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Springfield: Recreation

Springfield: Recreation

Sightseeing

Springfield, the birthplace of basketball, is the home of the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame, an international shrine honoring the creator of the game, its players, and its coaches. The Hall of Fame features a cinema that places the visitor in the midst of an exciting game, a chance to shoot hoops from a moving walkway, and a locker-room filled with memorabilia of the stars.

Springfield is also the site of the Springfield Armory National Historic Site, where General George Washington established the Springfield Armory in 1794. While the arsenal itself closed in 1968, a large firearms museum is now housed there, one of the most extensive collections of weapons in the world.

The Indian Motorcycle Museum and Hall of Fame celebrates the birthplace of the motorcycle and its manufacture by the Indian Company. In addition to vintage motorcycles, on display are other Indian products such as airplane engines, outboard boat motors, lawnmowers, street cleaners, and snowmobiles.

Among Springfield's historic areas are the McKnight District, whose 900 Victorian homes rank it as the largest of its type in New England; Mattoon Street, with its brick row houses and gas lamps; Sterns Square, a small park resulting from the collaboration of sculptor Augustus St. Gaudens and architect Stanford White; and Court Square, a part of the Massachusetts Heritage State Park Program. New England village life comes alive at Storrowton Village Museum in West Springfield.

Forest Park, an idyllic refuge within the city, mixes recreational offerings with a zoo, an amphitheater, paddleboats, and a miniature train ride. Riverfront Park was established in 1978 to promote recreational use of the Connecticut River. Peter Pan now runs hour-long narrated river cruises from the park from May through October.

Flanking the Court Street Square in downtown Springfield are the City Hall, boasting Corinthian columns and 27 varieties of marble, and the Campanile, a 300-foot carillon bell tower. The Campanile and City Hall are part of the Municipal Group, which also includes Symphony Hall.

Arts and Culture

Springfield's major performing arts centers are the Springfield Civic Center, Symphony Hall, and the CityStage. The Civic Center is the site of touring concert and musical performances throughout the year; it is undergoing a renovation that will transform it into the MassMutual Center. Symphony Hall, dedicated in 1913 and renowned for its acoustics and ornate architecture, is home to the Springfield Symphony Orchestra. This symphony, the city's resident professional performing and educational group, also performs at area parks in the summer; among its repertoire are classical, chamber, opera, and popular pieces. CityStage is a professional, not-for-profit theater that hosts a variety of musical and dramatic programs.

The Quadrangle is the site of the Springfield City Library and the city's four major museums. European and American graphics, sculptures, and paintings, including the works of Claude Monet and Degas, are on display at the Museum of Fine Arts. The George Walter Vincent Smith Art Museum houses the collection of the museum's namesake, which includes such pieces as Samurai arms and armor, Middle Eastern rugs, the largest collection of Chinese cloisonné outside of Asia, and Japanese glass, jades, bronzes, lacquers, porcelain, and paintings. The social and economic life of the Pioneer Valley is traced at the Connecticut Valley Historical Museum, which also features arts and crafts by local artisans. The Springfield Science Museum houses the country's first American-built planetarium, along with an observatory, a fresh-water aquarium, and dinosaur and African exhibit halls. Also located at the Quadrangle is the Dr. Seuss National Memorial Sculpture Garden, commemorating the beloved characters invented by one of Springfield's most famous residents, Theodor Geisel, better known as Dr. Seuss.

The Hatikvah Holocaust Education & Resource Center is a not-for-profit organization dedicated to educating about the past and combating prejudice in contemporary society. The Zoo in Forest Park teaches children about the animal world on a 4.5-acre site. The Avis Neigher Gallery, at the Tower Square, is a non-profit artists' collaborative and gallery for local artists. Exhibits of contemporary and traditional art are ongoing. The Zone Art Center serves as a gallery for international and local artists, as well as a showcase for music, poetry, films, and theater.

Arts and Culture Information: Springfield Library & Museums Association, 220 State St., Springfield, MA 01103; telephone (413)263-6800; toll-free (800)625-7738; email info@springfieldmuseums.org

Festivals and Holidays

Many of Springfield's holiday festivals center around basketball, beginning with the opening of the professional and college season in November. The Peachbasket Festival and Tip-Off Classic, including opening games, parades, and parties, is held in downtown Springfield. In the National Basketball Association (NBA) Hall of Fame Game, the defending NBA champions play a league opponent in an October exhibition game. The "greats" of the game are enshrined in the Basketball Hall of Fame Enshrinement Ceremony in October, closing out the season.

The city invites residents and visitors to bring their appetites to the World's Largest Pancake Breakfast, an event held on the Saturday closest to May 14th, the anniversary of the city's founding in 1636; about 75,850 servings of pancakes were dished out in 2002. Other Springfield events include the Peter Pan Taste of Springfield food festival in June, and Star-Spangled Springfield, the city's Fourth of July celebration that features fireworks over the Connecticut River and a concert by the Springfield Symphony Orchestra. A summer concert series is presented in the city's parks.

The Puerto Rican Cultural Festival takes place in July, and is followed by the Mattoon Street Arts Festival in September. Springfield area Greeks celebrate their culture at the September Glendi Festival, while local Italians turn out in force at the October Columbus Day Parade. To mark the beginning of the Christmas season, the Annual Parade of the Big Balloons takes place the day after Thanksgiving. It is followed by a month of holiday festivities throughout the city, including First Night, a traditional New Year's Eve extravaganza that launches the new year. Bright Nights at Forest Park starts the week before Thanksgiving and runs through the first week of January; this two-and-one-half-mile drive through lighting displays boasts 350,000 lights in a variety of seasonal displays.

West Springfield is the site of The Big E (Eastern States Exposition), a 17-day fair in September and October with entertainment and cultural competitions that is one of the largest fairs in the nation. That city also hosts the American Craft Council's Craft Fair, one of the largest and most prestigious in the country, and Boating USA, the Camping & Outdoor Show, and the Sportsmen's Show at the Eastern States Exposition facility.

Sports for the Spectator

The Springfield Falcons of the American Hockey League play home games at the Springfield Civic Center. The Civic Center also hosts basketball's annual NBA Hall of Fame Game, and the Collegiate Tip-Off Classic. Founded in 2001, the Springfield Spirit is a National Women's Basketball League team. The Springfield Junior Pics, a member of the USA Hockey Junior B Division, play at the Springfield Olympia Ice Center.

Springfield is home to numerous collegiate sporting events. Springfield College offers men's and women's basketball, cross country, gymnastics, lacrosse, soccer, swimming and diving, tennis, track and field, and volleyball; men's baseball, football, golf, and wrestling; and women's field hockey and softball. American International College offers 16 varsity sports for men and women, while Springfield Technical Community College is home to 8 intercollegiate sports teams. Western New England College offers men's and women's basketball, cross country, lacrosse, soccer, and tennis; men's baseball, football, golf, ice hockey, and wrestling; and women's field hockey, softball, swimming, and volleyball.

Elsewhere in Massachusetts, sports abound. The Western Massachusetts Pioneers, a member of the United Soccer League, play home games in Ludlow at the Lusitano Stadium, the only "soccer specific" stadium in New England. Boston is home to baseball's Red Sox, basketball's Celtics, and hockey's Bruins. The New England Patriots, an NFL team, and the New England Revolution, a Major League Soccer team, play home games at Foxborough's Gillette Stadium.

Sports for the Participant

Springfield's 42 city parks offer the full complement of team and individual sports. The 735-acre Forest Park offers skating rinks, tennis courts, and nature trails. The city boasts two golf courses, Franconia Golf Course and Veteran's Golf Course. Access to the Connecticut River is provided at Bassett's Boat Company and at Riverfront Park. Fishermen, bicyclists, downhill and cross-country skiers, campers, and hikers can all find prime facilities within a few miles of the city.

Shopping and Dining

Downtown Springfield shopping includes the specialty boutiques at Tower Square, which is anchored by three department stores and houses more than 30 specialty stores. The Eastfield Mall, located on Boston Road, offers more than 60 retail venues as well as a 16-screen movie theater. The Smith & Wesson Factory Store offers a selection of apparel, gifts, and accessories, all personalized with the legendary Smith & Wesson logo and name. Craft and art stores abound in the city; antique lovers can find items of Americana throughout the Pioneer Valley.

Springfield cuisine ranges from traditional Yankee dishes to Southeast Asian offerings, reflecting the city's ability to keep pace with the culinary offerings of its newest immigrants. Some specialties include dishes made with area produce such as apples and brown sugar, seafood from nearby lakes, "boiled dinners," and Indian pudding. Restaurants range from Gus & Paul's, a New York-style deli, to Lido Ristorante, a family-oriented Italian-American spot, to The Student Prince and Fort Restaurant, which features a wide selection of German-American food.

Visitor Information: Greater Springfield Convention & Visitors Bureau, 1441 Main St., Springfield, MA 01103; telephone (413)787-1548; toll-free (800)723-1548; fax (413)781-4607; email info@valleyvisitor.com

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"Springfield: Recreation." Cities of the United States. 2006. Encyclopedia.com. 29 Jul. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Springfield: Economy

Springfield: Economy

Major Industries and Commercial Activity

Principal industries in Springfield include agriculture and dairy farming; trade, transportation, and utilities; educational and health services; government; and manufacturing. The Springfield area is rich in natural resources such as stone, lime, zinc, barium, coal, marble, sand, gravel, and lead. Abundant hardwood forests yield white oak, post oak, black oak, scarlet oak, hickory, maple, and black walnut. Indigenous wildlife include deer, furbearing animals, quail, rabbits, squirrels, doves, and waterfowl.

As an agribusiness center, the city is home to Springfield Regional Stockyards, one of the nation's largest stockyards and feeder cattle facilities. Other agriculture-related firms are creameries, meatpacking plants, and flour mills. Springfield is also a shipping center for poultry, eggs, and milk. Diversified manufacturing comprises nearly one-fourth of the metropolitan area employment base; major manufacturers include Willow Brook Foods, Aarons Automotive Products, Kraft Foods, FASCO Industries (electric motors), Sweetheart Cup Co., and General Electric.

Springfield is a regional hub for retailing and financial services, and is a popular tourist destination. The health care industry employs 25,000 people, or 15 percent of the Springfield area's total workforce, and has an economic impact of more $3 billion. The third-largest retail market in Missourisales total more than $3 billion annuallySpringfield ranks in the top 170 markets in the nation. Two medical centers, which are among Springfield's top employers, form the basis of the major health care system in the area. As the gateway to the Ozark Mountain country, the city receives millions of visitors each year.

Items and goods produced: flour, dairy products, clothing, paper cups and containers, furniture, plastics, trucks and trailers, iron and steel, concrete products, feed, fertilizers

Incentive ProgramsNew and Existing Businesses

Local programs

The Springfield Business Development Corporation is the economic development subsidiary of the Springfield Area Chamber of Commerce. It offers competitive rates and reliable service through City Utilities of Springfield, and administers enterprise zone tax credits and abatements through the Missouri Department of Economic Development. The Partnership Industrial Center, which broke ground in 1993, is part of the economic development public/private partnership between the City of Springfield, city utilities, the Springfield Area Chamber of Commerce, and the Springfield Business and Development Corporation. The partnership was formed in 1991 to promote and encourage the retention and creation of quality manufacturing and industrial jobs in the Springfield area. There are 20 companies located in the industrial park, which has currently reached 95 percent completion.

State programs

Programs offered by the state of Missouri that are available to Springfield businesses include enterprise zones, tax-exempt industrial revenue bonds, Small Business Administration programs, state financing incentive programs, and others.

Job training programs

The Springfield Business Development Corporation coordinates customized training programs through Ozarks Technical Community College.

Development Projects

According to the Chamber of Commerce, Springfield is known as Missouri's "economic engine" because in 2004, 25 percent of all new jobs in Missouri were created in Springfield even though the city represents only 3 percent of the state's workforce. Recent development projects include the Jordan Valley Park, which consists of a greenway, a public ice arena, and $1 million waterway, as well as a new expo center. The new expo facility, connected to the renovated Trade Center, results in about 110,000 square feet of contiguous convention and exhibition space. The building can accommodate 280 booths and about 4,400 people, with seating available for 3,000, and 950 spaces available for parking. A former creamery and tobacco warehouse is being converted into teaching, exhibition, and office space for arts groups in the city. This $3 million project is being funded partially through private donations. The new Hammons Field, home to the minor league baseball team the Springfield Cardinals, opened in spring 2004.

