Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale

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Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale

Definition

The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale: Fourth Edition (SB: FE) is a standardized test that measures intelligence and cognitive abilities in children and adults, from age two through mature adulthood.

Purpose

The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale was originally developed to help place children in appropriate educational settings. It can help determine the level of intellectual and cognitive functioning in preschoolers, children, adolescents and adults, and assist in the diagnosis of a learning disability, developmental delay, mental retardation , or giftedness. It is used to provide educational planning and placement, neuropsychological assessment, and research. The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale is generally administered in a school or clinical setting.

Precautions

The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale is considered to be one of the best and most widely used intelligence tests available. It is especially useful in providing intellectual assessment in young children, adolescents, and young adults. The test has been criticized for not being comparable for all age ranges. This is because different age ranges are administered different subtests. Additionally, for very young preschoolers, it is not uncommon to receive a score of zero due to test difficulty or the child's unwillingness to cooperate. Consequently, it is difficult to discriminate abilities in this age group among the lower scorers.

Administration and interpretation of results of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale requires a competent examiner who is trained in psychology and individual intellectual assessment, preferably a psychologist .

Description

The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale has a rich history. It is a descendant of the Binet-Simon scale which was developed in 1905 and became the first intelligence test. The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale was developed in 1916 and was revised in 1937, 1960, and 1986. The present edition was published in 1986. The Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale is currently being revised and the Fifth Edition is expected to be available in the spring of 2003.

Administration of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale typically takes between 45 to 90 minutes, but can take as long as two hours, 30 minutes. The older the child and the more subtests administered, the longer the test generally takes to complete. The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale is comprised of four cognitive area scores which together determine the composite score and factor scores. These area scores include: Verbal Reasoning, Abstract/Visual Reasoning, Quantitative Reasoning, and Short-Term Memory. The composite score is considered to be what the authors call the best estimate of "g" or "general reasoning ability" and is the sum of all of subtest scores. General reasoning ability or "g" is considered to represent a person's ability to solve novel problems. The composite score is a global estimate of a person's intellectual functioning.

The test consists of 15 subtests, which are grouped into the four area scores. Not all subtests are administered to each age group; but six subtests are administered to all age levels. These subtests are: Vocabulary, Comprehension, Pattern Analysis, Quantitative, Bead Memory, and Memory for Sentences. The number of tests administered and general test difficulty is adjusted based on the test taker's age and performance on the sub-test that measures word knowledge. The subtest measuring word knowledge is given to all test takers and is the first subtest administered.

The following is a review of the specific cognitive abilities that the four area scores measure. The Verbal Reasoning area score measures verbal knowledge and understanding obtained from the school and home learning environment and reflects the ability to apply verbal skills to new situations. Examples of subtests comprising this factor measure skills which include: word knowledge, social judgment and awareness, ability to isolate the inappropriate feature in visual material and social intelligence, and the ability to differentiate essential from non-essential detail.

The Abstract/Visual Reasoning area score examines the ability to interpret and perform mathematic operations, the ability to visualize patterns, visual/motor skills, and problem-solving skills through the use of reasoning. An example of a subtest which determines the Abstract/Visual Reasoning score is a timed test that involves tasks such as completing a basic puzzle and replicating black and white cube designs.

The Quantitative Reasoning area score measures: numerical reasoning, concentration, and knowledge and application of numerical concepts. The Quantitative Reasoning area is combined with the Abstract/Visual Reasoning area score to create an Abstract/Visual Reasoning Factor Score.

The Short-Term Memory score measures concentration skills, short-term memory, and sequencing skills. Subtests comprising this area score measure visual short-term memory and auditory short term memory involving both sentences and number sequences. In one subtest that measures visual short-term memory, the participant is presented with pictures of a bead design, and asked to replicate it from memory.

Results

The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale is a standardized test, which means that a large sample of children and adults were administered the exam as a means of developing test norms. The population in the sample was representative of the population of the United States based on age, gender, race or ethnic group, geographic region, community size, parental education, educational placement (normal versus special classes), etc. From this sample, norms were established. Norms are the performance of a comparison group of subjectsthat nature of the group should be specified, and this usually constitutes a normal group so that the performance of the tested individual can be compared to this group and thus evaluated.

The numbers of correct responses on the given subtests are converted to a SAS score or Standard Age Score which is based on the chronological age of the test subject. This score is similar to an I.Q. score. Based on these norms, the Area Scores and Test Composite on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale each have a mean or average score of 100 and a standard deviation of 16. For this test, as with most measures of intelligence, a score of 100 is in the normal or average range. The standard deviation indicates how above or below the norm a child's score is. For example, a score of 84 is one standard deviation below the norm score of 100. Based on the number of correct responses on a given subtest, an age-equivalent is available to help interpret the person's level of functioning.

