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Sydenham's Chorea

Sydenham's chorea

Definition

Sydenham's chorea is an acute but self-limited movement disorder that occurs most commonly in children between the ages of five and 15, and occasionally in pregnant women. It is closely associated with rheumatic fever following a throat infection. The disorder is named for Thomas Sydenham (16241689), an English doctor who first described it in 1686. Other names for Sydenham's chorea include simple chorea, chorea minor, acute chorea, rheumatic chorea, juvenile chorea, and St. Vitus' dance. The English word chorea itself comes from the Greek word choreia, which means "dance." The disorder takes its name from the rapid involuntary jerking or twitching movements of the patient's face, limbs, and upper body.

Description

Sydenham's chorea is best described as a neurologic complication of rheumatic fever triggered by a throat infection (pharyngitis) caused by particular strains of bacteria known as group A beta-hemolytic streptococci or as GAS bacteria. In general, streptococci are sphericalshaped anaerobic bacteria that occur in pairs or chains. GAS bacteria belong to a subcategory known as pyogenic streptococci, which means that the infections they cause produce pus.

The initial throat infection that leads to Sydenham's chorea is typically followed by a symptom-free period of one to five weeks. The patient then develops an acute case of rheumatic fever (ARF), an inflammatory disease that affects multiple organ systems and tissues of the body. In most patients, ARF is characterized by fever, arthritis in one or more joints, and carditis, or inflammation of the heart. In about 20% of patients, however, Sydenham's chorea is the only indication of ARF. Sydenham's is considered a delayed complication of rheumatic fever; it may begin as late as 12 months after the initial sore throat, and it may start only after the patient's temperature and other physical signs have returned to normal. The average time interval between the pharyngitis and the first symptoms of Sydenham's, however, is eight or nine weeks.

It is difficult to describe a typical case of Sydenham's chorea because the symptoms vary in speed of onset as well as severity. Most patients have an acute onset of the disorder, but in others, the onset is insidious, which means that the symptoms develop slowly and gradually. In some cases, the child's physical symptoms are present for four to five weeks before they become severe enough for the parents to consult a doctor. In other cases, emotional or psychiatric symptoms precede the clumsiness and involuntary muscular movements that characterize the disorder. The psychiatric symptoms that may develop in patients with Sydenham's chorea are one reason why it is sometimes categorized as a PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections) disorder.

Demographics

Both ARF and Sydenham's chorea are relatively un-common disorders in the United States. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), only 13% of people with streptococcal throat infections develop ARF; thus, the incidence of ARF in the United States is thought to be about 0.5 per 100,000 patients between five and 17 years of age.

In general, the incidence of Sydenham's chorea is lower in the developed countries than in others, largely because of the widespread use of antibiotics in these countries to treat childhood streptococcal infections in the 1960s and 1970s. In addition, the disorder appears to have been overdiagnosed in the past; whereas at one time doctors thought that as many as half of all patients with ARF developed Sydenham's, present reports estimate that about 26% of ARF patients develop chorea. On the other hand, however, there are signs that the incidence of rheumatic fever is rising again in the United States and Canada; since the late 1980s, outbreaks have been reported at military installations in California and Missouri as well as in various cities in Pennsylvania, Utah, and Ohio. It is thought that this increase is due to more virulent strains of group A streptococci.

With regard to age, the incidence of Sydenham's chorea is higher in childhood and adolescence than in adult life. It occurs more frequently in females than in males; the gender ratio is thought to be about two females to one male. Since the peak incidence of rheumatic fever in North America occurs in late winter and spring, Sydenham's chorea is more likely to occur in the summer and early fall. There is no evidence that the disorder selectively affects specific racial or ethnic groups.

About 20% of patients diagnosed with Sydenham's chorea experience a recurrence of the disorder, usually within two years of the first episode. Most women who develop Sydenham's during pregnancy have a history of ARF in childhood or of using birth control pills containing estrogen.

Causes and symptoms

The basic cause of Sydenham's chorea is infection with GAS bacteria, which are usually transmitted from person to person through large droplets produced by coughing or sneezing, or by direct contact. GAS bacteria can also be transmitted through contaminated food, most commonly eggs, milk, or milk products. The bacteria then invade the patient's upper respiratory tract, producing the sore throat that precedes the movement disorder.