Downtown Springfield continues to be a focus for developers. Plans were announced in 2005 for a retail, entertainment, and parking complex for the Market Avenue Redevelopment Area in downtown Springfield. Developers have presented plans for College Station, which would include a six-screen movie theater within an urban entertainment destination complex that would also house restaurants and retail space. The city also plans to build a 450-space, three-story parking deck above 43,000 square feet of first-floor commercial space designed for smaller retailers.

Recent expansion projects at the airport included tripling the size of the baggage claim area, roadway realignment, an expanded long-term parking lot, and construction of an intermodal facility. The intermodal terminal, next to the existing terminal, is reserved for all passengers intending to board motorcoaches, vans, and taxis or planning to rent cars.

Economic Development Information: Springfield Area Chamber of Commerce, 202 S. John Q. Hammons Parkway, Springfield, MO 65801-1687; telephone (417)862-5567; fax (417)862-1611; email spfdcham@springfieldchamber.com

Commercial Shipping

Springfield is linked with national and international markets by a network of air, rail, and motor freight carriers. Exporting has become an integral part of the local economy; because Springfield is the site of a Port of Entry operated by the United States Customs Service, national companies can provide customs house and freight forwarding services. Air cargo services are available at Springfield-Branson Regional Airport. Rail transportation is provided by Missouri-North Arkansas and Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway, which maintains an intermodal hub for piggyback trailer shipping in the city. More than 40 trucking companies, many with terminals in Springfield, offer express delivery.

Labor Force and Employment Outlook

Springfield's population is growing at an annual rate of 2.2 percent. The labor force is described as productive and possessing a Midwestern work ethic, and there is ample access to training and retraining facilities. The metro area's workforce has grown more than 16 percent in the past decade and accounted for more than one-third of Missouri's total job growth in 2004. In addition, Springfield's economic output has doubled in the past 10 years, which makes it the fastest-growing output in the entire state of Missouri.

The following is a summary of data regarding the Springfield metropolitan area labor force, 2004 annual averages.

Size of nonagricultural labor force: 183,400

Number of workers employed in . . .

construction and mining: 8,800

manufacturing: 18,400

trade, transportation, and utilities: 44,400

information: 4,600

financial activities: 11,400

professional and business services: 14,400

educational and health services: 32,200

leisure and hospitality: 17,400

other services: 8,500

government: 23,300

Average hourly earnings of production workers employed in manufacturing: $11.87

Unemployment rate: 5.1% (February 2005)

Largest employers Number of employees
CoxHealth 9,100
St. John's Health System 7,900
Wal-Mart Stores 4,300
Springfield Public Schools 3,000
Southwest Missouri State University 2,665
Bass Pro Shops/Tracker Marine 2,640

Cost of Living

Salaries are low in Springfield, but so is the cost of living. The American Chamber of Commerce Research Association Cost of Living Index has rated Springfield 8 to 10 percent below the national cost of living average. Housing costs have indexed at nearly 10 percent below the national average and utility rates rank in the bottom 25 percent of those charged in the United States. According to the Greater Springfield Board of Realtors, the average sales price for a home was $135,600 in 2004. Average rent for a single family was around $745 per month.

The following is a summary of data regarding several key cost of living factors in the Springfield area.

2004 (3rd Quarter) ACCRA Average House Price: $195,000

2004 (3rd Quarter) ACCRA Cost of Living Index: 88.8 (U.S. average = 100.0)

State income tax rate: graduated from 1.5% to 6%

State sales tax rate: 4.225%

Local sales tax rate: city, 1.375%; county, 0.875%

Property tax rate: $4.5262 per $100 assessed valuation. Assessed valuation is 33 1/3%

Economic Information: Springfield Area Chamber of Commerce, 202 S. John Q. Hammons Parkway, Springfield, MO 65801-1687; telephone (417)862-5567; fax (417)862-1611; email spfdcham@springfieldchamber.com. Missouri Division of Community and Economic Development, PO Box 118, Jefferson City, MO 65102

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Springfield: Recreation

Springfield: Recreation

Sightseeing

Historic sites associated with Abraham Lincoln memorialize his presidency and his life in Springfield. The Old State Capitol Hall of Representatives, where Lincoln tried several hundred cases prior to the Civil War, has been reconstructed and completely furnished to re-create Lincoln's Illinois legislative years. The Lincoln Home, the only house Lincoln ever owned, is located in a four-block national historic area administered by the National Park Service. The Quaker-brown residence was home to the Lincoln family for 17 years, from 1944 to 1961. It now contains many authentic household furnishings and has been restored as closely as possible to its original condition. Neighboring 1850s-era residences have been similarly restored.

The Lincoln Depot marks the spot where Lincoln bade farewell to the city, and contains restored waiting rooms, exhibits, and a video presentation recreating the 12-day journey to his inauguration. The Lincoln-Herndon Law Offices are in the only surviving structure where Lincoln maintained working law offices. At nearby Oak Ridge Cemetery, the Lincoln Tomb is marked with a sculpture honoring the 16th President. It is the final resting place of Abraham, Mary Todd, Tad, Eddie, and Willie Lincoln. And in nearby New Salem, 23 buildings have been restored to depict Lincoln's life here from 1831 to 1837. Costumed interpreters can be heard throughout the community's timber houses, shops, and stores.

The newest addition to Springfield's Lincoln sites is the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum, which opened in 2004. The 200,000-square-foot complex houses the world's largest collection of documentary material on Lincoln and features high-tech exhibits, interactive displays, multimedia programs, and a reproduction of the 1861 White House. Visitors can also witness the 1860 presidential election as if it were happening today, with news coverage and campaign commercials.

There are other popular tourist attractions in the Springfield area. Designed by Frank Lloyd Wright in 1902 for socialite Susan Lawrence Dana, the Dana-Thomas House is an example of one of the architect's best-preserved prairie-style homes, with original furniture, art glass doors, windows, and light fixtures. The Washington Park Botanical Gardens and the Thomas Rees Memorial Carillon in Washington Park are other popular sights in Springfield; the carillon is the third-largest in the world and one of the few open to the public. Animal lovers will enjoy a day spent at the Henson Robinson Zoo, which houses more than 300 animals from five continents.

Visitors to Springfield might consider a trip to nearby Dickson Mounds Museum, a branch of the Illinois State Museum and one of the major on-site archaeological museums in the U.S. It contains more than 15,000 square feet of exhibits focusing on Native Americans, including art and artifact displays, hands-on activities, and multimedia presentations.

Arts and Culture

Sponsoring a season of plays, the Springfield Theatre Centre is a community theater group performing musicals, comedies, and drama from September until June. The Springfield Muni Opera presents four Broadway musicals during the summer season at the 750-seat open-air theater near Lake Springfield. Each performance is accompanied by a full orchestra. The Springfield Symphony Orchestra and the Ballet Company perform at Sangamon Auditorium and other sites throughout the city and state. During the summer months, Theatre in the Park presents a variety of entertainment in a natural outdoor amphitheater at New Salem State Historic Site; the productions include a play about Lincoln's life at New Salem.

The Illinois State Museum preserves natural, anthropological, and art histories of Illinois with changing and permanent exhibits. The new natural history hall, "Changes: Dynamic Illinois Environments," demonstrates the changes in Illinois environments over the last 500 million years. The Vachel Lindsay Home is a museum and cultural center that pays tribute to one of the state's most famous artist-poets, who was known as "the prairie troubadour." The home was Lindsay's birthplace and remained his only home until his death there in 1931. The Edwards Place, built in 1833 for Benjamin and Helen Edwards, is an Italianate mansion that has been converted into an art gallery, school of art, and art library.

Festivals and Holidays

The Springfield Old Capitol Art Fair is considered one of the best art events in the United States, attracting more than 200 artists who display their work downtown near the Old State Capitol Building on the third weekend in May. The two-day event has been held for more than 40 years, and also features food vendors and live entertainment. A Children's Art Fair accompanies the main attraction. The International Carillon Festival, held seven evenings in June, is one of only a few of its kind in the country; international performers play carillon music on the bronze bells in the Thomas Rees Memorial Carillon, and fireworks cap off the festival.

The Illinois State Fair, held each August over a 10-day period, draws hundreds of thousands of people each year. It hosts one of the nation's largest livestock shows, as well as farm contests and one-mile harness racing on a recognized fast track. For more than 20 years, the springtime Springfield Air Rendezvous has attracted a mix of airshow acts, from internationally known aerobatics entertainment to warbirds and ultralights. In June the city's Taste of Downtown offers visitors a variety of regional and ethnic foods from many Springfield restaurants; festivities include live music, children's activities, and a pitching booth. A Festival of Trees in late November and a Christmas Parade in December inaugurate the winter holiday season, which culminates with First Night Springfield on New Year's Eve, featuring varied musical entertainment, arts events, and a midnight fireworks display.

Sports for the Spectator

Springfield is home to the national champion Springfield Junior Blues hockey team, a member of the North American Hockey League. Sports fans also follow several collegiate teams, including the nationally ranked University of Illinois at Springfield Prairie Stars soccer team. The annual Ladies Professional Golf Association/State Farm Golf Classic attracts more than 100 professional golfers to compete for $500,000 in prizes.

Sports for the Participant

The Springfield Recreation Department and the Springfield Park District maintain more than 30 parks in the city offering facilities for fishing, hiking, jogging, picnicking, tennis, ice skating, swimming, and softball. Springfield's wildlife sanctuaries provide year-round opportunities to enjoy the countryside of Sangamon County, and golfers will enjoy the city's nine public golf courses. Lake Springfield, a 4,240-acre, artificially constructed reservoir, is surrounded by 57 miles of shoreline. The area supports eight parks and recreational outlets, including boat launches for canoes, motorboats, pontoons, rowboats, and sailboats, and a marina offering boat, water ski, and jet ski rentals.

Recreation Information: Springfield Park District, 2500 S. 11th St., Springfield, IL 62703; telephone (217)544-1751

Shopping and Dining

Springfield is the commercial center for central Illinois, with a thriving downtown area full of shops in restored historic buildings offering unique gifts and clothing. Simon White Oaks Mall has the largest selection of merchandise in the region, with 115 stores, restaurants, and movie theaters. Illinois Artisans Shop at the Illinois State Museum features works by state artists. The Old Capitol Farmers' Market occupies two city blocks of downtown, and offers fresh produce, flowers, and food from more than 60 vendors.

Restaurants in the city offer a selection of American, Continental, Mediterranean, Chinese, Thai, and Korean menus. The "horseshoe sandwich," a local staple created in Springfield in 1928, consists of a ham slice topped with an English cheddar cheese sauce, and crowned with french fries representing the nails of a horseshoe. Another regional favorite is a special "chilli" recipe served by a local parlor that has spelled chili with an extra "l" since 1909.

Visitor Information: Springfield Convention and Visitors Bureau, 109 N. 7th St., Springfield, IL 62701; telephone (217)789-2360; toll-free 800-545-7300. Downtown Springfield, Inc., 3 W. Old State Capitol Plaza, Ste. 15, Springfield, IL 62704; telephone (217)544-1723

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Springfield: Economy

Springfield: Economy

Major Industries and Commercial Activity

Historically, the Springfield Armory drew skilled metal workers to the city. This manufacturing expertise has broadened to include a number of diverse concerns. The city's service industry has been growing in importance, although manufacturing remains a mainstay of the Springfield economy. The industrial base of the city is particularly diverse, as Springfield is home to significant insurance, chemical, paper, government, and health care facilities. This diverse foundation is especially beneficial in difficult economic periods. The recession that struck the nation in the late 1990s, borne from a decline in the technology industry, had a lesser impact on Springfield due to its relatively low concentration of technological companies. Still, the local economy did struggle to some extent. In 2004 the Pioneer Valley Planning Commission updated the decade-old Pioneer Valley Plan for Progress to address economic concerns through seven plans of action that include cross-border collaboration with the Hartford, Connecticut, region; improving education and technology; and supporting existing industries like agriculture and manufacturing as well as emerging industries like knowledge creation, healthcare, and plastics. The report recognizes that small businesses are growing in importance; as testament, a study released in 2005 by the U.S. Small Business Administration's Office of Advocacy ranked Springfield third of 394 regions for entrepreneurship and innovation. The Plan for Progress also recognizes that efficiencies in production processes continue to shift the local economy away from manufacturing toward services. While the number of manufacturing jobs had decreased between 1969 and 2001, employment in the service industry jumped from 150,000 to 200,000 over the same time period. The fastest growing service sectors are healthcare and education.

