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San Marino

SAN MARINO

LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT
TOPOGRAPHY
CLIMATE
FLORA AND FAUNA
ENVIRONMENT
POPULATION
MIGRATION
ETHNIC GROUPS
LANGUAGES
RELIGIONS
TRANSPORTATION
HISTORY
GOVERNMENT
POLITICAL PARTIES
LOCAL GOVERNMENT
JUDICIAL SYSTEM
ARMED FORCES
INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION
ECONOMY
INCOME
LABOR
AGRICULTURE
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
FISHING
FORESTRY
MINING
ENERGY AND POWER
INDUSTRY
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
DOMESTIC TRADE
FOREIGN TRADE
BALANCE OF PAYMENTS
BANKING AND SECURITIES
INSURANCE
PUBLIC FINANCE
TAXATION
CUSTOMS AND DUTIES
FOREIGN INVESTMENT
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
HEALTH
HOUSING
EDUCATION
LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS
MEDIA
ORGANIZATIONS
TOURISM, TRAVEL, AND RECREATION
FAMOUS SANMARINESE
DEPENDENCIES
BIBLIOGRAPHY

The Most Serene Republic of San Marino

La Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino

CAPITAL: San Marino

FLAG: The flag is divided horizontally into two equal bands, sky blue below and white above.

ANTHEM: Onore a te, onore, o antica repubblica (Honor to You, O Ancient Republic).

MONETARY UNIT: The Italian lira was replaced by the euro as official currency as of 2002. The euro is divided into 100 cents. There are coins in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 cents and 1 euro and 2 euros. There are notes of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500 euros. 1 = $1.25475 (or $1 = 0.79697) as of 2005. The country issues its own coins in limited numbers as well. Coins of San Marino may circulate in both the republic and in Italy.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES: The metric system is the legal standard.

HOLIDAYS: New Year's Day, 1 January; Epiphany, 6 January; Anniversary of St. Agatha, second patron saint of the republic, and of the liberation of San Marino (1740), 5 February; Anniversary of the Arengo, 25 March; Investiture of the Captains-Regent, 1 April and 1 October; Labor Day, 1 May; Fall of Fascism, 28 July; Assumption and August Bank Holiday, 1416 August; Anniversary of the Foundation of San Marino, 3 September; All Saint's Day, 1 November; Commemoration of the Dead, 2 November; Immaculate Conception, 8 December; Christmas, 2426 December; New Year's Eve, 31 December. Movable religious holidays include Easter Monday and Ascension.

TIME: 1 pm = noon GMT.

LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT

San Marino is the third-smallest country in Europe. With an area of 60 sq km (23 sq mi), it extends 13.1 km (8.1 mi) nesw and 9.1 km (5.7 mi) senw. Comparatively, the area occupied by San Marino is about 0.3 times the size of Washington, DC. It is a landlocked state completely surrounded by Italy, with a total boundary length of 39 km (24 mi).

TOPOGRAPHY

The town of San Marino is on the slopes and at the summit of Mt. Titano (755 m/2,477 ft), and much of the republic is coextensive with the mountain, which has major limestone pinnacles. Each of the peaks is crowned by old fortifications; on the north by a castle and the other two by towers. Level areas around the base of Mt. Titano provide land for agricultural use. The San Marino River begins in Italy and flows northward through the western portion of the country, forming part of the nation's western border. The Ausa River in the northwest and the Marano River of the east central region both drain into the Adriatic Sea.

CLIMATE

The climate is that of northeastern Italy: rather mild in winter, but with temperatures frequently below freezing, and warm and pleasant in the summer, reaching a maximum of 26°c (79°f). Winter temperatures rarely fall below 7°c (19°f). Annual rainfall averages between 56 and 80 cm (22 to 32 in).

FLORA AND FAUNA

The republic has generally the same flora and fauna as northeastern Italy. The hare, squirrel, badger, fox, and porcupine are among the more common animals seen. Most of the landscape has been cultivated with orchards, vineyards, and olive groves.

ENVIRONMENT

Urbanization is the primary concern for the environment; however, the country has shown great care for environmental protection and preservation both within its own borders and in the global arena. Environmental protection is controlled by the Ministry of State for Territory, Environment, and Agriculture. San Marino has no endangered species; however, the lesser horseshoe bat and the common otter are listed as near threatened.