The next stage in the development of Sydenham's chorea is an abnormal response of the patient's immune system to the streptococcal infection. Streptococcal antigens resemble nerve tissue antigens. In some people, the immune system produces antibodies against the streptococcal antigens that then cross-react against the tissues in certain regions of the brainspecifically, areas of the brain known as the basal ganglia. The basal ganglia are paired clusters of nerve cells that lie deep within the brain; they serve to regulate a person's movements, although they also play a role in governing emotions and certain aspects of thinking. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of patients with Sydenham's chorea indicate that the basal ganglia are abnormally large, suggesting that they have been affected by the inflammation caused by the infection.

Some people are at greater risk of developing Sydenham's chorea. The risk factors for the disorder include:

  • Living in crowded living conditions, inadequate sanitation, and malnutrition. Streptococcal infections are most common among the poor or homeless.
  • Genetic factors. Some families appear to be more susceptible to ARF, although no specific genes have been identified.
  • Female gender. Some researchers think there is a link between female sex hormones and susceptibility to Sydenham's, given that girls are more likely than boys to develop the disorder, particularly during puberty. In addition, women who are pregnant or have taken birth control pills containing estrogen are more likely to have recurrences of Sydenham's. The disorder is virtually un-known in sexually mature males.

PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS Although the speed of onset varies, patients with Sydenham's chorea develop rapid and purposeless involuntary motions or gestures that may involve all the muscles of the body, except those around the eyes. Most patients are affected on both sides of the body; however, about 20% have symptoms on only side of the body, a condition called hemichorea. The movements disappear during sleep, but usually become more severe when the child is tired or under stress. The patient's intentional movements such as picking up objects or writing by hand may become clumsy or uncoordinated; in addition, the muscles may become generally weak or lose their tone. In milder cases of Sydenham's, the patient may have only facial grimacing and some difficulty putting on clothes or doing other tasks that require fine coordination. In more severe cases, however, the patient's life may be disrupted by movements that affect large groups of muscles, preventing the patient from walking, going to school, or doing most daily activities.

PSYCHIATRIC SYMPTOMS As has been mentioned earlier, some children develop psychiatric symptoms associated with Sydenham's chorea before the physical symptoms appear. They may start acting unusually restless, aggressive, or hyperemotional. Behavioral or emotional disturbances that have been observed with the disorder include:

  • frequent mood changes
  • episodes of uncontrollable crying
  • behavioral regression, that is, acting like much younger children
  • mental confusion
  • general irritability
  • difficulty concentrating
  • impulsive behavior

The most common psychiatric syndrome observed in children with Sydenham's chorea, however, is obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). OCD is characterized by obsessions, which are unwanted recurrent thoughts, images, or impulses, and by compulsions, which are repetitive rituals, mental acts, or behaviors. Obsessions in children often take the form of fears of intruders or harm coming to a family member. Compulsions may include such acts as counting silently, washing the hands over and over, insisting on keeping items in a specific order, checking repeatedly to make sure a door is locked, and similar behaviors.

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of Sydenham's chorea is usually based on a combination of a recent history of a streptococcal infection and the doctor's observation of the patient's involuntary movements. Unlike tics, the movements associated with chorea are not repetitive, and unlike the behavior of hyperactive children, the movements are not intentional. The recent onset of the movements rules out a diagnosis of cerebral palsy . If Sydenham's is suspected, the physician may ask the patient to stick out the tongue and keep it in that position, or to squeeze the doctor's hand. Many patients with Sydenham's cannot hold their mouth open and keep the tongue out for more than a second or two. Another characteristic of Sydenham's is an inability to grip with a steady pressure; when the patient squeezes the doctor's hand, the strength of the grip will increase and decrease in an erratic fashion. This characteristic is sometimes called the "milking sign."

Although imaging studies are used by researchers to study Sydenham's chorea, they are not ordinarily used by themselves to diagnose the disorder. Blood tests may show elevated levels of antibodies against streptococcal bacteria, or the patient's throat culture may be positive, but more often these tests give negative results by the time the movement disorder develops.

Once the diagnosis has been made, the doctor will evaluate the patient's heart for any indications of damage caused by rheumatic fever. This evaluation includes listening for abnormal heart sounds through a stethoscope and taking x rays to determine whether the heart is enlarged. In some cases, the doctor may order an electrocardiogram (EKG) to assess any irregularities in the patient's heartbeat.

