Toledo, OH 43604; telephone (419)255-3300

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Toledo: Health Care

Toledo: Health Care

Eight hospitals serve the metropolitan Toledo area with complete general, specialized, and surgical care. The largest facilities are Toledo Hospital, with 620 beds, and St. Vincent Mercy Medical Center, with 576 beds and Life Flight operations. Other hospitals include St. Anne Mercy Hospital, Flower Hospital, St. Charles Mercy Hospital, Riverside Medical College, Wood County, and St. Luke's. A valuable resource in the community is the Medical College of Ohio, which operates three hospitals and provides training for health care professionals. In 2000 the Medical College of Ohio Cancer Institute opened to provide patients with cutting-edge treatment while conducting cancer research at the molecular, cellular, and physiological levels. The Center also offers a specialty center for the treatment of breast cancer.

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Toledo: Introduction

Toledo: Introduction

Toledo, the seat of Ohio's Lucas County, is the focus of a metropolitan complex comprised of Ottawa Hills Maumee, Oregon, Sylvania, Perrysburg, and Rossford. The city played a strategic role in the War of 1812, after which the victorious Americans enjoyed unimpeded settlement of the Northwest Territory. The site of pioneer advancements in the glass-making industry, today Toledo continues to be headquarters of international glass companies. The Port of Toledo is a major Great Lakes shipping point. Toledo's commitment to arts, culture, education, and citywide revitalization has residents and city leaders looking toward a bright future.

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Toledo: Geography and Climate

Toledo: Geography and Climate

Toledo is located on the western end of Lake Erie at the mouth of the Maumee River, surrounded by generally level terrain. The soil is quite fertile, particularly along the Maumee Valley toward the Indiana state line. The proximity of Lake Erie moderates temperatures. Snowfall in Toledo is normally light.

Area: 81 square miles (2000)

Elevation: 615 feet above sea level

Average Temperatures: January, 22.5° F; July, 72.1° F; annual average, 48.5° F

Average Annual Precipitation: 33 inches

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Toledo: Municipal Government

Toledo: Municipal Government

The city of Toledo is administered by a strong-mayor form of government. The mayor and 12 council members are elected to four-year terms.

Head Official: Mayor Jack Ford (since 2001; current term expires 2005)

Total Number of City Employees: about 2,950 (2005)

City Information: City Hall, telephone (419)936-2020

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Toledo

Toledoforeshadow, shadow •Faldo •accelerando, bandeau, Brando, glissando, Orlando •eyeshadow •aficionado, amontillado, avocado, Bardo, Barnardo, bastinado, bravado, Colorado, desperado, Dorado, eldorado, incommunicado, Leonardo, Mikado, muscovado, Prado, renegado, Ricardo, stifado •commando •eddo, Edo, meadow •crescendo, diminuendo, innuendo, kendo •carbonado, dado, Feydeau, gambado, Oviedo, Toledo, tornado •aikido, bushido, credo, Guido, Ido, libido, lido, speedo, teredo, torpedo, tuxedo •widow • dildo • window •Dido, Fido, Hokkaidocondo, rondeau, rondo, secondo, tondo •Waldo •dodo, Komodo, Quasimodo •escudo, judo, ludo, pseudo, testudo, Trudeau •weirdo • sourdough • fricandeau •tournedos • Murdo

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