POPULATION

The population of San Marino in 2005 was estimated by the United Nations (UN) at 30,000, which placed it at number 189 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In 2005, approximately 16% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 15% of the population under 15 years of age. According to the UN, the annual population rate of change for 200510 was expected to be 0.3%, a rate the government viewed as satisfactory. The projected population for the year 2025 was 30,000. The population density was 500 per sq km (1,295 per sq mi). San Marino is one of the most densely populated countries in the world.

The UN estimated that 84% of the population lived in urban areas in 2005, and that urban areas were growing at an annual rate of 0.89%. The capital city, San Marino, had a population of 5,000 in that year.

MIGRATION

Immigrants come chiefly from Italy; emigration is mainly to Italy, the United States, France, and Belgium. Foreigners who have been resident in San Marino for 30 years can become naturalized citizens.

In 1999, the net migration rate was 4.23 migrants per 1,000 population. In 2005, there was an increase to an estimated 10.84 migrants per 1,000 population. In 2000 the number of migrants living in San Marino was 9,000, approximately one-third of the total population. The government views the migration levels as satisfactory.

ETHNIC GROUPS

The native population is predominantly of Italian origin.

LANGUAGES

Italian is the official language.

RELIGIONS

It has been estimated that over 95% of the population is Roman Catholic; however, while Roman Catholicism is dominant, it is not the state religion. The Catholic Church does receive direct benefits from the State, but so do other charities, including two religionsthe Waldensian Church and Jehovah's Witnesses. There are small groups of Baha'is and Muslims. Certain Catholic holidays are recognized as national holidays.

TRANSPORTATION

Streets and roads within the republic totaled about 220 km (140 mi) in 2002, and there is regular bus service between San Marino and Rimini. Motor vehicle registrations in 1995 included 22,945 passenger cars and 3,546 commercial vehicles. An electric railroad, 32 km (20 mi) long, between Rimini and San Marino was inaugurated in 1932. Damaged as a result of a British air raid on 26 June 1944, it has been out of service since that time. A 1.5-km (0.9-mi) cable-car service from the city of San Marino to Borgo Maggiore is operated by the government. There is helicopter service between San Marino and Rimini in summer.

HISTORY

San Marino, the oldest republic in the world, is the sole survivor of the independent states that existed in Italy at various times from the downfall of the Western Roman Empire to the proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861. (The Vatican City State, which is also an independent enclave in Italy, was not constituted in its present form until the 20th century.)

According to tradition, the republic was founded in ad 301 by Marinus, a Christian stonecutter who fled from Dalmatia to avoid religious persecution; later canonized, St. Marinus is known in Italian as San Marino. If founded at the time asserted by tradition, San Marino is the oldest existing national state in Europe. There was a monastery in San Marino in existence at least as early as 885.

Because of the poverty of the region and the difficult terrain, San Marino was rarely disturbed by outside powers, and it generally avoided the factional fights of the Middle Ages. For a time, it joined the Ghibellines and was therefore interdicted by Pope Innocent IV in 124749. It was protected by the Montefeltro family, later dukes of Urbino, and in 1441, with Urbino, it defeated Sigismondo Malatesta and extended the size of its territory. It was briefly held by Cesare Borgia in 1503, but in 1549 its sovereignty was confirmed by Pope Paul III. In 1739, however, a military force under a papal legate, Cardinal Giulio Alberoni, occupied San Marino and unsuccessfully attempted to get the Sanmarinese to acknowledge his sovereignty over them. In the following year, Pope Clement II terminated the occupation and signed a treaty of friendship with the tiny republic. Napoleon allowed San Marino to retain its liberty; the Sanmarinese are said to have declined his offer to increase their territory on the grounds that smallness and poverty alone had kept them from falling prey to larger states.

In 1849, Giuseppe Garibaldi, the liberator of Italy, took refuge from the Austrians in San Marino; he departed voluntarily shortly before the Austrians were to invade the republic to capture him. San Marino and Italy entered into a treaty of friendship and customs union in 1862. This treaty was renewed in March 1939 and amended in September 1971.

During the period of Mussolini's rule in Italy, San Marino adopted a Fascist type of government. Despite its claim to neutrality in World War II, Allied planes bombed it on 26 June 1944. The raid caused heavy damage, especially to the railway line, and killed a number of persons. San Marino's resources were sorely taxed to provide food and shelter for the over 100,000 refugees who obtained sanctuary during the war.