Test scores provide an estimate of the level at which a child is functioning based on a combination of many different subtests or measures of skills. A trained psychologist is needed to evaluate and interpret the results, determine strengths and weaknesses, and make overall recommendations based on the findings and observed behavioral observations.

Resources

BOOKS

Sattler, Jerome. Assessment of Children. 3rd Edition. San Diego, CA, Jerome Sattler, Publisher Inc. 1992.

PERIODICALS

Caruso, J. "Reliable Component Analysis of the Stanford-Binet: Fourth Edition for 26-Year Olds." Psychological Assessment 13, no. 2. (2001): 827840.

Grunau, R., M. Whitfield, and J. Petrie. "Predicting IQ of Biologically 'At Risk' Children from Age 3 to School Entry." Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 21, no. 6 (2000): 401407.

ORGANIZATIONS

The American Psychological Association. 750 First St., NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242. (202) 336-5500 <www.apa.org>.

The National Association of School Psychologists. 4340 East West Highway, Suite 402, Bethesda, MD 20814. (301) 657-0270. <www.nasponline.com>.

Jenifer P. Marom, Ph.D.

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Marom, Jenifer P.. "Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale." Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders. 2003. Encyclopedia.com. 1 Oct. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

Marom, Jenifer P.. "Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale." Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders. 2003. Encyclopedia.com. (October 1, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3405700368.html

Marom, Jenifer P.. "Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale." Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders. 2003. Retrieved October 01, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3405700368.html

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales

Stanford-Binet intelligence scales

Definition

The Stanford-Binet intelligence scale is a standardized test that assesses intelligence and cognitive abilities in children, beginning at age two, and in adults.

Purpose

The Stanford-Binet intelligence scale is used as a tool in school placement, in determining the presence of a learning disability or a developmental delay , and in tracking intellectual development. In addition, it is sometimes included in neuropsychological testing to assess the brain function of individuals with neurological impairments.

Description

The Stanford-Binet intelligence scale is a direct descendent of the Binet-Simon scale, the first intelligence scale created in 1905 by psychologist Alfred Binet (18571911) and Theophilus Simon. Lewis Terman (18771956) published the Stanford-Binet scale initially in 1916. As of 2004, the scale had been revised five timesin 1937, 1960 (with a scoring change of this version in 1973), 1986, and 2003.

Beginning with the fourth revision (1986), the test underwent design changes to include a larger, more diverse, representative sample in order to minimize the gender and racial inequities that had been criticized in earlier versions of the test. Originally designed for children only, with the fifth edition (2003) the Stanford-Binet can be used on anyone older than two years of age.

The Stanford-Binet scale tests intelligence across six areas: general intelligence, knowledge, fluid reasoning, quantitative reasoning, visual-spatial processing, and working memory. These areas are covered by ten subtests that include activities measuring both verbal and non-verbal intelligence. Activities include verbal absurdities, picture absurdities, verbal analogies, form patterns, procedural knowledge, sentence and word memory, position and direction, early reasoning, and quantitative reasoning.

All test subjects take two initial routing tests: a vocabulary test and a matrices test (which assesses non-verbal reasoning). The results of these tests, along with the subject's age, determines the number and level of subtests to be administered.

Total testing time is around 45 to 60 minutes, depending on the child's age and the number of subtests given. Raw scores are based on the number of items answered and are converted into a standard age score corresponding to age group, similar to an IQ measure.

Precautions

Intelligence testing requires a clinically trained examiner. The Stanford-Binet intelligence scale should be administered, scored, and interpreted by a trained professional, preferably a psychologist.

Children with physical disabilities may require certain accommodations when taking the test, such as extra time for tasks, rest breaks, or instructions received in an alternate format (e.g., signing for a deaf child). The examiner should be made aware of a child's potential limitations before the day of the test so that appropriate accommodations are available.

Normal results

Scoring for the Stanford-Binet generates a verbal IQ score (VIQ), a non-verbal IQ score (NIQ), and a full-scale IQ (FSIQ). It is a standardized test, meaning that norms are established during the design phase of the test by administering the test to a large, representative sample of the test population (in the case of the fifth edition, data from the 2000 U.S. census were used). The test has a mean, or average, standard score of 100 and a standard deviation of 15 for composite scores (subtests have a mean of 10 and a standard deviation of 3). The standard deviation indicates how far above or below the norm the subject's score is. For example, an eight-year-old is assessed with the Stanford-Binet scale and achieves a standard age score of 115. The mean score of 100 is the average level at which all eight-year-olds in the representative sample performed. This child's score would be one standard deviation above that norm.