Among the companies headquartered in Springfield are Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Co., Merriam-Webster Inc., Smith & Wesson Corp., and the retail food company Big Y Foods Inc.

Items and goods produced: firearms, envelopes and stationery, chemicals, machinery, electrical equipment, rubber goods, printed matter, automobile accessories, forged metals, games and toys, educational equipment.

Incentive ProgramsNew and Existing Companies

Local programs

The city of Springfield assists in securing financing for new and expanding businesses from a variety of financing programs offered by the State of Massachusetts. The city offers property tax relief, development assistance, potential Enterprise Community benefits, and assistance with job training and workforce development.

State programs

Under the Massachusetts Economic Development Incentive Program, Springfield is designated an Economic Target Area, an area ripe to attract and retain businesses. Approved "certified projects" with this area are eligible for state investment tax credit, abandoned building tax deductions, and municipal tax benefits. Massachusetts also offers tax increment financing, emerging technology funds, tax credits for research and development, a predevelopment assistance program, a capital access program, and bond, equipment, and export financing programs.

Job training programs

The Regional Employment Board allocates and oversees worker training programs in Hampden County designed to meet the specific needs of employers. FutureWorks, Inc. is a quasi-public agency serving both as a "one-stop" career center and a fully-equipped applicant processing, screening, and training agency. The Division of Economic Development of Springfield Technical Community College promotes the development of a highly-skilled workforce through education and customized training.

Development Projects

One of the largest development projects underway in the mid-2000s was the MassMutual Center. The $71 million expansion and renovation project, scheduled for completion in late 2005, will transform the Springfield Civic Center into a new facility with more than 40,000 square feet of exhibition space, 9,000 square feet of meeting space, and an arena that can seat up to 8,000 people. The historic Court Square Park, adjacent to the center, is undergoing $500,000 in restoration and beautification efforts to accompany the center's grand opening.

Springfield College launched a fund-raising campaign in June 2005 to raise $40 million for the construction or renovation of five buildings. Proposals to build a hotel and an entertainment-oriented retail complex on the site of the former Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame, which moved to a new location in 2002, were under consideration in mid-2005.

Economic Development Information: Pioneer Valley Planning Commission, 26 Central St., West Springfield, MA 01089-2787; telephone (413)781-6045; fax (413)732-2593; email info@pvpc.org. Western Massachusetts Economic Development Council, 255 Padgette St., Ste. 1, Chicopee, MA 01022; telephone (413)593-6421; toll-free (888)593-6421; fax (413)593-5126; email feedback@westernmassedc.com

Commercial Shipping

Westover Metropolitan Airport, fifteen miles northeast of Springfield in Chicopee, serves as the region's principal air cargo handling facility. Boston & Maine Railroad and a vast fleet of commercial trucks also haul freight into Springfield.

Labor Force and Employment Outlook

Business leaders describe Springfield's labor force as skilled, with a strong work ethic. The region dubs itself the "Knowledge Corridor" due to the concentration of institutions of higher learning. The labor pool is not restricted to Springfield residents; rather, more than 26,000 workers commute daily across the state lines of Connecticut and Massachusetts.

The following is a summary of data regarding the Springfield metropolitan area labor force, 2004 annual averages.

Size of nonagricultural labor force: 294,200

Number of workers employed in . . .

construction and mining: 10,500

manufacturing: 39,200

trade, transportation and utilities: 60,600

information: 4,700

financial activities: 16,300

professional and business services: 23,900

educational and health services: 53,200

leisure and hospitality: 26,700

other services: 11,300

government: 47,900

Average hourly earnings of production workers employed in manufacturing: $15.43

Unemployment rate: 5.8% (February 2005)

Largest employers Number of employees
Baystate Health System 6,300
Springfield Public Schools 4,600
Sisters of Providence Health System 4,039
MassMutual Financial Group 4,000
City of Springfield 2,278
Center for Human Development 1,069
Peter Pan Bus Lines 850
The Republican 800
U.S. Postal Service 774
Western New England College 650

Cost of Living

Springfield refers to itself as "the city of homes." The Springfield Redevelopment Authority assists prospective homeowners through the Home Ownership Opportunity Program, the Springfield Housing Finance Mortgage Pool, and a HUD Joint Venture for Affordable Housing Award.

The following is a summary of data regarding several key cost of living factors in the Springfield area.

2004 ACCRA Cost of Living Index: Not reported

2004 ACCRA Average House Cost: Not reported

State income tax rate: 5.95% on earned and business income

State sales tax rate: 5.0% on most items; does not include food and clothing, heating fuel and drugs

Local income tax rate: None

Local sales tax rate: None

Property tax rate: residential, $19.41 per $1,000 of assessed value; commercial, $34.54 per $1,000 of assessed value (2004)

Economic Information: Greater Springfield Chamber of Commerce, 1441 Main St., Springfield, MA 01103; telephone (413) 787-1555. Pioneer Valley Planning Commission, 26 Central St., West Springfield, MA 01089-2787; telephone (413)781-6045; fax (413)732-2593; email info@pvpc.org

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Springfield: Economy

Springfield: Economy

Major Industries and Commercial Activity

Springfield's diversified economic base is balanced between the public and private sectors; government, services, and retail trade are the principal industries. A central location and a highly developed transportation and communications network contribute to the city's position as a center of business and professional activity, particularly health care and finance. Springfield is also the headquarters of 12 national insurance companies and more than 165 state, regional, and national associations. Manufacturing firms in Sangamon County produce goods for national distribution and international export.

Items and goods produced: tractors, electric meters, radio parts, flour, cereal products, automatic coffee makers, mattresses, plastic pipe, farm implements, livestock and poultry feeds, yeast, power plant boiler installations, printed circuits, steel storage tanks

Incentive ProgramsNew and Existing Companies

Local programs

The city of Springfield runs two loan programs to aid financing for the small business community. For businesses with less than five persons, the Microenterprise Loan Program offers loans between $1,000 and $10,000 for equipment, furniture, fixtures, and working capital, with interest below the market rate. Accounting assistance is also provided. The Business Loan Program provides funding up to $50,000 for non-manufacturing businesses and up to $100,000 for manufacturing businesses. The loans are granted based on job creation and gap financing.

The Springfield Enterprise Zone encourages job creation and capital investment in areas of economic distress and promotes neighborhood revitalization in targeted areas. Companies can take advantage of property tax abatements and a sales tax exemption on all building materials purchased within the state of Illinois.

State programs

In 1977 the Illinois legislature adopted the Tax Increment Allocation Redevelopment Act to provide municipalities with a unique tool to finance and stimulate urban redevelopment. Through the use of Tax Increment Financing (TIF), cities can stimulate private investment by offering incentives to attract and retain businesses, improve their community areas, and maintain a well-educated and highly trained labor force. Currently, Springfield has four TIF districts. The Illinois Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity offers financial and technical assistance to qualified businesses wishing to locate or expand in Illinois.

Job training programs

The Capital City Center, a partnership between Lincoln Land Community College, Central Management Services, and the University of Illinois at Springfield, provides technology training to interested businesses through scheduled courses and customized training programs.

Development Projects

Springfield has recently undergone a spurt of intense economic development, with many companies and organizations building in or relocating to the area. In 2004 Wells Fargo Home Mortgage opened a new, $41 million, 185,000-square-foot facility, giving the company the capacity to accommodate 750 employees. Later that year a new, 43,000 square foot Illinois Supreme Court Building opened. In 2005 the Illinois Air National Guard received $10 million in federal funding for the construction of a new facility to be located at Springfield Capital Airport. The new facility will have more than 45,000 square feet of space to be used as a dining area, medical clinic, and administrative offices.

In 2005 Springfield opened the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum, an event that drew local and national media attention. The 160,000-square-foot, $115 million library and museum serve as the center for research and study of the life and times of Abraham Lincoln and the American Civil War. It is the nation's largest presidential library.

Economic Development Information: City of Springfield Office of Planning and Economic Development, 231 S. 6th St., Springfield, IL 62701; telephone (217)789-2377. Illinois Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity, 620 E. Adams, Springfield, IL 62701; telephone (217)782-7500

Commercial Shipping

A transportation hub for markets throughout the United States, the Springfield metropolitan area is served by 35 intrastate and 75 interstate motor freight carriers. Forty-one truck terminals are located in the community. Springfield/Sangamon County is linked with major national rail networks via five railroads, two of which operate facilities in the city, and a local rail company that maintains a switch-yard. Capital Airport provides daily commercial flights, as well as complete charter, aircraft repair and maintenance, and fuel services.

Labor Force and Employment Outlook

The Springfield-Sangamon County labor force is one of the largest in central Illinois, with the highest commuting-in rate of any central Illinois community. The labor pool in the Springfield area is extensive and includes unemployed, under-employed, and re-entering retirees, representing a potential available workforce of 228,057 individuals in the Springfield area. Of that number, 31 percent have experience in computers and/or electronics, 37.4 percent in health care or medical devices, 21.5 percent in manufacturing, and 20 percent in agriculture and agribusiness. Sixty-eight percent of the city's underemployed have attended college, and 52 percent are between the ages of 20 and 39. Seventy percent have indicated interest in additional training.

In an audit conducted by The Center for Governmental Studies at Northern Illinois University, researchers found that the overall labor quality in Springfield is considered among the best in the nation by local employers. Employers rated employees good or very good on job performance as it relates to trainability, basic skills, productivity, and attitudes. Employees also showed low rates of turnover and absenteeism.

The following is a summary of data regarding the Springfield metropolitan area labor force, 2004 annual averages.

Size of nonagricultural labor force: 110,200

Number of workers employed in . . .

construction and mining: 5,100

manufacturing: 3,400

trade, transportation and utilities: 17,900

information: 3,100

financial activities: 7,500

professional and business services: 10,500

educational and health services: 16,200

leisure and hospitality: 10,200

other services: 6,400

government: 29,900

Average hourly earnings of production workers in manufacturing: $15.61 (statewide average)

Unemployment rate: 5.1% (March 2005)

Largest employers (2004) Number of employees
State of Illinois 17,000
Memorial Health System 3,400
St. John's Hospital 2,839
Illinois National Guard 2,700
Springfield School District #186 2,019
City of Springfield 1,707
Horace Mann Insurance Company 1,280
SIU School of Medicine 1,200
Springfield Clinic, LLP 900
SBC Communications Inc. 900
U.S. Postal Service 900

Cost of Living

With a cost of living level below the national average, Springfield residents are reported to have higher disposable income for recreation, savings, and other discretionary expenditures.

The following is a summary of data regarding several key cost of living factors in the Springfield area.

2004 (3rd Quarter) ACCRA Cost of Living Index: 91.0 (U.S. average = 100.0)

2004 (3rd Quarter) ACCRA Average House Price: $227,414

State income tax rate: 3.0%

State sales tax rate: 5.0%

Local income tax rate: None

Local sales tax rate: 2.5% (plus a county tax of 0.25%)

Property tax rate: 7.87% (valuation is 33.3% of real property)

Economic Information: Greater Springfield Chamber of Commerce, 3 S. Old State Capitol Plaza, Springfield, IL 62701; telephone (217)525-1173

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Springfield: Recreation

Springfield: Recreation

Sightseeing

One of Springfield's major sightseeing attractions is Wilson's Creek National Civil War Battlefield, the site of the first battle between Union and Confederate armies in Missouri and west of the Mississippi. An automobile tour of nearly five miles encompasses all the major points with historic markers and exhibits. Springfield National Cemetery is the only cemetery where soldiers from both the North and South are buried side by side. The Wonders of Wildlife American National Fish and Wildlife Museum entertains and educates visitors about the need to preserve the environment and protect fish and wildlife. This new museum facility is adjacent to the Bass Pro Shops Outdoor World.