The elections of 1945 put a coalition of Communists and left-wing Socialists in control of the country. In 1957, some defections from the ruling coalition were followed by a bloodless revolution, aided by Italy, against the government. The leftists surrendered, and some were imprisoned. The rightists, chiefly Christian Democrats, won the election of 1959 and remained in power until 1973, chiefly in coalition with the Social Democrats. In March 1973, after splitting with the Social Democrats, the Christian Democrats formed an unstable coalition with the Socialists. After new elections in May 1978, the Communists, the Socialists, and the Socialist Unity Party, who together commanded a one-seat majority in the legislature, formed a governing coalition; San Marino thus became the only West European country with a Communist-led government. This coalition governed until 1986, when a CommunistChristian Democratic coalition replaced it; this was the first coalition government formed by these two parties in San Marino's history.

As of 2005, the ruling coalition was composed of the Sanmarinese Christian-Democratic Party and the Sanmarinese Socialist Party. In December 2003, Fabio Berardi was named secretary of state for foreign and political affairs, the equivalent of the office of a prime minister.

San Marino's high standard of living makes Sanmarinese citizenship a valuable commodity. With the only ways for foreigners to obtain citizenship being to reside in San Marino for 30 years or marry a male citizen, the government passed a law in August 1999 prohibiting female household servants under 50 because of the potential for elderly men to fall for their young female help who may have suspicious motives.

Also in 1999, San Marino joined the European Monetary Union and adopted the euro as its currency. The Europe-wide single currency was forecast to boost tourism but simultaneously hurt Sanmarinese bank revenues as the banks would no longer be able to charge fees for currency exchange. In June 2000, the OECD accused Sanmarinese banks of making the country a "harmful" tax haven; San Marino promised to reform its banking practices.

Because San Marino has a customs union with Italy, it enjoys all of the benefits that flow from European Union membership. However, San Marino's goal ultimately is to become a full-fledged member of the EU.

GOVERNMENT

Legislative power is exercised by the Grand and General Council (Consiglio Grande e Generale) of 60 members, regularly elected every five years by universal suffrage at age 18. The Council elects from among its members a State Congress (Congresso di Stato) of 10 members (3 secretaries of state and 7 ministers of state), which makes most administrative decisions and carries them out. In 1960, universal male suffrage was established in place of the previous system, whereby only heads of families voted. Women also received the franchise effective in 1960 and were first permitted to run for office in 1974 (they voted in national elections for the first time in 1964). Nearly 100% of eligible voters participate in elections.

Two members of the Council are named every six months to head the executive branch of the government; one represents the town of San Marino and the other the countryside. The terms of these officials, called captains-regent (capitani reggenti ), begin on 1 April and 1 October. The captains-regent, who must be nativeborn citizens, are eligible for reelection after three years. As of September 2005, the captains-regent were Cesare Gasperoni (PDCS) and Fausta Simona Morganti (Party of DemocratsPD). The secretary of state for foreign and political affairs serves the function of a prime minister. Fabio Berardi was chosen to fill this office in December 2003. The next election for captains-regent was scheduled for March 2006 and for secretary of state for foreign and political affairs in June 2006.

POLITICAL PARTIES

The political parties in San Marino have close ties with the corresponding parties in Italy. Parties represented in the Grand and General Council following the 2001 elections were as follows: Christian Democratic Party (PDCS), 25; San Marino Socialist Party (PSS), 15; the Party of Democrats (PD), 12; Popular Alliance of Sanmarinese Democrats for the Republic (APDS), 5; Communist Refounding (RCS), 2; and the Sanmarinese National Alliance (ANS), 1. The next election was scheduled to be held by June 2006.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

San Marino consists of nine administrative divisions or castles (castelli ): Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Monte Giardino, San Marino, and Serravalle. Each castle has an auxiliary council, elected for a four-year term. It is headed by an offcial called the captain of the castle, who is elected every two years.

JUDICIAL SYSTEM

There is a civil court, a criminal court, and a superior court, but most criminal cases are tried before Italian magistrates because, with the exception of minor civil suits, the judges in Sanmarinese cases are not allowed to be citizens of San Marino. Appeals go, in the first instance, to an Italian judge residing in Italy. The highest appellate court is the Council of Twelve, chosen for six-year terms from members of the Grand and General Council. The rights of the accused, including the rights to a public trial, legal counsel and other procedural safeguards, are guaranteed by law and observed in practice.