Treatment team

In most cases, a child with Sydenham's chorea will be examined and diagnosed by a pediatrician. A child or adolescent psychiatrist may be consulted if the patient has developed symptoms of OCD. Children with heart murmurs or other signs of carditis may be referred to a pediatric cardiologist for further evaluation.

Treatment

Adequate treatment of a streptococcal throat infection with antibiotics may help to prevent an attack of ARF or Sydenham's chorea.

If the chorea has already developed, most doctors do not advise treating the involuntary movements by themselves unless they are so severe that the child is disabled or at risk of self-injury. The reason for this precaution is that some of the recommended drugs, which are known as dopamine antagonists or neuroleptics, have potentially severe side effects. Dopamine antagonists include such medications as haloperidol (Haldol), risperidone (Risperdal), and pimozide (Orap). Some doctors may prescribe an anticonvulsant (antiseizure) drug, most commonly sodium valproate (Depakene), to lower the risk of injury. If the patient does not respond to the anticonvulsant, the child may be prescribed the lowest effective dose of a neuroleptic. Some doctors may prescribe a benzodiazepine tranquilizer like diazepam (Valium) or lorazepam (Ativan) to control the movements. Another type of drug that appears to help some patients with Sydenham's is corticosteroids, which are given to lower the inflammation associated with ARF.

Most doctors recommend ongoing treatment with penicillin to prevent a recurrence of ARF or Sydenham's chorea, although there is some disagreement as to whether this treatment should continue for five years after an acute attack or for the rest of the patient's life. The penicillin may be given orally or by injection. Patients who cannot take penicillin may be given erythromycin or sulfadiazine.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder is treated with a combination of psychotherapy (usually cognitive behavioral therapy, or CBT) and medications (usually selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or SSRIs).

Recovery and rehabilitation

Most patients with Sydenham's chorea recover after a period of bed rest and temporary limitation of normal activities. In most cases, the symptoms disappear gradually rather than stopping abruptly.

Clinical trials

As of early 2004, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is recruiting subjects for a study of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI ) in assessing brain structure and function in patients with childhood-onset psychiatric disorders. Sydenham's chorea, as well as other PANDAS disorders, is one of the conditions included in the study.

Prognosis

Sydenham's chorea is a self-limiting disorder that usually runs its course within one to six months, although it occasionally lasts as long as one to two years. In most cases, the patient recovers completely, although the disorder may recur. In a very few casesabout 1.5% of patients diagnosed with Sydenham'sthere may be increasing muscle stiffness and loss of muscle tone resulting in disability. This condition is occasionally referred to as paralytic chorea.

Special concerns

Many doctors recommend that children with Sydenham's chorea should not be kept out of school longer than is necessary. Some of the psychological side effects that were once thought to be caused by the chorea itself are now regarded as the result of missing school combined with worry about other people's reactions to the involuntary movements.

Resources

BOOKS

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 2000.

Martin, John H. Neuroanatomy: Text and Atlas, 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

"Sydenham's Chorea (Chorea Minor; Rheumatic Fever; St. Vitus' Dance)." Section 19, Chapter 271 in The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, edited by Mark H. Beers, MD, and Robert Berkow, MD. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck Research Laboratories, 2002.

PERIODICALS

Arnold, P. D., and M. A. Richter. "Is Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder an Autoimmune Disease?" Canadian Medical Association Journal/Journal de l'association médicale canadienne 165 (November 13, 2001): 13531358.

Bonthius, D. J., and B. Karacay. "Sydenham's Chorea: Not Gone and Not Forgotten." Seminars in Pediatric Neurology 10 (March 2003): 1119.

Cardoso, F., D. Maia, M. C. Cunningham, and G. Valenca. "Treatment of Sydenham Chorea with Corticosteroids." Movement Disorders 18 (November 2003): 13741377.

Caviness, John M., MD. "Primary Care Guide to Myoclonus and Chorea." Postgraduate Medicine 108 (October 2000): 163172.

Church, A. J., F. Cardoso, R. C. Dale, et al. "Anti-Basal Ganglia Antibodies in Acute and Persistent Sydenham's Chorea." Neurology 59 (July 23, 2002): 227231.

Herrera, Maria Alejandra, MD, and Nestor Galvez-Jiminez, MD. "Chorea in Adults." eMedicine 1 February 2002 (April 27, 2004). <http://www.emedicine.com/neuro/topic62.htm>.

Snider, L. A., and S. E. Swedo. "Post-Streptococcal Autoimmune Disorders of the Central Nervous System." Current Opinion in Neurology 16 (June 2003): 359365.