Fantastic Caverns, a natural wonder, is the only cave in North America and one of three in the world that is so large visitors must tour it in motorized vehicles. Exotic Animal Paradise, 12 miles east of Springfield in Stratford, is a 400-acre park that is home to more than 3,000 wild and exotic animals and birds. Springfield's Dickerson Park Zoo, nationally known for its elephant herd, offers elephant rides to children. The zoo also breeds cheetahs and bald eagles.

Arts and Culture

A principal venue for the performing arts in Springfield is the Juanita K. Hammons Hall for the Performing Arts. A variety of cultural events are staged there, including touring Broadway productions and performances by the symphony.

The Springfield Symphony Orchestra and the Little Theater are the city's two oldest cultural organizations, with beginnings in 1934. Among the city's other performance arts institutions are the Springfield Regional Opera (performing at the 1909 Landers Theater, a historic landmark) and the Springfield Ballet. Southwest Missouri State University offers a summer series at its Tent Theater. Within the area, more than 20 music theaters like the Roy Clark Celebrity Theater and the Ray Price Show entertain country-music lovers. The Shepherd of the Hills is an outdoor theater in Branson that attracts a large audience each season with its stories on Ozark mountain families. Numerous local museums and other historic points of interest increase cultural awareness in the Springfield area. The Air and Military Museum of the Ozarks houses more than 5,000 pieces of military history. Nearby Mansfield is home to the Laura Ingalls Wilder Museum.

Festivals and Holidays

Bass Pro Shops, "the world's greatest sporting goods store," presents a Spring Fishing Classic in Springfield in March. Historic Walnut Street is the site of a May Artsfest. A balloon race and Firefalla fireworks display accompanied by the Springfield Symphonyare popular Fourth of July events. The Ozark Empire Fair in August also attracts large crowds. The Springfield Art Museum hosts a national "Watercolor USA" show each summer. In nearby Silver Dollar City, the Mountain Folks Music Festival is held the third week of June. Ozark Empire Fair, Missouri's second largest and one of the top rated fairs in the country, is held in late July. Wilson's Creek National Battlefield sponsors special programs each year on Memorial Day, Independence Day, August 10, and Labor Day. The Ozark Auto Show, a collector car auction, draws vintage automobile buffs to nearby Branson on the last weekend of October.

Arts and Culture Information: Springfield Regional Arts Council, 411 N. Sherman Parkway, Springfield, MO 65802; telephone (417)862-2787

Sports for the Spectator

The minor league baseball team the Springfield Cardinals play in Hammons Field, a multimillion baseball park that opened in 2004. Six local colleges and universities field a variety of teams in intercollegiate sports competition. The Drury Panthers and the Southwest Missouri State University Bears basketball teams frequently compete in national tournament play, as do the Lady Bears. The Springfield Lasers, a professional team, compete at the Cooper Tennis Complex.

Sports for the Participant

Some 50 city parks are located throughout Springfield. Nearby is the Mark Twain National Forest and Mincy Wildlife area. A number of freshwater lakes close to Springfield provide opportunities for fishing, swimming, boating, and water skiing. For the golfer Springfield offers three municipal courses. The city maintains more than 50 tennis courts and 6 city pools. A variety of sports programs are sponsored by the city. Skiing in the Ozark Mountains is possible year-round.

Recreation Information: Parks Department, telephone (417)864-1049. For hunting and fishing information, Missouri Department of Conservation, 2901 West Truman Boulevard, Jefferson City, MO 65102; telephone (573)751-4115

Shopping and Dining

Battlefield Mall, one of the state's largest shopping malls, with 170 shops and 4 anchor department stores, is located in Springfield. A popular shopping district is a nineteenth-century village consisting of renovated buildings with shops offering quilts, crafts, and folk art. An antique mall and flea market houses more than 70 dealers in a three-story building, the largest such enterprise in the Ozarks. This antique mart sells everything from comic books and baseball cards to antique coins, dolls, toys, jewelry, furniture, and furnishings. A large reproduction shop is also on the premises. Nearby Silver Dollar City features products made by resident craftsmen using nineteenth-century skills. Bass Pro Shops, billing itself as the world's largest sporting goods store, is located in Springfield and specializes in equipment for anglers, hunters, and others. This unusual shop sports a two-story log cabin with water wheel, a four-story waterfall, fresh water and salt water aquariums, and daily fish feedings by divers, as well as a 300,000-square-foot showroom and a NASCAR shop.

The more than 600 restaurants in Springfield specialize in a variety of cuisines that include authentic ethnic foods and Southern cooking. One of the more popular dining establishments serves fish one night and prime rib the next, in addition to an eclectic menu that offers Ozark dishes.

Visitor Information: Springfield Convention and Visitors Bureau, 3315 East Battlefield Road, Springfield, MO 65804; telephone (417)881-5300; toll-free (800)678-8767; fax (417)881-2231

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Springfield: History

Springfield: History

Connecticut River Supports Farming Settlement

In 1636 fur trader William Pynchon led a group of settlers westward from Boston to a site on the west bank of the Connecticut River in western Massachusetts. The fledgling community, named Agawam, soon retreated to the river's east bank to escape raids by the native Sokoki tribe, who resented the damage done to their corn by the settlers' livestock. In 1640 the town was renamed Springfield in honor of Pynchon's English birthplace. The town was burned in 1675 during King Philip's War but was soon rebuilt.

Springfield grew as a farming and mercantile site, depending upon the Connecticut River for water, transportation, and industrial power. In 1776 General George Washington selected Springfield as the site for a national arsenal, which was built in 1777. The town then became an important source of supplies for the American Continental Army during the Revolutionary War. The arsenal's first weapon was a musket. Following the war, Daniel Shays, leader of Shays's Rebellion, led an unsuccessful attempt to seize the arsenal in 1787. In 1794 the federal government established the arsenal as the Springfield Armory.

The Springfield Armory and later the arrival of the railroad did much to boost the city's economic prosperity. Skilled artisans, including metal workers and inventors, flocked to the city, attracted by work in the Armory and its suppliers. By the mid-nineteenth century, Springfield and the Pioneer Valley (named for the early English settlers) had developed a diverse industrial base. The Western Railroad began running between Springfield and Worcester, MA, in 1839. The G. & C. Merriam Company published its first Merriam-Webster Dictionary in Springfield in 1847. Smith & Wesson established a manufacturing facility in the city in 1857, successfully producing the first self-primed metallic ammunition. Three years later Milton Bradley, a manufacturer of games, was founded in Springfield. Other products manufactured in the city included clothing, paper, machinery, and swords.

Industry Joins Armory in Local Economy

During the Civil War era, abolitionist John Brown lived in Springfield and made it an important stop on the Underground Railroad that aided slaves fleeing the South. The Springfield Armory supplied Springfield rifles for the Union Army during the Civil War. These rifles were also used in the Franco-Prussian War. Poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow visited the Armory on his honeymoon and described the stacks of rifles in the poem "The Arsenal at Springfield."

James Naismith, the father of basketball, set down the rules of the game in Springfield in 1891. In 1893 Charles and Frank Duryea invented what is often regarded as the first gasoline-powered automobile in the United States. The Duryeas' first car was a two-cycle, one-cylinder model. Two years later the brothers founded the first automobile company in the nation, the Duryea Motor Wagon Company. A Duryea vehicle won the country's first automobile race, held that year in Chicago. George Hendee invented the motorcycle in 1901 in Springfield. It was inventions such as these and the industries they engendered that brought about what historians call "the second colonization of New England." Huge numbers of immigrants arrived on the country's eastern shores and moved westward in search of work. In Springfield, as elsewhere, the Irish came first to build the railroads and canals. They were followed by the French-Canadians, who sought work in the textile mills. Later arrivals included the Germans, Scots, Italians, Jews, Russians, Poles, Portuguese, Greeks, African Americans, and Hispanics.

During World War I, the Springfield Armory again played an important role in the country's defense, supplying the Springfield rifles which were the infantryman's stock issue. By the Second World War, the Armory was supplying Ga-rand semiautomatic rifles for the U.S. Army and Marine Corps. The Indian Motorcycle Company closed its doors in 1953, but its fame as the builder of the first U.S. motorcycles lives on in the Indian Motorcycle Museum. Though the Springfield Armory was deactivated in 1968, the city is still home to a number of small arms manufacturers who continue the craft, including Smith & Wesson and Dan Wesson Arms. The Armory itself has been designated a national historic site.

Springfield elected its first female mayor, Mary Hurley, in 1990. A decade later, in 2002, Charles Ryan was reelected mayor of Springfield. Having served in this capacity from 1962 to 1967, Ryan promises to improve the city's economy by capitalizing on his past experience, reestablishing friendly and efficient relations between the city government and Springfield's people and businesses, and developing the area's capacity for entrepreneurship and technology.

Historical Information: Connecticut Valley Historical Museum, 194 State St., Springfield, MA 01103; telephone (413)263-6800; toll-free (800)625-7738; email info@springfieldmuseums.org

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Springfield

Springfield:1 City (1990 pop. 105,227), state capital and seat of Sangamon co., central Ill., on the Sangamon River; settled 1818, inc. as a city 1840. In a rich agricultural region (sorghum, corn, cattle, and dairying), it is a wholesale trade, retail, and distribution center. Its varied industries produce consumer goods, flour, transportation equipment, parking meters, building materials, machinery, and electrical and electronic products. There is also book publishing. Oil and natural-gas fields lie to the south. The city is the seat of Springfield College in Illinois, Benedictine University, and the Univ. of Illinois at Springfield. Nearby are New Salem Historic Site, Camp Butler National Cemetery, and Lake Springfield.

Abraham Lincoln, who was instrumental in having Springfield made the state capital in 1839, lived and practiced law there from 1837 to 1861. He is buried nearby, with his wife and three of their children, in a tomb and monument designed by L. G. Mead and dedicated in 1874. Lincoln's home is preserved as a national historic site. Other places of interest include the capitol (1867–87), built in the style of Renaissance architecture; the old capitol (1837), where Lincoln made his "House Divided" speech and which contains the state historical library; several Lincoln museums, including the Depot Museum, where Lincoln made his farewell address (1861), and that at the Lincoln presidential library; the governor's mansion (1853–57); the state art gallery; and the state fairgrounds. Vachel Lindsay was born in Springfield; his house is a museum.

2 Industrial city (1990 pop. 156,983), seat of Hampden co., SW Mass., on the Connecticut River; inc. 1641. A port of entry, the city has significant printing and publishing industries. Among its many manufactures are ordnance, chemicals, plastics, machinery, electrical equipment, paper and metallurgical goods, and clothing. The city is the seat of Springfield College, American International College, and Western New England College. Saint-Gaudens' Puritan is in Merrick Park. Also in the city are Forest Park (which has a zoo), the Basketball Hall of Fame, and several additional museums.

Springfield was settled (1636) by Puritans under William Pynchon, and was one of the scenes in Shays's Rebellion (1786–87) and a station on the Underground Railroad. The U.S. Armory, which operated there from 1794 to 1966, was famous for the development of the Springfield and Garand army rifles; it now contains an arms museum and is a national historic site (see National Parks and Monuments, table). Basketball was invented at what is now Springfield College in 1891 by James Naismith. The first American-made projection planetarium was designed and built (1937) by Frank Korkosz for the city's science museum, which also contains an aquarium.

3 City (1990 pop. 140,494), seat of Greene co., SW Mo., in a resort area of the Ozarks; inc. 1846. It is the industrial, trade, service, and shipping center of a rich agricultural area producing dairy goods, livestock, poultry, grains, and fruit. The city's manufactures include metal, wood, and paper products; motor vehicles and transportation equipment; foods; machinery; electronic goods; apparel; feeds; and artificial flowers. Springfield is the seat of Drury Univ., Southwest Missouri State Univ., Evangel Univ., Baptist Bible College, and Central Bible College. It is also the international headquarters of the Assemblies of God church. In the Civil War, Springfield was taken by Confederate forces after the battle (1861) of Wilson's Creek; nearby are the battlefield and a national cemetery. "Wild Bill" Hickok lived in the city.

4 City (1990 pop. 70,487), seat of Clark co., W central Ohio, on the Mad River; settled 1799, inc. as a city 1850. A manufacturing center in a rich farm area, it is especially known for its production of farm machinery and trucks. Other goods include are machinery, tools, and a variety of metal (iron and steel) products. The city grew with the building of the National Road (1838), the arrival of the railroads (mid-1800s), and the establishment of farm-machinery plants (late 1800s). Wittenberg Univ. is there, as is Frank Lloyd Wright's Westcott House. Nearby is George Rogers Clark Park.