While standard age scores provide a reference point for evaluation, they represent an average of a variety of skill areas. A trained psychologist evaluates and interprets an individual's performance on the scale's subtests to discover strengths and weaknesses and offer recommendations based upon these findings.

Parental concerns

Test anxiety can have a negative impact on a child's performance, so parents should attempt to take the stress off their child by making sure they understand that it is the effort and attention they give the test, not the final score, that matters. Parents can also ensure that their children are well-rested on the testing day and have a nutritious meal beforehand.

KEY TERMS

Norms A fixed or ideal standard; a normative or mean score for a particular age group.

Representative sample A random sample of people that adequately represents the test-taking population in age, gender, race, and socioeconomic standing.

Standard deviation A measure of the distribution of scores around the average (mean). In a normal distribution, two standard deviations above and below the mean includes about 95% of all samples.

Standardization The process of determining established norms and procedures for a test to act as a standard reference point for future test results.

Resources

BOOKS

Maddox, Taddy. Tests: A Comprehensive Reference for Assessments in Psychology, Education, and Business,5th ed. Austin, TX: Pro-ed, 2003.

Wortham, Sue. Assessment in Early Childhood Education,4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2004.

PERIODICALS

Becker, K. A. "History of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales: Content and Psychometrics." Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition Assessment Service Bulletin, no. 1. Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing, 2003.

Braden, Jeffery P., and Stephen N. Elliott. "Accommodations on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th edition." In Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition Assessment Service Bulletin, no. 2. Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing, 2003.

ORGANIZATIONS

American Psychological Association (APA). 750 First St. NE, Washington, DC 200024242. Web site: <www.apa.org>.

WEB SITES

Riverside Publishing. Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, 5th ed. Available online at <www.riverpub.com/products/clinical/sbis5/home.html> (accessed October 30, 2004).

Paula Ford-Martin

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Ford-Martin, Paula. "Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales." Gale Encyclopedia of Children's Health: Infancy through Adolescence. 2006. Encyclopedia.com. 1 Oct. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

Ford-Martin, Paula. "Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales." Gale Encyclopedia of Children's Health: Infancy through Adolescence. 2006. Encyclopedia.com. (October 1, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3447200538.html

Ford-Martin, Paula. "Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales." Gale Encyclopedia of Children's Health: Infancy through Adolescence. 2006. Retrieved October 01, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3447200538.html

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales

Definition

The Stanford-Binet intelligence scale is a standardized test that assesses intelligence and cognitive abilities in children and adults aged two to 23.

Purpose

The Stanford-Binet intelligence scale is used as a tool in school placement, in determining the presence of a learning disability or a developmental delay, and in tracking intellectual development. In addition, it is sometimes included in neuropsychological testing to assess the brain function of individuals with neurological impairments.

Precautions

Although the Stanford-Binet was developed for children as young as two, examiners should be cautious in using the test to screen very young children for developmental delays or disabilities. The test cannot be used to diagnose mental retardation in children aged three and under, and the scoring design may not detect developmental problems in preschool-age children.

Intelligence testing requires a clinically trained examiner. The Stanford-Binet intelligence scale should be administered and interpreted by a trained professional, preferably a psychologist.

Description

The Stanford-Binet intelligence scale is a direct descendent of the Binet-Simon scale, the first intelligence scale created in 1905 by psychologist Alfred Binet and Dr. Theophilus Simon. This revised edition, released in 1986, was designed with a larger, more diverse, representative sample to minimize the gender and racial inequities that had been criticized in earlier versions of the test.

The Stanford-Binet scale tests intelligence across four areas: verbal reasoning, quantitative reasoning, abstract/visual reasoning, and short-term memory. The areas are covered by 15 subtests, including vocabulary, comprehension, verbal absurdities, pattern analysis, matrices, paper folding and cutting, copying, quantitative, number series, equation building, memory for sentences, memory for digits, memory for objects, and bead memory.

All test subjects take an initial vocabulary test, which along with the subject's age, determines the number and level of subtests to be administered. Total testing time is 45-90 minutes, depending on the subject's age and the number of subtests given. Raw scores are based on the number of items answered, and are converted into a standard age score corresponding to age group, similar to an IQ measure.

The 1997 Medicare reimbursement rate for psychological and neuropsychological testing, including intelligence testing, is $58.35 an hour. Billing time typically includes test administration, scoring and interpretation, and reporting. Many insurance plans cover all or a portion of diagnostic psychological testing.