OTHER

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP). AACAP Facts for Families, No. 60. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents. (April 27, 2004). <http://www.aacap.org/publications/factsfam/ocd.htm>.

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). NINDS Sydenham Chorea Information Page. (April 27, 2004). <http://www.ninds.nih.gov/health_and_medical/disorders/sydenham.htm>.

ORGANIZATIONS

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP). 3615 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20016-3007. (202) 966-7300; Fax: (202) 966-2891. <http://www.aacap.org>.

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892. (301) 496-5751 or (800) 352-9424. <http://www.ninds.nih.gov>.

National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD). P. O. Box 1968, Danbury, CT 06813-1968. (203) 744-0100 or (800) 999-NORD; Fax: (203) 798-2291. orphan@rarediseases.org. <http://www.rarediseases.org>.

WE MOVEWorldwide Education and Awareness for Movement Disorders. 204 West 84th Street, New York, NY 10024. (212) 875-8389 or (800) 437-MOV2. wemove@wemove.org. <http://www.wemove.org>.

Rebecca J. Frey, PhD

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Sydenham's Chorea

Sydenham's Chorea

Definition

Sydenham's chorea is an acute but self-limited movement disorder that occurs most commonly in children between the ages of 5 and 15, and occasionally in pregnant women. It is closely associated with rheumatic fever following a throat infection. The disorder is named for Thomas Sydenham (16241689), an English doctor who first described it in 1686. Other names for Sydenham's chorea include simple chorea, chorea minor, acute chorea, rheumatic chorea, juvenile chorea, and St. Vitus' dance. The English word "chorea" itself comes from the Greek word choreia, which means "dance." The disorder takes its name from the rapid involuntary jerking or twitching movements of the patient's face, limbs, and upper body.

Description

Sydenham's chorea is a disorder that occurs in children and is associated with rheumatic fever. Rheumatic fever is an acute infectious disease caused by certain types of streptococci bacteria. It usually starts with strep throat or tonsillitis. These types of streptococci are able to cause disease throughout the body. The most serious damage caused by rheumatic fever is to the valves in the heart. At one time, rheumatic fever was the most common cause of damaged heart valves, and it still is in most developing countries around the world. Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease are still present in the industrialized countries, but the incidence has dropped substantially.

Both acute rheumatic fever and Sydenham's chorea are relatively uncommon disorders in the United States as of 2004. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), only 1%-3% of people with streptococcal throat infections develop acute rheumatic fever (ARF); thus the incidence of ARF in the United States is thought to be about 0.5 per 100,000 patients between 5 and 17 years of age.

With regard to age, the incidence of Sydenham's chorea is higher in childhood and adolescence than in adult life. It occurs more frequently in females than in males; the gender ratio is thought to be about 2 F: 1 M. Since the peak incidence of rheumatic fever in North America occurs in late winter and spring, Sydenham's chorea is more likely to occur in the summer and early fall. There is no evidence as of 2004 that the disorder selectively affects specific racial or ethnic groups.

Rheumatic fever may appear in several different forms. Sydenham's chorea is one of five major criteria for the diagnosis of rheumatic fever. There are also four minor criteria and two types of laboratory tests associated with the disease. The "Jones criteria" define the diagnosis. They require laboratory evidence of a streptococcal infection plus two or more of the criteria. The laboratory evidence may be identification of streptococci from a sore throat or antibodies to streptococcus in the blood. The most common criteria are arthritis and heart disease, occurring in half to three-quarters of the patients. Sydenham's chorea, characteristic nodules under the skin, and a specific type of skin rash occur only 10% of the time.

About 20% of patients diagnosed with Sydenham's chorea experience a recurrence of the disorder, usually within two years of the first episode. Most women who develop Sydenham's during pregnancy have a history of acute rheumatic fever in childhood or of using birth control pills containing estrogen.

Causes and symptoms

Sydenham's is caused by certain types of streptococci called Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci or GAS bacteria. In general, streptococci are sphericalshaped anaerobic bacteria that occur in pairs or chains. GAS bacteria belong to a subcategory known as pyogenic streptococci, which means that the infections they cause produce pus. These particular germs seem to be able to create an immune response that attacks the body's own tissues along with the germs. Those tissues are joints, heart valves, skin, and brain.