5 City (1990 pop. 44,683), Lane co., W central Oregon, between the McKenzie and Willamette rivers; inc. 1885. Near the forested foothills of the Cascade Range, the city has important lumbering and forest-product industries. Berries, nuts, poultry, dairy products, nursery plants, smoked fish, and chemicals are also produced. The McKenzie River recreational area is nearby.

6 Uninc. town (1990 pop. 23,706), Fairfax co., NE Va., a suburb of Washington, D.C. Its manufactures include foods, paper and concrete products, transportation equipment, medical devices, machinery, computers, and furniture.

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Springfield: Education and Research

Springfield: Education and Research

Elementary and Secondary Schools

Springfield Public School District #186, the ninth-largest in the state of Illinois, is administered by a seven-member, nonpartisan board of education that appoints a superintendent. Almost 54 percent of the district's teachers have bach-elor's degrees, and 46 percent hold master's degrees or above. The district's average ACT scores recently fell slightly below the state average, and the graduation rate is 89.7 percent.

The following is a summary of data regarding the Springfield public schools as of the 20032004 school year.

Total enrollment: 14,807

Number of facilities

elementary schools: 24

middle schools: 5

high schools: 3

Student-teacher ratio: elementary, 17:1; high school, 23:1

Teacher salaries

average: $48,509

Funding per pupil: $8,212

Springfield is also served by a large number of private and parochial elementary and secondary schools.

Public Schools Information: Springfield Public School District #186, 1900 W. Monroe St., Springfield, IL 62704; telephone (217)525-3000

Colleges and Universities

The University of Illinois at Springfield, Lincoln Land Community College, Springfield College in Illinois, and Southern Illinois University School of Medicine are located in Springfield. Among the technical and vocational schools in Springfield are Capital Area Vocational Center, Brown's Business College, and Robert Morris College.

The University of Illinois at Springfield (UIS), one of three University of Illinois campuses, is a four-year institution with an enrollment of about 4,500 students. The school offers degrees in 39 concentrations including business administration, psychology, and criminal justice. In addition to 20 bachelor's degree programs, UIS administers 18 master's degree programs and a doctorate program in public administration. The school celebrated its 30th anniversary in 2000.

The Southern Illinois University School of Medicine is a state-assisted school established in 1970 to train physicians and develop new models for providing health care in rural areas. Its 174 faculty physicians offer primary care and specialized services. The school also enrolls 288 medical students, 252 residents, 40 doctoral students, and 50 master's degree students.

Founded in 1967, Lincoln Land Community College is a community-based institution with an enrollment of about 12,000 students. The school offers vocational education, programs for returning students, and a transfer curriculum. Springfield College in Illinois is a four-year, faith-based institution offering both associate's and bachelor's degrees. The school was founded in 1929 by Catholic Ursuline Sisters, and was the city's first institution of higher learning.

Libraries and Research Centers

The Lincoln Library, Springfield's public library, holds more than 400,000 books, about 1,000 periodical titles, plus microfilm, films, audio and videotapes, compact discs, maps, charts, and art reproductions. The library operates three branches. Springfield is also home to the Illinois State Library, which houses five million volumes.

Opened in 2004, the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum (formerly the Illinois State Historical Library) is a 200,000 square foot complex located in downtown Springfield. The facility was created to foster Abraham Lincoln scholarship and promote a greater appreciation of Illinois history. The library's archives contain more than 12 million documents, books, and artifacts relating to all areas of Illinois history. It also holds more than 5,000 newspaper titles on 89,000 microfilm reels; many date from the early nineteenth century.

Campus library facilities are maintained by Lincoln Land Community College, University of Illinois at Springfield, and Southern Illinois University School of Medicine. The Illinois State Museum disseminates knowledge of natural history, anthropology, and art to the general public and scientists. Other libraries in the city are affiliated principally with hospitals and with government agencies such as the Illinois State Department of Energy and Natural Resources, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, and the Illinois Supreme Court.

Public Library Information: Lincoln Library, 326 S. 7th St., Springfield, IL 62701; telephone (217)753-4900

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Springfield: History

Springfield: History

Sangamon River Valley Attracts Settlers

At the time Illinois was admitted to the Union in 1818, the city of Springfield did not exist. In that same year Elisha Kelly of North Carolina, attracted to the fertile Sangamon River valley, built the first homestead at a location that is now the northwest corner of Springfield's Second and Jefferson streets. Other settlers soon arrived and a small settlement began to take shape around the Kelly cabin. When Sangamon County was created in 1821, the Kelly colony was the only one large enough to house county officials. The town was named Springfield in April 1821, the name being derived from Spring Creek and one of the Kelly family's fields. Springfield became the county seat in 1825 and received its incorporation in 1832.

Through the leadership of young Abraham Lincoln, one of the "Long Nine"seven representatives and two senators whose total height measured 54 feetthe state capital of Illinois was transferred from Vandalia to Springfield. Lincoln, who lived in the village of New Salem, 20 miles northwest of the city, moved to the new capital on April 15, 1837; he remained there until he left for Washington, D.C., on February 11, 1861, as the sixteenth president-elect of the United States on the eve of the American Civil War. During Lincoln's twenty-five years in Springfield as a lawyer and politician, the city experienced prosperity and growth, becoming a city in 1840 and recording a population of 9,400 people by 1860.

Monuments Memorialize Lincoln in Springfield

The city of Springfield is a tribute to Lincoln, rivaling Washington, D.C., in the grandeur and significance of its public monuments, shrines, and historic buildings. The Old State Capitol, a Greek Revival style building constructed in 1837, is one of the most historically significant structures west of the Alleghenies. Lincoln delivered his "House Divided" speech on June 16, 1858, and maintained an office as president-elect there. His body lay in state in the Capitol's House of Representatives on May 5, 1865. The Lincoln Tomb and memorial in Oak Ridge Cemetery was dedicated in 1874. The marble burial chamber holds the bodies of Lincoln, his wife Mary, and sons Edward Baker, William Wallace, and Thomas ("Tad"). The Lincoln Memorial Garden and Nature Center, designed by Jens Jensen, reflects the Illinois landscape of Lincoln's time. The Lincoln Home National Historic Site, the Lincoln-Herndon Law Offices, the Lincoln Depot (formerly Great Western depot, where he gave his farewell speech to Springfield), and the Lincoln Family Pew at the First Presbyterian Church complete the sites memorializing Lincoln's life in Springfield.

At the center of Springfield's history and daily life is state politics. After the Civil War, to prevent the removal of the capital to Peoria, Springfield citizens bought the old capitol building for $200,000, which was then used to finance a new structure. Begun in 1868 and finished 20 years later at a cost of $4.5 million, the capitol rises 461 feet above the city and is in the form of a Latin cross with a vast dome in the center, capped with stained glass. The building was renovated in 1958.

Springfield Emerges as Regional Center

In 1914 the Russell Sage Foundation picked Springfield for one of its sociological surveys to aid social welfare organizations. The creation of man-made Lake Springfield, the largest civic project in the city's history, was approved in 1930 and financed by a bond issue and federal funds. The city became a wholesale and retail center for the thriving agricultural region.

Today, Springfield continues to serve as a center of government, culture, and business for central Illinois. With the addition of the multi-million-dollar Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum, the city also continues to be an attraction for national and international visitors interested in presidential and American history.

Historical Information: Sangamon County Historical Society, 308 E. Adams St., Springfield, IL 62701; telephone (217)753-4900. Illinois State Historical Society, 210 1/2 S. 6th St., Springfield, IL 62701; telephone (217)525-2781

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Springfield: Education and Research

Springfield: Education and Research

Elementary and Secondary Schools

The Springfield Public School System includes pioneering programs in race relations, vocational and technical education, business education, toddler preschool, schools for gifted and talented children, and magnet schools. The Community Service Learning Program involves every child from kindergarten through high school in volunteer community work.

Specialized schools in the system include the Massachusetts Career Development Institute and SAGE, the Springfield Adolescent Graduation Experience.

The following is a summary of data regarding the Springfield public school system as of the 20032004 school year.

Total enrollment: 25,955

Number of facilities elementary schools: 31

junior high/middle schools: 6

senior high schools: 6

other: 9, including one K-8 school

Student/teacher ratio: 11.6:1 (20042005)

Teacher salaries average: $47,036

Funding per pupil: $6,263

In addition to about 34 parochial schools, Springfield's private schools include two specialized secondary institutes. The MacDuffie School is a college-preparatory school for girls and boys.

Public Schools Information: Springfield Public Schools, 195 State St., Springfield, MA 01103; telephone (413)787-7100

Colleges and Universities

With four colleges within the city limits and several nationally acclaimed schools within driving distance, Springfield is near the hub of western Massachusetts's academic community. Springfield College, a private school specializing in physical education and health and fitness, offers 50 undergraduate and 13 graduate majors. Western New England College focuses on liberal arts, business, law, and engineering; this private school enrolls 4,550 students, 500 of which are pursuing law degrees. American International College, a private liberal arts school, confers more than 30 undergraduate and graduate degrees in arts, business administration, and education. Springfield Technical Community College grants associate's degrees or certificates in business, health, liberal arts, engineering, and technologies to 7,000 students; the college occupies the complex established by George Washington as the nation's first arsenal, the Springfield Armory, now a national historic site. The Springfield campus of Cambridge College enrolls approximately 390 students.

Libraries and Research Centers

The Springfield City Library, the second largest system in New England, features nearly 800,000 volumes held among 10 branches. The main branch is situated in the Quadrangle, a cultural complex it shares with Springfield's four major museums. Among its services are an employment resource center, comprehensive business collections, on-line data base searching, an African American history collection, an art and music collection that includes musical scores, 300 periodicals, 20 newspapers, a children's department, and material for special adult reading needs. The library's other special interests include New England and French genealogy, the Holocaust, local history, WWI and WWII propaganda, and American wood engravings. Additionally, the library serves as a depository for federal government documents and Massachusetts state documents.

In addition to the college and hospital libraries, special libraries in Springfield include the Massachusetts Trial Court Library, Hampden Law Library, the Springfield Armory National Historic Site Library and Archives, the Hickox Library at the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame, and the Connecticut Valley Historical Museum Research Library. Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company has a company library.

The American International College Curtis Blake Center studies learning disorders and A.I.C.'s Oral History Center studies western Massachusetts and Connecticut oral history. Springfield College does research in physiology and physical fitness.

Public Library Information: Springfield Library, 220 State St., Springfield, MA 01103; telephone (413)263-6828; fax (413)263-6817; email askalibrarian@springfieldlibrary.org

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Springfield: Education and Research

Springfield: Education and Research

Elementary and Secondary Schools

Public school education began in Springfield in 1867; today, Central High and Lincoln School are on the National Register of Historic Places. Public elementary and secondary schools in Springfield are part of the School District of Springfield R-XII, the third-largest public school system in Missouri. An elected seven-member, nonpartisan board of education selects the superintendent. Special courses for high school students are available through Ozarks Technical Community College.

The following is a summary of data regarding the Springfield public schools as of the 20032004 school year.

Total enrollment: 24,119

Number of facilities

elementary schools: 37

middle schools: 9

senior high schools: 5

other: 2 (including one alternative education center and one gifted center)

Student/teacher ratio: 22:1

Teacher salaries average: $38,065

Funding per pupil: $6,000 to $7,000 average (varies per school)

Private schools are Assemblies of God Christian School, Christian Schools of Springfield, New Covenant Academy, Springfield Catholic School System, Seventh-Day Adventist School, and Springfield Lutheran School.

Public Schools Information: Springfield Public Schools, 940 N. Jefferson Ave., Springfield, MO 65802; telephone (417)523-0000.