ARMED FORCES

The San Marino militia nominally consists of all able-bodied citizens between the ages of 16 and 55, but the armed forces actually maintained are principally for purposes of ceremonial display; these include the noble guard used in various functions.

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

San Marino became a member of the United Nations on 2 March 1992; it belongs to several nonregional specialized agencies, such as the FAO, the World Bank, ILO, UNCTAD, UNESCO, and the WHO.

San Marino is also a member of the OSCE and the Council of Europe. In environmental cooperation, the nation is part of the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, and the UN Conventions on Climate Change and Desertification.

ECONOMY

Farming was formerly the principal occupation, but it has been replaced in importance by light manufacturing. However, the main sources of income are tourism, which accounted for more than 50% in 2001, and remittances from Sanmarinese living abroad. Some government revenue comes from the sale of postage stamps and coins and from Italy's subsidy to San Marino in exchange for which San Marino does not impose customs duties. The GDP growth has been impressive and consistent, averaging 7.68% from 1997 to 2001. Inflation, at 2% in 1997, increased to 3.3% in 2001, averaging 2.8% across the five-year period. Unemployment dropped steadily from 4.9% in 1997 to 2.6% in 2001. In purchasing power parity (PPP) terms, per capita income was at $34,600 in 2001.

The fact that San Marino is an enclave of Italy means that, apart from political links, it shares strong economic ties to the latter. The two countries form a customs union and share the same currency, although San Marino mints its own coins. Migrant workers from surrounding Italian regions boost the country's small labor force. The economic data available for San Marino is scattered and highly estimative.

Thus, in 2002 the GDP was $1.1 billion, and per capita income, in real terms, reached $29,000. The economy seems to be fairly dynamic as in 2004 the GDP growth rate was 2%. Natural resources include building stone and agricultural products (wheat, grapes, maize, olives, cattle, pigs, horses, meat, cheese, and hides).

INCOME

The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) reports that in 2005 San Marino's gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated at $940.0 million. The CIA defines GDP as the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year and computed on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP) rather than value as measured on the basis of the rate of exchange based on current dollars. The per capita GDP was estimated at $34,600. The annual growth rate of GDP was estimated at 7.5%. The average inflation rate in 2001 was 3.3%.

LABOR

In the latest years for which data was available, the labor force in 1999 totaled about 18,500. In 2000, it was estimated that the services sector provided employment for 57% of the workforce, with industry accounting for 42% and agriculture 1%. The unemployment rate in 2001 stood at 2.6%.

Labor federations include the Democratic Federation of Sanmarinese Workers, affiliated with the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, and the General Federation of Labor. About 50% of the workforce is unionized. The minimum working age is 16 without any exceptions. In 2001, the minimum wage was $1,200 per month although most wages are higher than the minimum.

AGRICULTURE

About 17% of the land is arable. Annual crop production includes wheat and grapes, as well as other grains, vegetables, fruits, and fodder.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY

Livestock raising uses some 1,400 hectares (3,500 acres), or about 23% of the total area. Cattle, hogs, sheep, and horses are raised.

FISHING

There is no fishing.

FORESTRY

Small quantities of wood are cut for local use.

MINING

San Marino had no commercial mineral resources.

ENERGY AND POWER

Electric power is imported from Italy.

INDUSTRY

Manufacturing is limited to light industries such as textiles, bricks and tiles, leather goods, clothing, and metalwork. Cotton textiles are woven at Serravalle; bricks and tiles are made in La Dogana, which also has a dyeing plant; and cement factories and a tannery are located in Acquaviva, as well as a paper-making plant. Synthetic rubber is also produced. The pottery of Borgo Maggiore is well known. Gold and silver souvenirs are made for the tourist trade. Other products are Moscato wine, olive oil, and baked goods. A significant source of revenue is the selling of stamps to foreign collectors.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Sanmarinese students generally pursue their scientific and technical training abroad, since science and technology resources are domestically limited. The Universita Degli Studi, founded in 1987, has a department of technology. The Institute of Cybernetics, founded in 1965, offers courses in computer science.