The initial throat infection that leads to Sydenham's chorea is typically followed by a symptom-free period of 1-5 weeks. The patient then develops an acute case of rheumatic fever (ARF), an inflammatory disease that affects multiple organ systems and tissues of the body. In most patients, ARF is characterized by fever, arthritis in one or more joints, and carditis, or inflammation of the heart. In about 20% of patients, however, Sydenham's chorea is the only indication of ARF. Sydenham's is considered a delayed complication of rheumatic fever; it may begin as late as 12 months after the initial sore throat, and it may start only after the patient's temperature and other physical signs have returned to normal. The average time interval between the pharyngitis and the first symptoms of Sydenham's, however, is eight or nine weeks.

It is difficult to describe a "typical" case of Sydenham's chorea because the symptoms vary in speed of onset as well as severity. Most patients have an acute onset of the disorder, but in others, the onset is insidious, which means that the symptoms develop slowly and gradually. In some cases, the child's physical symptoms are present for four to five weeks before they become severe enough for the parents to consult a doctor. In other cases, emotional or psychiatric symptoms precede the clumsiness and involuntary muscular movements that characterize the disorder. The psychiatric symptoms that may develop in patients with Sydenham's chorea are one reason why it is sometimes categorized as a PANDAS disorder. PANDAS stands for Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections.

Behavioral or emotional disturbances that have been observed with Sydenham's include:

  • frequent mood changes
  • episodes of uncontrollable crying
  • behavioral regression; that is, acting like much younger children
  • mental confusion
  • general irritability
  • difficulty concentrating
  • impulsive behavior

Some researchers think that children who have had Sydenham's are at increased risk of developing obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). OCD is characterized by obsessions, which are unwanted recurrent thoughts, images, or impulses, and by compulsions, which are repetitive rituals, mental acts, or behaviors. Obsessions in children often take the form of fears of intruders or harm coming to a family member. Compulsions may include such acts as counting silently, washing the hands over and over, insisting on keeping items in a specific order, checking repeatedly to make sure a door is locked, and similar behaviors.

Diagnosis

Because rheumatic fever is such a damaging disease, a complete evaluation should be done whenever it is suspected. This includes cultures for streptococci, blood tests, and usually an electrocardiogram (heartbeat mapping to detect abnormalities).

The diagnosis of Sydenham's is also based on the doctor's observation of the patient's involuntary movements. Unlike tics, the movements associated with chorea are not repetitive; and unlike the behavior of hyperactive children, the movements are not intentional. The recent onset of the movements rules out a diagnosis of cerebral palsy. If the doctor suspects Sydenham's, he or she may ask the patient to stick out the tongue and keep it in that position, or to squeeze the doctor's hand. Many patients with Sydenham's cannot hold their mouth open and keep the tongue out for more than a second or two. Another characteristic of Sydenham's is an inability to grip with a steady pressure; when the patient squeezes the doctor's hand, the strength of the grip will increase and decrease in an erratic fashion. This characteristic is sometimes called the "milking sign."

Treatment

Suspected streptococcal infections must be treated. All the other manifestations of rheumatic fever, including Sydenham's chorea and excluding heart valve damage, remit with the acute disease and do not require treatment. Sydenham's chorea generally lasts for several months.

Most patients with Sydenham's chorea recover after a period of bed rest and temporary limitation of normal activities. In most cases the symptoms disappear gradually rather than stopping abruptly.

Most doctors recommend ongoing treatment with penicillin to prevent a recurrence of rheumatic fever or Sydenham's chorea, although there is some disagreement as to whether this treatment should continue for 5 years after an acute attack or for the rest of the patient's life. The penicillin may be given orally or by injection. Patients who cannot take penicillin may be given erythromycin or sulfadiazine.

Prognosis

Syndenham's chorea usually clears up without complications when the rheumatic fever is treated. The heart valve damage associated with rheumatic fever may lead to heart trouble and require a surgical valve repair or replacement.

In most cases of Sydenham's, the patient recovers completely, although a recurrence is possible. In a very few casesabout 1.5% of patients diagnosed with Sydenham'sthere may be increasing muscle stiffness and loss of muscle tone resulting in disability. This condition is occasionally referred to as paralytic chorea

Prevention

All cases of strep throat in children should be treated with a full 10 days of antibiotics (penicillin or erythromycin). Treatment may best be delayed a day or two to allow the body to build up its own antibodies. In addition, for those who have had an episode of rheumatic fever or have damaged heart valves from any other cause, prophylactic antibiotics should be continued to prevent recurrence.