Colleges and Universities

Southwest Missouri State University is Springfield's largest institution of higher learning and the second-largest university in the state. It enrolls nearly 20,000 students and awards associate, baccalaureate, and master's degrees in more than 80 disciplines in its 7 colleges, which include the colleges of business administration, education, natural and applied sciences, health and human services, arts and letters, and humanities and public affairs. The first doctoral program to be offered by the university was recently initiated in audiology. Private, church-related colleges are Assemblies of God Theological Seminary, Baptist Bible College, Baptist Bible Graduate School of Theology, Central Bible College, Drury University, and Evangel University; all offer a predominantly liberal arts curriculum at the undergraduate level, while Assemblies of God and Drury University grant graduate degrees. Ozarks Technical Community College, St. John's School of Nursing, Bryan Career College, Springfield College, Lester L. Cox College of Nursing and Health Sciences, and Vatterott College provide vocational and technical education. Also in Springfield is the Forest Institute of Psychology.

Libraries and Research Centers

The Springfield-Greene County Library District's main library is a newer facility that occupies an 82,000-square-foot former home improvement store and features a café, gift shop, and other amenities. The former Main Library was recently renovated to make it a cozier neighborhood library where patrons are welcomed with more reading chairs. With eight branches and a state-of-the-art bookmobile, the system has holdings of well over half a million volumes in addition to periodicals and special collections in such areas as genealogy and Missouri history, and Ozarks folklore. Southwest Missouri State University maintains the Duane G. Meyer Library, which houses a collection of more than 835,000 volumes and current subscriptions to 3,600 periodicals and newspapers, as well as the Greenwood Laboratory School Library, a music department library, and a campus library in West Plains. Assemblies of God Graduate School, Baptist Bible College, Central Bible College, Drury University, and Evangel University house holdings ranging from approximately 60,000 to more than 175,000 volumes. Specialized libraries located in the city are operated by the Missouri State Court of Appeals and the Springfield Art Museum among other organizations.

Public Library Information: Springfield-Greene County Public Libraries, 4653 South Campbell, Springfield, MO 65810; telephone (417)874-8110; fax (417)874-8121

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Springfield: History

Springfield: History

Removal of Delaware Tribe Opens Farmland

Pioneer Thomas Patterson attempted, in 1821, to make the first permanent settlement on the site of present-day Springfield; however, the Delaware people arrived the following year to claim the land as a federal Indian reservation. James Wilson was the lone settler to remain, and after the further relocation of the Delaware in 1830 he farmed land in the area. New settlers followed immediately. Among them was John Polk Campbell, who staked a claim in 1829 on a site that was then called Kickapoo Prairie; he carved his initials in an ash tree where four springs unite to form Wilson's Creek. This location was well situated, and a settlement soon grew up around the Campbell homestead.

Campbell was made county clerk when Missouri's Greene County was organized in 1833, and two years later he and his wife deeded land for a townsite. Springfield's name comes from a spring that creates Jordan Valley Creek downtown. Springfield was incorporated in 1838 and chartered in 1847.

Springfield's location and commercial base made it a military target during the Civil War. Sentiments regarding the war were split in the town, with the professional classes descended from Tennessee slaveholders supporting the Southern cause and rural settlers favoring the North. The Battle of Wilson's Creek was fought on August 10, 1861, resulting in a victory for the Confederate army; Union forces won the next battle in February, 1862, however, and held the area until the end of the war. Among the soldiers based at the Union Army's Springfield headquarters was James Butler Hickok, nicknamed Wild Bill, who served as a scout and spy. During a gun fight in July 1865 on the city square with his former friend, gambler Dave Tutt, Hickok shot Tutt through the heart. Hickok was acquitted in a trial in which he was defended by John S. Phelps, a future Missouri governor.

Railroad Brings Expansion, New Business

In 1870 land speculators persuaded the Atlantic & Pacific Railroad to build a railroad through a new town north of Springfield despite the protests of Springfield citizens, who claimed that the new route violated the original charter. Nonetheless, the Ozark Land Company was organized and the new town was deeded to the company. As both communities grew, they were consolidated in 1887.

During the first half of the twentieth century, Springfield became an agricultural and distribution center; after World War II, the population grew rapidly as the result of the expansion of Eastern manufacturing companies into the West. The city's proximity to the Ozark Mountains makes it a popular tourist destination.

A vital economy, low cost of living, commitment to education, scenic location, and commitment to downtown revitalization are ensuring the city's steady growth in population.

Historical Information: Springfield-Greene County Public Libraries, 4653 South Campbell, Springfield, MO 65810; telephone (417)874-8110

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Springfield: Communications

Springfield: Communications

Newspapers and Magazines

Springfield's daily newspaper is the The Republican. Special interest publications include The Catholic Observer and BusinessWest, a biweekly business journal serving western Massachusetts.

Television and Radio

Springfield is served by a number of television stations: two commercial networks, one Public Broadcasting Service station, and one channel franchise. According to the 2003 Broadcasting & Cable Yearbook, Springfield ranks fourth among the nation's top market for cable television, as 86 percent of households have access to cable. Two AM and three FM radio stations broadcast a variety of music, news, and college-oriented programs.

Media Information: BusinessWest, 1441 Main St., 6th Fl., Springfield, MA 01103; telephone (413)781-8600; fax (413)781-3930. The Republican, 1860 Main St., Springfield, MA 01101; telephone (413)788-1000

Springfield Online

Baystate Health System. Available www.baystatehealth.com

BusinessWest. Available www.businesswest.com

City of Springfield. Available www.cityofspringfieldmass.com

Greater Springfield Convention & Visitors Bureau. Available www.valleyvisitor.com

Massachusetts Office of Business Development. Available www.state.ma.us/mobd

Pioneer Valley Planning Commission. Available www.pvpc.org

The Republican. Available www.repub.com

Springfield Armory National Historic Site. Available www.nps.gov/spar

Springfield Library. Available www.springfieldlibrary.org

Springfield Library & Museums Association. Available www.quadrangle.org

Springfield Public Schools. Available www.sps.springfield.ma.us

Western Massachusetts Economic Development Council. Available www.westernmassedc.com

Selected Bibliography

Clark, Rusty, West Springfield, Massachusetts: Stories Carved in Stone (West Springfield, MA: Dog Pond Press, 2004)

Cruikshank, Ginger, Springfield, MA, Volume 1 (Mount Pleasant, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 1999)

Prisch, Michael H., Town into City: Springfield, Massachusetts, and the Meaning of Community (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1972)

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Springfield: Convention Facilities

Springfield: Convention Facilities

Several meeting sites in Springfield cater to a full range of meeting needs, from small parties to merchandise shows. A new expo center at Jordan Valley Park and improvements to an existing trade center were completed in September 2003, and include 40,000 square feet of exhibition space and 13,000 square feet of pre-function space. The expo facility connected to the renovated Trade Center results in about 110,000 square feet of contiguous convention and exhibition space. The building can accommodate 280 booths and about 4,400 people, and has a seating capacity of 3,000. There is also a 950-space parking garage.

The Shrine Mosque features a 19,600-square-foot auditorium with variable capacity that includes up to 60 exhibit booths and seating for 3,355 people in a theater setting and 900 people for banquets. A lower-level, 15,000-square-foot exhibit area can contain as many as 96 additional booths and accommodate up to 2,500 people for a reception.

Centrally located near the Southwest Missouri State University (SMSU) campus is the University Plaza Trade Center, a two-level complex that provides a combined total of more than 66,000 square feet of multipurpose space. The facility's meetings rooms host functions for 30 to 180 participants; banquet capacity for the first level is 1,824 people and 1,248 people for the second level. A parking garage for 550 vehicles is attached.

Hammons Student Center and McDonald Arena on the SMSU campus, designed principally for university use, are also available for special events. The Ozark Empire Fairgrounds can be rented April 1 through November 15 for meetings and conventions. Several Springfield area hotels and motels offer meeting accommodations; more than 5,000 lodging rooms are available in metropolitan Springfield.

Convention Information: Springfield Convention and Visitors Bureau, 3315 East Battlefield Road, Springfield, MO 65804; telephone (417)881-5300; toll-free (800)678-8767; fax (417)881-2231

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Springfield: Population Profile

Springfield: Population Profile

Metropolitan Area Residents

1980: 207,704

1990: 264,346

2000: 325,721

Percent change, 19902000: 23%

U.S. rank in 1990: Not reported

U.S. rank in 2000: 122nd

City Residents

1980: 133,116

1990: 140,494

2000: 151,580

Percent change, 19902000: 7.4%

U.S. rank in 1980: 118th

U.S. rank in 1990: 126th (State rank: 3rd)

U.S. rank in 2000: 151st (State rank: 3rd)

Density: 2,072 people per square mile (2000)

Racial and ethnic characteristics (2000)

White: 138,987

Black or African American: 4,961

American Indian and Alaska Native: 1,142

Asian: 2,060

Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander: 136

Hispanic (may be of any race): 3,501

Other: 1,332

Percent of residents born in state: 60.1% (2000)

Age characteristics (2000)

Population under 5 years old: 8,635

Population 5 to 9 years old: 8,439

Population 10 to 14 years old: 7,987

Population 15 to 19 years old: 12,155

Population 20 to 24 years old: 19,064

Population 25 to 34 years old: 22,032

Population 35 to 44 years old: 20,438

Population 45 to 54 years old: 17,912

Population 55 to 59 years old: 6,563

Population 60 to 64 years old: 5,469

Population 65 to 74 years old: 10,572

Population 75 to 84 years old: 8,545

Population 85 years and over: 3,469

Median age: 33.5 years

Births (2003, Greene County) Total number: 11,785

Deaths (2003, Greene County) Total number: 18,054 (of which, 54 were infants under the age of 1 year)

Money income (1999)

Per capita income: $17,711

Median household income: $29,563

Total households: 64,779

Number of households with income of . . .

less than $10,000: 2,267

$10,000 to $14,999: 2,105

$15,000 to $24,999: 5,499

$25,000 to $34,999: 6,199

$35,000 to $49,999: 7,882

$50,000 to $74,999: 6,411

$75,000 to $99,999: 2,681

$100,000 to $149,999: 1,739

$150,000 to $199,999: 468

$200,000 or more: 680

Percent of families below poverty level: 9.9% (48.5% of which were female householder families with related children under 5 years)

2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 12,066

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Springfield: Population Profile

Springfield: Population Profile

Metropolitan Area Residents

1990: 587,844

2000: 591,932

Percent change, 19902000: 0.7%

U.S. rank in 1990: 68th

U.S. rank in 2000: 71st

City Residents

1980: 152,319

1990: 156,983

2000: 152,082

2003 estimate: 152,157

Percent change, 19902000: -3.1%

U.S. rank in 1980: 103rd

U.S. rank in 1990: 111th (State rank: 3rd)

U.S. rank in 2000: 150th (State rank: 3rd)

Density: 4,737.7 people per square mile (2000)

Racial and ethnic characteristics (2000)

White: 85,329

Black or African American: 31,960

American Indian and Alaska Native: 569

Asian: 2,916

Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander: 143

Hispanic or Latino (may be of any race): 41,343

Other: 25,016

Percent of residents born in state: 59.3% (2000)

Age characteristics (2000)

Population under 5 years old: 11,606

Population 5 to 9 years old: 12,945

Population 10 to 14 years old: 12,504

Population 15 to 19 years old: 12,343

Population 20 to 24 years old: 12,023

Population 25 to 34 years old: 21,246

Population 35 to 44 years old: 21,861

Population 45 to 54 years old: 17,670

Population 55 to 59 years old: 6,237

Population 60 to 64 years old: 4,741

Population 65 to 74 years old: 9,245

Population 75 to 84 years old: 7,315

Population 85 years and older: 2,346

Median age: 31.9 years

Births (2003) Birth rate per 1,000 residents: 15.9

Deaths (2003) Total number: 666 (of which, the infant death rate was 4.5)

Money income (1999)

Per capita income: $15,232

Median household income: $30,417

Total households: 57,178

Number of households with income of . . .

less than $10,000: 9,677

$10,000 to $14,999: 5,359

$15,000 to $24,999: 9,224

$25,000 to $34,999: 7,594

$35,000 to $49,999: 8,652

$50,000 to $74,999: 9,727

$75,000 to $99,999: 4,105

$100,000 to $149,999: 2,130

$150,000 to $199,999: 326

$200,000 or more: 384

Percent of families below poverty level: 19.3% (62.2% of which were female householder families with related children under 5 years)

2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 14,299

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Springfield: Communications

Springfield: Communications

Newspapers and Magazines

The State Journal-Register is Springfield's major daily (morning) newspaper, and Illinois' oldest newspaper. The Illinois Times appears weekly and is available for free at hundreds of locations in the area. Other journals and magazines published in Springfield are directed toward readers with special interests in such subjects as beef production, anthropology, aviation, engineering, Illinois history, health care, education, building trades, and electrical cooperatives.