Normal results

The Stanford-Binet is a standardized test, meaning that norms were established during the design phase of the test by administering the test to a large, representative sample of the test population. The test has a mean, or average, standard score of 100 and a standard deviation of 16 (subtests have a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 8). The standard deviation indicates how far above or below the norm the subject's score is. For example, an eight-year-old is assessed with the Stanford-Binet scale and achieves a standard age score of 116. The mean score of 100 is the average level at which all eight-year-olds in the representative sample performed. This child's score would be one standard deviation above that norm.

While standard age scores provide a reference point for evaluation, they represent an average of a variety of skill areas. A trained psychologist will evaluate and interpret an individual's performance on the scale's subtests to discover strengths and weaknesses and offer recommendations based upon these findings.

Resources

ORGANIZATIONS

American Psychological Association (APA). 750 First St. NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242. (202) 336-5700. ttp://www.apa.org.

KEY TERMS

Norms Normative or mean score for a particular age group.

Representative sample A random sample of people that adequately represents the test-taking population in age, gender, race, and socioeconomic standing.

Standard deviation A measure of the distribution of scores around the average (mean). In a normal distribution, two standard deviations above and below the mean includes about 95% of all samples.

Standardization The process of determining established norms and procedures for a test to act as a standard reference point for future test results. The Stanford-Binet test was standardized on a national representative sample of 5,000 subjects.

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Ford-Martin, Paula. "Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales." Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, 3rd ed.. 2006. Encyclopedia.com. 1 Oct. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

Ford-Martin, Paula. "Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales." Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, 3rd ed.. 2006. Encyclopedia.com. (October 1, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3451601533.html

Ford-Martin, Paula. "Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales." Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, 3rd ed.. 2006. Retrieved October 01, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3451601533.html

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales

Stanford-Binet intelligence scales

The oldest and most influential intelligence test, devised in 1916 by Stanford psychologist Lewis Terman.

Consisting of questions and short tasks arranged from easy to difficult, the Stanford-Binet measures a wide variety of verbal and nonverbal skills. Its fifteen tests are divided into the following four cognitive areas:1) verbal reasoning (vocabulary, comprehension, absurdities, verbal relations); 2) quantitative reasoning (math, number series, equation building); 3) abstract/visual reasoning (pattern analysis, matrices, paper folding and cutting, copying); and 4) short-term memory (memory for sentences, digits, and objects, and bead memory). While the child's attitude and behavior during the test are noted, they are not used to determine the result, which is arrived at by converting a single raw score for the entire test to a figure indicating "mental age" (the average age of a child achieving that score). A formula is then used to arrive at the intelligence quotient, or I.Q. An I.Q. of 100 means that the child's chronological and mental ages match. Traditionally, I.Q. scores of 90-109 are considered average, scores below 70 indicate mental retardation . Gifted children achieve scores of 140 or above. Most recently revised in 1986, the Stanford-Binet intelligence test can be used with children from age two, as well as with adults. Although some of its concepts such as mental age and intelligence quotientare being questioned, the test is still widely used to assess cognitive development and often to determine placement in special education classes.

See also Terman, Lewis; Wechsler Intelligence Scales.

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"Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales." Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. 2001. Retrieved October 01, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3406000618.html

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test

Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test The most widely used intelligence test for measuring the mental skills of children. Binet was the principal author of the original test, designed to identify those French schoolchildren who were in need of special education, in the early twentieth century. He compared the performance of each child with what was average or normal for his or her age. Researchers at Stanford University in the United States later adapted the test, linking it to the concept of an intelligence quotient (IQ), and standardizing test scores around an average IQ of 100. These scores express the alleged intelligence of each child relative to his or her peers in the population. Because they are standardized, it is possible to compare the performance of children in different age-bands, or the same child across time. The items in the test have been subject to periodic revision to allow for socio-economic and cultural change.

A number of other similar intelligence tests are also now in use. However, all such instruments have been subject to criticisms of cultural, class, racial, or sexual bias, and the whole area of intelligence testing remains highly controversial, in both academic and political circles.

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GORDON MARSHALL. "Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test." A Dictionary of Sociology. 1998. Encyclopedia.com. 1 Oct. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

GORDON MARSHALL. "Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test." A Dictionary of Sociology. 1998. Encyclopedia.com. (October 1, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O88-StanfordBinetIntellgncTst.html

GORDON MARSHALL. "Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test." A Dictionary of Sociology. 1998. Retrieved October 01, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O88-StanfordBinetIntellgncTst.html

Stanford-Binet scale

Stanford-Binet scale Most commonly used English-language aptitude test for measuring children's IQ. It was formulated (1916) at Stanford University, California.

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"Stanford-Binet scale." World Encyclopedia. 2005. Encyclopedia.com. 1 Oct. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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