KEY TERMS

Arthralgia Joint pain.

Chorea A term that is used to refer to rapid, jerky, involuntary movements of the limbs or face that characterize several different disorders of the nervous system, including chorea of pregnancy and Huntington's chorea as well as Sydenham's chorea.

Electrocardiogram Mapping the electrical activity of the heart.

Insidious Developing in a stealthy or gradual manner. Sydenham's chorea may have an insidious onset.

PANDAS disorders A group of childhood disorders associated with such streptococcal infections as scarlet fever and "strep throat." The acronym stands for Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections. Sydenham's chorea is considered a PANDAS disorder.

Pharyngitis Inflammation of the throat, accompanied by dryness and pain. Pharyngitis caused by a streptococcal infection is the usual trigger of Sydenham's chorea.

Rheumatic fever Chiefly childhood disease marked by fever, inflammation, joint pain, and Syndenham's chorea. It is often recurrent and can lead to heart valve damage.

St. Vitus' dance Another name for Sydenham's chorea. St. Vitus was a fourth-century martyr who became the patron saint of dancers and actors during the Middle Ages. He was also invoked for protection against nervous disorders, epilepsy, and the disease that bears his name.

Streptococcus (plural, streptococci) A genus of spherical-shaped anaerobic bacteria occurring in pairs or chains. Sydenham's chorea is considered a complication of a streptococcal throat infection.

Tonsillitis Inflammation of the tonsils, which are in the back of the throat.

It is possible to eradicate dangerous GAS bacteria from a community by culturing everyone's throat and treating everyone who tests positive. This is worth doing wherever a case of rheumatic fever appears, but it is expensive and requires many resources.

Resources

BOOKS

Beers, Mark H., MD, and Robert Berkow, MD., editors. "Sydenham's Chorea (Chorea Minor; Rheumatic Fever; St. Vitus' Dance)." In The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck Research Laboratories, 2004.

PERIODICALS

Bhidayasiri, R., and D. D. Truong. "Chorea and Related Disorders." Postgraduate Medical Journal 80 (September 2004): 527-534.

Bonthius, D. J., and B. Karacay. "Sydenham's Chorea: Not Gone and Not Forgotten." Seminars in Pediatric Neurology 10 (March 2003): 11-19.

Dale, R. C., I. Heyman, R. A. Surtees, et al. "Dyskinesias and Associated Psychiatric Disorders following Streptococcal Infections." Archives of Disease in Childhood 89 (July 2004): 604-610.

Herrera, Maria Alejandra, MD, and Nestor GalvezJiminez, MD. "Chorea in Adults." eMedicine February 1, 2002. http://www.emedicine.com/neuro/topic62.htm.

Kim, S. W., J. E. Grant, S. I. Kim, et al. "A Possible Association of Recurrent Streptococcal Infections and Acute Onset of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder." Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 16 (Summer 2004): 252-260.

Korn-Lubetzki, I., A. Brand, and I. Steiner. "Recurrence of Sydenham Chorea: Implications for Pathogenesis." Archives of Neurology 61 (August 2004): 1261-1264.

Snider, L. A., and S. E. Swedo. "Post-Streptococcal Autoimmune Disorders of the Central Nervous System." Current Opinion in Neurology 16 (June 2003): 359-365.

ORGANIZATIONS

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP). 3615 Wisconsin Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20016-3007. (202) 966-7300. Fax: (202) 966-2891. http://www.aacap.org.

American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP). 11400 Tomahawk Creek Parkway, Leawood, KS 66211-2672. (800) 274-2237 or (913) 906-6000. lt;http://www.aafp.org.

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). NIH Neurological Institute, P. O. Box 5801, Bethesda, MD 20824. (800) 352-9424 or (301) 496-5751. http://www.ninds.nih.gov.

OTHER

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP). AACAP Facts for Families, No. 60. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents. http://www.aacap.org/publications/factsfam/ocd.htm.

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). NINDS Sydenham Chorea Information Page. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/health_and_medical/disorders/sydenham.htm.

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Polsdorfer, J.; Frey, Rebecca. "Sydenham's Chorea." Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, 3rd ed.. 2006. Retrieved August 28, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3451601570.html

Sydenham's chorea

Sydenham's chorea (sid-ĕn-ămz) n. see chorea. [ T. Sydenham (1624–89), English physician]

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Sydenham's chorea

Sydenham's chorea: see chorea.

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