Television and Radio

Five television stations are based in Springfield, through the ABC, CBS, NBC, FOX, and PBS networks. Cable television is also available. Radio programming is provided in Springfield by three AM and 12 FM stations, broadcasting rock, contemporary, country, and classical music as well as sports, news, and talk radio.

Media Information: State Journal-Register, PO Box 219, Springfield, IL 62705-0219; telephone (217)788-1300

Springfield Online

Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum. Available www.alplm.org

City of Springfield home page. Available www.springfield.il.us

Downtown Springfield Inc. Available www.downtownspringfield.org

Economic Development Council of Springfield. Available www.gscc.org/EDC

Greater Springfield Chamber of Commerce. Available www.gscc.org

Illinois State Museum. Available www.museum.state.il.us

Lincoln Home National Historic Site. Available www.nps.gov/liho

Springfield Convention and Visitors Bureau. Available www.visit-springfieldillinois.com

State of Illinois home page. Available www.state.il.us

State Journal-Register. Available www.sj-r.com

Selected Bibliography

Hoffmann, Donald. Frank Lloyd Wright's Dana House. (Dover, 1996)

Lindsay, Vachel. The Golden Book of Springfield (Lost Utopias Series). (Charles H. Kerr, 2000)

Portwood, Shirley Motley. Tell Us a Story: An African American Family in the Heartland. (Southern Illinois University Press, 2000)

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Springfield: Population Profile

Springfield: Population Profile

Metropolitan Area Residents

1980: 187,770

1990: 189,550

2000: 188,951

Percent change, 19902000: 5.9%

U.S. rank in 1990: Not reported

U.S. rank in 2000: 165th

City Residents

1980: 99,637

1990: 105,227

2000: 111,454

2003 estimate: 113,586

Percent change, 19902000: 3.9%

U.S. rank in 1980: 171st

U.S. rank in 1990: 183rd (State rank: 4th)

U.S. rank in 2000: 225th (State rank: 6th)

Density: 2,063.9 people per square mile (2000)

Racial and ethnic characteristics (2000)

White: 90,287

Black or African American: 17,096

American Indian and Alaska Native: 231

Asian: 1,620

Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander: 34

Hispanic or Latino (may be of any race): 1,337

Other: 525

Percent of residents born in state: 78.2% (2000)

Age characteristics (2000)

Population under 5 years old: 7,341

Population 5 to 9 years old: 7,631

Population 10 to 14 years old: 7,251

Population 15 to 19 years old: 7,099

Population 20 to 24 years old: 7,152

Population 25 to 34 years old: 15,942

Population 35 to 44 years old: 17,316

Population 45 to 54 years old: 16,011

Population 55 to 59 years old: 5,270

Population 60 to 64 years old: 4,345

Population 65 to 74 years old: 7,821

Population 75 to 84 years old: 5,896

Population 85 years and older: 2,379

Median age: 36.9 years

Births (2003) Total number: 2,571

Deaths (2002) Total number: 1,793

Money income (1999)

Per capita income: $23,324

Median household income: $39,388

Total households: 48,753

Number of households with income of . . .

less than $10,000: 4,304

$10,000 to $14,999: 3,399

$15,000 to $24,999: 6,982

$25,000 to $34,999: 6,938

$35,000 to $49,999: 8,467

$50,000 to $74,999: 9,091

$75,000 to $99,999: 4,696

$100,000 to $149,999: 3,179

$150,000 to $199,999: 704

$200,000 or more: 993

Percent of families below poverty level: 8.4% (46.6% of which were female householder families with related children under 5 years)

2002 FBI Crime Index Total: Not reported

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Springfield: Communications

Springfield: Communications

Newspapers and Magazines

Springfield's daily newspaper is The News-Leader, which appears in daily and Sunday morning editions. The Springfield Business Journal is a weekly publication. The monthly Springfield! Magazine features articles on topics of local and community interest; 417 Magazine caters to the area's upscale residents with lifestyle, decorating, travel, and entertainment articles.

The General Council of the Assemblies of God Gospel Publishing House, which produces a variety of religious magazines and journals for church leaders and members, is based in Springfield.

Television and Radio

Five television stations, including four major network affiliates and one public network outlet, plus cable, broadcast in Springfield. Twenty AM and FM radio stations schedule music, religious, and news and information programming.

Media Information: The News-Leader, 651 N. Boonville Ave., Springfield, MO 65806; telephone (417)836-1100. Springfield! Magazine, PO Box 4749, Springfield, MO 65808; telephone (417)831-1640

Springfield Online

City of Springfield home page. Available www.springfield.missouri.org

The News-Leader. Available www.springfieldnews-leader.com

Southwest Missouri State University. Available www.smsu.edu

Springfield Business Development Corporation. Available www.business4springfield.com

Springfield Convention and Visitors Bureau. Available www.springfieldmo.org

Springfield Museum. Available www.wondersofwildlife.org

Springfield Public Schools. Available sps.k12.mo.us

Springfield Regional Arts Council. Available www.spring fieldarts.org

Selected Bibliography

Boyle, Shanna, et al., eds. Crossroads at the Spring: A Pictorial History of Springfield, Missouri (Donning Marketing Company, 1997)

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Springfield: Convention Facilities

Springfield: Convention Facilities

The Springfield Civic Center, currently the city's largest event facility, comprises an arena seating 10,000 people, an exhibition hall with 38,500 square feet, a banquet hall, and meeting rooms. The center is undergoing a $71 million expansion and renovation that will transform it into the MassMutual Center, scheduled to open in late 2005. MassMutual will offer more than 40,000 square feet of exhibition space, 9,000 square feet of meeting space that can be divided into up to five rooms, and an arena that can seat up to 8,000 people. Additional conference space is offered by both the Springfield Symphony Hall and the not-for-profit CityStage, both of which can accommodate meetings, receptions, and presentations.

Major hotels include the Sheraton Springfield Monarch Place, with 27,000 square feet of conference space, 19 meeting rooms, and one of the largest ballrooms in western Massachusetts; and the Springfield Marriott, which features 265 guest rooms and more than 15,000 square feet of meeting and exhibit space; it is connected to Tower Square shopping.

One of New England's major multiuse sites, the 175-acre Eastern States Exposition, with three buildings and 275,000 square feet of space, is located in nearby West Springfield. The University of Massachusetts in Amherst features the University Conference Services, with 116 guest rooms and 36 meeting rooms, and Mullins Center, a state-of-the-art facility with 10,500 set arena and 40,000 square feet of exhibit space and meeting rooms.

Convention Information: Greater Springfield Convention & Visitors Bureau, 1441 Main St., Springfield, MA 01103; telephone (413)787-1548; toll-free (800)723-1548; fax (413)781-4607; email info@valleyvisitor.com

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Springfield

Springfield

Springfield: Introduction
Springfield: Geography and Climate
Springfield: History
Springfield: Population Profile
Springfield: Municipal Government
Springfield: Economy
Springfield: Education and Research
Springfield: Health Care
Springfield: Recreation
Springfield: Convention Facilities
Springfield: Transportation
Springfield: Communications

The City in Brief

Founded: 1636 (incorporated, 1852)

Head Official: Mayor Charles Ryan (since 2002)

City Population

1980: 152,319

1990: 156,983

2000: 152,082

2003 estimate: 152,157

Percent change, 19902000: -3.1%

U.S. rank in 1980: 103rd

U.S. rank in 1990: 111th (State rank: 3rd)

U.S. rank in 2000: 150th (State rank: 3rd)

Metropolitan Area Population

1990: 587,844

2000: 591,932

Percent change, 19902000: 0.7%

U.S. rank in 1990: 68th

U.S. rank in 2000: 71st

Area: 33.2 square miles (2000)

Elevation: 101 feet above sea level

Average Annual Temperature: 50.45° F

Average Annual Precipitation: 43.9 inches of rain; 50.2 inches of snow

Major Economic Sectors: Manufacturing, trade, services

Unemployment Rate: 5.8% (February 2005)

Per Capita Income: $15,232 (1999)

2004 ACCRA Average House Cost: Not reported

2004 ACCRA Cost of Living Index: Not reported

2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 14,299

Major Colleges and Universities: American International

College, Springfield College, Springfield Technical Community College, Western New England College

Daily Newspaper: The Republican

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Springfield

Springfield

Springfield: Introduction
Springfield: Geography and Climate
Springfield: History
Springfield: Population Profile
Springfield: Municipal Government
Springfield: Economy
Springfield: Education and Research
Springfield: Health Care
Springfield: Recreation
Springfield: Convention Facilities
Springfield: Transportation
Springfield: Communications

The City in Brief

Founded: 1820 (incorporated, 1832)

Head Official: Mayor Timothy J. Davlin (since 2003)

City Population

1980: 99,637

1990: 105,227

2000: 111,454

2003 estimate: 113,586

Percent change, 19902000: 3.9%

U.S. rank in 1980: 171st

U.S. rank in 1990: 183rd (State rank: 4th)

U.S. rank in 2000: 225th (State rank: 6th)

Metropolitan Area Population

1980: 187,770

1990: 189,550

2000: 188,951

Percent change, 19902000: 5.9%

U.S. rank in 1990: Not reported

U.S. rank in 2000: 165th

Area: 54 square miles (2000)

Elevation: 588 feet above sea level

Average Annual Temperature: 53° F

Average Annual Precipitation: 35 inches

Major Economic Sectors: Government, services, wholesale and retail trade

Unemployment Rate: 5.1% (March 2005)

Per Capita Income: $23,324 (1999)

2002 FBI Crime Index Total: Not reported

Major Colleges and Universities: University of Illinois at Springfield; Southern Illinois University School of Medicine; Lincoln Land Community College; Springfield College in Illinois

Daily Newspaper: State Journal-Register

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Springfield: Transportation

Springfield: Transportation

Approaching the City

The Abraham Lincoln Capital Airport is the major air transportation facility in the Springfield metropolitan area. The airport is served by the commercial carriers United and American, which make 23 daily commercial flights to and from airports in St. Louis and Chicago. Charter service is also available.

The highway system in Springfield/Sangamon County includes three interstate freeways, a limited-access highway, and several state routes. Intersecting Sangamon County, I-55 runs north to south along the eastern boundary of Springfield; I-72 links the city with Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, to the east. U.S. 36 connects with I-55 south of Springfield and continues west to Jacksonville, Illinois. State routes include 4 (north-south), 29 (east-west), 54 (east-west), and 97 (east-west).

Amtrak schedules six trains daily that provide service from Springfield to Chicago, Illinois, and to St. Louis, Missouri. Greyhound Bus Lines also serve the city.

Traveling in the City

Streets in Springfield are laid out on a grid pattern. Washington Street, bisecting the city from east to west, and Fifth Street and Sixth Street, running parallel north to south, intersect in the center of downtown. The Springfield Mass Transit District operates public bus transportation on regularly scheduled routes Monday through Saturday.

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Springfield

Springfield

Springfield: Introduction
Springfield: Geography and Climate
Springfield: History
Springfield: Population Profile
Springfield: Municipal Government
Springfield: Economy
Springfield: Education and Research
Springfield: Health Care
Springfield: Recreation
Springfield: Convention Facilities
Springfield: Transportation
Springfield: Communications

The City in Brief

Founded: 1830 (incorporated 1838)

Head Official: City Manager Tom Finnie (since 1990)

City Population

1980: 133,116

1990: 140,494

2000: 151,580

Percent change, 19902000: 7.4%

U.S. rank in 1980: 118th

U.S. rank in 1990: 126th

U.S. rank in 2000: 151st

Metropolitan Area Population

1980: 207,704

1990: 264,346

2000: 325,721

Percent change, 19902000: 23%

U.S. rank in 1990: Not reported

U.S. rank in 2000: 122nd

Area: 73.16 square miles (2000)

Elevation: 1,268 feet above sea level

Average Annual Temperature: 56.2° F

Average Annual Precipitation: 41 inches of rain; 15 inches of snow

Major Economic Sectors: Services, wholesale and retail trade, manufacturing, government

Unemployment Rate: 5.1% (February 2005)

Per Capita Income: $17,711 (1999)

2002 FBI Crime Index Total: 12,066

Major Colleges and Universities: Southwest Missouri State University, Drury University

Daily Newspaper: The News-Leader

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Springfield: Health Care

Springfield: Health Care

Springfield is a primary health care center for the central Illinois region. Two major hospitals, a world-renowned heart surgery institute, a medical school, more than 40 clinics, and 30 nursing homes provide diagnostic, treatment, and care services. St. John's Hospital has more than 700 beds, making it the largest hospital in downstate Illinois. It has been in operation for more than 125 years, and is one of the largest Catholic hospitals in the United States. The Prairie Heart Institute, a part of St. John's Hospital, has the largest heart program in Illinois. It performs more diagnostic catheterization angioplasties and heart surgeries than any single hospital in the state. Memorial Health System maintains burn and rehabilitative medicine units.

Another valuable resource to the Springfield medical community is Southern Illinois University School of Medicine. The medical school has 174 full-time health care providers covering seven disciplines, including internal medicine, neurology, obstetrics/gynecology, and pediatrics. Additionally, the Springfield Clinic is the second-largest clinic in Illinois.

Health Care Information: St. John's Hospital, 800 E. Carpenter St., Springfield, IL 62769; telephone (217)544-6464. Memorial Health System, 701 N. 1st St., Springfield, IL 62781; telephone (217)788-3000

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Springfield: Transportation

Springfield: Transportation

Approaching the City

Springfield is 18 miles north of Bradley International Airport in Windsor Locks, Connecticut. Fifteen airlines at Bradley offer 232 daily flights to 75 destinations in the United States, Canada, and the Caribbean. Shuttle buses and limousines run between the airport and Springfield. Westover Metropolitan Airport and several private airports also serve Springfield.

Amtrak schedules trains between Springfield and many cities such as Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Washington, D.C., Chicago, and Montreal. In addition, Peter Pan Bus Lines connect Springfield with numerous cities throughout the Northeast.

Two major New England road arteries intersect in Springfield: the east-west running Massachusetts Turnpike (Inter-state-90) and the north-south traveling Interstate-91 with its branch, Interstate-291, running through downtown.

Traveling in the City

Springfield's downtown is located on the east bank of the Connecticut River; the rest of the city spreads out to the east. Local transportation, provided by the Pioneer Valley Transit Authority, extends into 24 communities along 43 bus routes.

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Springfield: Health Care

Springfield: Health Care

The health care needs of Springfield residents are met by three major medical facilities in the city and more than a dozen acute care facilities in western Massachusetts. The Baystate Medical Center, one of the state's largest hospitals, is a teaching hospital affiliated with Tufts University and UMass Medical School. It features a state-of-the-art neonatal intensive care unit and is the only tertiary care referral medical center serving the western portion of the state. Baystate encompasses a Children's Hospital, the Wesson Women & Infants Unit, and the D'Amour Center for Cancer Care. The Shriners' Hospital for Children, operated by the Melha Temple, specializes in children's orthopedics, extensive outpatient services, and research into orthotics and prosthetics. The 226-bed Mercy Hospital, one of three general community hospitals operated in the Pioneer Valley by the Sisters of Providence, is a full-service healthcare facility.

Health Care Information: Baystate Health System, 280 Chestnut St., Springfield, MA 01199; telephone (413)794-0000

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Springfield: Geography and Climate

Springfield: Geography and Climate

Surrounded by flat or gently rolling tableland, Springfield is set atop the crest of the Missouri Ozark Mountain plateau. The climate is characterized as a plateau climate, with a milder winter and a cooler summer than in the upland plain or prairie. Springfield occupies a unique location for natural water drainage: the line separating two major water sheds crosses the north-central part of the city, causing drainage north of this line to flow into the Gasconade and Missouri Rivers; drainage to the south flows into the White and Mississippi Rivers. The average annual temperature range is over 140 degrees with lowest temperatures below minus 25 degrees and highest temperatures above 115 degrees.

Area: 73.16 square miles (2000)

Elevation: 1,268 feet above sea level

Average Temperatures: January, 32.5° F; July, 78.6° F; annual average, 56.2° F

Average Annual Precipitation: 41 inches of rain; 15 inches of snow

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Springfield: Introduction

Springfield: Introduction

Springfield is the seat of Missouri's Greene County and the center of a metropolitan statistical area that includes Christian and Greene counties. Called the Gateway to the Ozark Mountains, Springfield is part of a resort area whose primary attractions are the largest cave in North America, an outdoor exotic animal park, and Bass Pro Shops Outdoor World, one of the most-visited tourist attraction in the state. The Battle of Wilson's Creek was fought in the first year of the American Civil War near Springfield and the site is now a national battlefield monument. Today the city is a regional agribusiness center and a dairy-product shipping center. In 2004 Expansion Management magazine ranked Springfield 6th out of 331 U.S. metro areas for business expansion, citing its excellent public schools, low health care costs, and high quality of life.

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Springfield: Convention Facilities

Springfield: Convention Facilities

The Prairie Capital Convention Center, conveniently located in downtown Springfield, is the city's principal meeting and convention facility. It contains 66,000 square feet of space, and includes 44,000 square feet of column-free exhibit space. Springfield's many hotels, motels, and inns offer more than 4,000 rooms. Major hotels, such as the Hilton, Renaissance, and Crowne Plaza also operate meeting and conference facilities. The Illinois State Fairgrounds has a 366-acre facility with 29 major buildings available for large events. And for those looking for a unique setting, the Old State Capitol, Dana-Thomas House, and New Salem have facilities available.

Convention Information: Springfield Convention and Visitors Bureau, 109 N. 7th St., Springfield, IL 62701; telephone (217)789-2360; toll-free 800-545-7300

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Springfield: Health Care

Springfield: Health Care

Springfield's health care community serves the area with more than 1,000 medical doctors practicing in all fields of specialization. The city's major hospitals are St. John's Regional Health Center, Cox Medical Center South/Cox Walnut Lawn, Cox Medical Center North, Lakeland Regional Hospital, and Doctors Hospital of Springfield. St. John's, the state's second-largest private health care facility, maintains centers specializing in the heart, cancer, sports medicine and rehabilitation, fitness, emergency trauma, and burn care. The many health care facilities located on South National Avenue have given rise to the nickname Medical Mile, where more than $200 million has been invested.

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Springfield: Geography and Climate

Springfield: Geography and Climate

The city of Springfield, in Hampden County in western Massachusetts, is 80 miles west of Boston. Located on the east bank of the Connecticut River, the city lies in the Pioneer Valley, a plateau formed between the Holyoke Range of mountains (a part of the White Mountain chain) to the east and the Green Mountains to the west. Springfield enjoys a New England climate, with cold, snowy winters and warm summers.

Area: 33.2 square miles (2000)

Elevation: 101 feet above sea level

Average Temperatures: January, 26.8° F; July, 74.1° F; annual average, 50.45° F

Average Annual Precipitation: 43.9 inches of rain; 50.2 inches of snow

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Springfield: Municipal Government

Springfield: Municipal Government

The city of Springfield, which is also the seat of Greene County, is administered by a council-manager form of government. Eight council members are elected for a four-year term on a non-partisan basis, and a mayor is elected for a two-year term. The city manager is appointed by the council to be the chief executive and administrative officer of the city.

Head Official: City Manager Tom Finnie (since 1990)

Total Number of City Employees: 1,565 (2004)

City Information: City of Springfield, 840 Boonville Avenue, PO Box 8368, Springfield, MO 65801-8368; telephone: (417)864-1000; fax (417)864-1114; email city@ci.spring field.mo.us

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Springfield: Geography and Climate

Springfield: Geography and Climate

Springfield is located south of the Sangamon River on level to gently sloping terrain in a fertile agricultural region in central Illinois. The city is 190 miles southwest of Chicago, 95 miles northeast of St. Louis, and 193 miles west of Indianapolis. Springfield's climate consists of four seasons, with warm summers and cold winters; snowfall and ice average twenty-two inches a year. Relative humidity measures 61 percent annually.

Area: 54 square miles (2000)

Elevation: 588 feet above sea level

Average Temperatures: 16.3° F to 87.1° F; annual average, 53° F

Average Annual Precipitation: 35 inches

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Springfield: Introduction

Springfield: Introduction

Springfield is the capital of Illinois and the seat of Sangamon County, which is included in the Springfield metropolitan area. The city is the commercial, health care, financial, and cultural center for a wide agricultural region. Springfield bills itself as "The City Lincoln Loved," since it served as the home, workplace, and political base of Abraham Lincoln for nearly twenty-four years prior to his election as President of the United States. Springfield is also a popular tourist destination.

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Springfield: Introduction

Springfield: Introduction

The home of the Springfield Armory and a number of private firearms manufacturers, Springfield early attracted scores of talented artisans to its manufacturing concerns. Today Springfield, one of the oldest settlements in America and the third largest city in Massachusetts, is best known for its growing service industry, which is anchored by a major insurance firm. Its location on interstate roadways and rail lines makes the city the wholesale and retail trade center for western Massachusetts.

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Springfield: Transportation

Springfield: Transportation

Approaching the City

Several commercial airlines schedule regular daily flights into Springfield-Branson Regional Airport. Principal highway routes into Springfield are I-44, U.S. 60, 65, 66, 160, and 266, and Missouri 13. Greyhound Trailways provides bus transportation.

Traveling in the City

Ground transportation is provided by Fisk Transportation and Tours, City Bus Service, Gray Line, Ozarks Shuttle, Springfield City Cab, Yellow Cab, and Medi Transit Wheel-chair Service.

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Springfield: Municipal Government

Springfield: Municipal Government

The city of Springfield is governed by a strong-mayor/council form of government. The mayor is elected to two-year terms while the nine-member at-large city council serves two-year concurrent terms with the mayor.

Head Official: Mayor Charles Ryan (since 2002; current term expires 2006)

Total Number of City Employees: 2,278 (2003)

City Information: Mayor's Office, City of Springfield, 36 Court Street, Springfield, MA 01103; telephone (413)787-6100

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Springfield: Municipal Government

Springfield: Municipal Government

Springfield operates under an aldermanic form of municipal government. The 10 aldermen and the mayor, who is the head official and a member of council, serve four-year terms.

Head Official: Mayor Timothy J. Davlin (since April 2003; current term expires 2007)

Total Number of City Employees: 1,650 (2005)

City Information: City of Springfield, 800 E. Monroe, Springfield, IL 62701; telephone (217)789-2000

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Springfield

Springfield State capital of Illinois, 298km (185mi) sw of Chicago. Founded in 1818, it became state capital in 1837. The centre of a fertile farming area, Springfield's industries include machinery, electronics, and fertilizers. Pop. (2000) 111,454.

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"Springfield." World Encyclopedia. 2005. Encyclopedia.com. 29 Jul. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Springfield." World Encyclopedia. 2005. Encyclopedia.com. (July 29, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O142-Springfield.html

"Springfield." World Encyclopedia. 2005. Retrieved July 29, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O142-Springfield.html

Springfield

Springfield •Schwarzwald • Buchenwald •beheld, eld, geld, held, meld, self-propelled, upheld, weld, withheld •Ziegfeld • unparalleled • spot-weld •unscaled •afield, field, midfield, misfield, shield, unaneled, unconcealed, unhealed, unpeeled, unrevealed, unsealed, wield, yield •backfield • battlefield • Mansfield •Garfield • Sheffield • Lee-Enfield •airfield • Wakefield • Masefield •Greenfield • Lichfield • brickfield •Springfield • Smithfield • minefield •cornfield • brownfield • outfield •snowfield •coalfield, goldfield, Sutton Coldfield •oilfield • Bloomfield • Nuffield •upfield • Huddersfield • Sellafield •chesterfield • windshield •gumshield •build, deskilled, gild, guild, self-willed, sild, unfilled, unfulfilled, unskilled, untilled, upbuild •Brunhild • Roskilde

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"Springfield." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. 2007. Encyclopedia.com. 29 Jul. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Springfield." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. 2007. Encyclopedia.com. (July 29, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O233-Springfield.html

"Springfield." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. 2007. Retrieved July 29, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O233-Springfield.html

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