DOMESTIC TRADE

There are small general stores in the capital and the smaller towns. Billboards and newspapers are the main advertising medium. A weekly market is held at Borgo Maggiore, which also sponsors an annual fair for the sale of cattle and sheep. Most retail trade within the country is focused on goods and services that support the tourism industry.

FOREIGN TRADE

Records of foreign trade are not published, but it is known that imports exceed exports. Principal exports are wine, textiles, furniture, quarried stone, ceramics, and handicrafts. The chief imports are raw materials and a wide variety of consumer goods. San Marino has a customs union with Italy. In 1999, San Marino joined the European Monetary Union (EMU), further strengthening its ties to the EU.

Estimates of the US State Department show that in 2001, exports totaled around $2.0 billion, while imports amounted to $2.1 billion. More than 85% of the exports went to Italy, and included mainly manufactured goods, lime, wood, and food. Most of the imports came also from Italy and included consumer manufactures, food, and raw materials (including energy). San Marino also does trade with countries in Western and Eastern Europe, with South America, China, and Taiwan.

BALANCE OF PAYMENTS

Since imports and exports are not subject to customs duties, no record is kept of foreign payments transactions. Receipts from tourism, remittances from Sanmarinese working abroad, and sales of postage stamps to foreign collectors are principal sources of foreign exchange.

BANKING AND SECURITIES

The principal bank, the Cassa di Risparmio, was founded in 1882. Other banks include the Banca Agricola and the Cassa Rurale. There are no securities transactions in San Marino. In 1999 San Marino joined the European Monetary Union (EMU) and adopted the euro.

INSURANCE

Several major Italian insurance companies have agencies in San Marino.

PUBLIC FINANCE

The government derives its revenues mainly from the worldwide sale of postage stamps, direct and indirect taxes, and yearly subsidies

Revenue and Grants 438,922 100.0%
    Tax revenue 219,894 50.1%
    Social contributions 94,358 21.5%
    Grants 4,648 1.1%
    Other revenue 120,021 27.3%
Expenditures 426,864 100.0%
    General public services 61,975 14.5%
    Defense
    Public order and safety 12,569 2.9%
    Economic affairs 61,118 14.3%
    Environmental protection 13,809 3.2%
    Housing and community amenities 10,008 2.3%
    Health 77,424 18.1%
    Recreational, culture, and religion 9,816 2.3%
    Education 40,143 9.4%
    Social protection 140,003 32.8%
() data not available or not significant.

by the Italian government. State budgets have increased sharply in recent years.

The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) estimated that in 2000 San Marino's central government took in revenues of approximately $400 million and had expenditures of $400 million.

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) reported that in 2002, the most recent year for which it had data, central government revenues were 438,922 and expenditures were 426,864. The value of revenues was us$413,064 and expenditures us$388,722, based on a market exchange rate for 2002 of us$1 = 1.0626 as reported by the IMF. Government outlays by function were as follows: general public services, 14.5%; public order and safety, 2.9%; economic affairs, 14.3%; environmental protection, 3.2%; housing and community amenities, 2.3%; health, 18.1%; recreation, culture, and religion, 2.3%; education, 9.4%; and social protection, 32.8%.

TAXATION

Legislation introducing San Marino's first income tax was passed by the Grand and General Council in October 1984. A general income tax is applied progressively to individuals (1250% in 1992) and a flat rate of 24% to corporations. Also levied are a stamp duty, registration tax, mortgage tax, and succession duty.

CUSTOMS AND DUTIES

San Marino's trade policy is governed by its customs union with Italy. There is a one-phase duty system on imported goods, which closely follows the rates of the Italian value-added tax (VAT) system. In 1992, there was a 14% tax on imports. In 1999 San Marino joined the European Monetary Union.

FOREIGN INVESTMENT

Information on foreign investment is not available.

ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

In addition to promoting tourism in San Marino, the government has encouraged the establishment of small-scale industries and service-oriented enterprises (4060 employees) by offering tax exemptions for 510 years.

The tourist industry is the main source of revenue for the country (about 50% of total revenues), so economic development strategies are coiled around this sector. More than 3 million tourists visit the small republic every year, and they constitute the primary market for all of San Marino's other industries. Stamps are one of the country's main export goods.

SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

A social insurance system provides pensions for old age and disability. Employers, employees, and the government all contribute to the system. Self-employed contributions vary. There is universal medical coverage and maternity benefits of 100% of earnings for five months. All employees and self-employed persons have work injury insurance. Unemployment is only available to salaried employees and excludes civil servants.

The law mandates that women have equal access to employment opportunities, and in practice women face little or no discrimination in employment and in pay. Women actively participate in all careers including high public office. Laws protect women from violence, and instances of spousal abuse are infrequent.

The government is committed to protecting human rights. Prisons meet international standards and are open for inspection by human rights monitors.

HEALTH

Public health institutions include the State Hospital (opened in 1975), a dispensary for the poor, and a laboratory of hygiene and prophylaxis. All citizens receive free, comprehensive medical care. As of 2004, there were an estimated 251 physicians, 506 nurses, 26 midwives, 41 dentists, and 52 pharmacists per 100,000 people.

As of 2002, the crude birth rate and overall mortality rate were estimated at, respectively, 10.6 and 7.8 per 1,000 people. In 2005, the estimated average life expectancy was 81.62 years and infant mortality was estimated at 5.73 per 1,000 live births. The estimated maternal mortality was 5 per 100,000 live births.

The immunization rates for children under one year old in San Marino were as follows: diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus, 93%; polio, 100%; measles, 96%; and hepatitis B, 98%.

HOUSING

San Marino has over 7,000 dwellings, virtually all with electricity and piped-in water. Most new construction is financed privately. The housing stock for the nation is generally adequate to supply the population. Government concerns are primarily focused on preventing over-construction of rural areas.

EDUCATION

Primary education is compulsory for all children between the ages of 6 and 16; the adult literacy rate is about 98%. The program of instruction is patterned after the Italian curriculum, and San Marinese school certificates are recognized by Italy. Children go through five years of primary education followed by three years of secondary education at the first stage and a further three years of senior secondary school. At the secondary level, students may choose to attend technical or vocational programs instead of general (classical) studies. The academic year runs from October to July.

In 2000, there were about 1,000 students enrolled in primary school and 1,000 enrolled in secondary school. Nearly all students complete their primary education.

The University of San Marino is the primary institution of higher education. The adult literacy rate has been estimated at about 96%.

LIBRARIES AND MUSEUMS

In the capital city is the Biblioteca di Stato, containing a library of some 110,000 books, documents, and pamphlets. The Palazzo del Valloni also houses the state archives, as well as a collection of rare coins and medals. The State University has a small collection of 23,000 volumes.

The Palazzo del Governo (built in 1894) and most other large buildings in the capital are of comparatively recent date, but many monuments have been rebuilt in an earlier style. In 2001, there were 10 museums in the country. One of them is devoted to the postage stamps of San Marino and other countries. The National Gallery of Modern Art is also in San Marino. The 14th-century church of San Francesco has paintings by several minor masters. The three old fortresses of Guaita, Fratta, and Montale are situated on the three pinnacles of Mt. Titano. There is also a museum in Borgia Maggiore devoted to objects connected with Garibaldi's stay in the republic.

MEDIA

An automatic telephone system, integrated into Italy's system, served 20,600 mainline telephones in 2002. The same year, there were an additional 16,800 mobile cellular phones in use throughout the country. In 1998, there were 3 FM radio stations and one television station receiving mostly foreign broadcasts. San Marino RTV was the state-owned national TV and radio broadcaster. There were 595 radios and 357 television sets per 1,000 population in 1997. In 2002, there were 14,300 Internet users in the country. In 2004, there were 1,763 Internet hosts.

In 2002, there were five major daily newspapers: Il Nuovo Titano (circulation 1,300), Riscossa Socialista, Notiziario, San Marino, and La Scintilia. There are also a number of government bulletins. The law provides for freedom of speech and of the press and the government generally respects these rights in practice.

ORGANIZATIONS

Business and labor organizations include the National Association for Industry of San Marino, National Small Enterprise Association of San Marino, Autonomous Workers Association of San Marino, Labour Confederation of San Marino, and the Democratic Workers Confederation of San Marino.

National youth organizations include the Young Christian Democrats and The Catholic Guide and Scout Association of San Marino. There are sports associations representing athletes in a variety of pastimes, such as weightlifting, tennis, football (soccer), and track and field. Many sports clubs are affiliated with the national Olympic Committee and other international organizations.

Volunteer service organizations, such as the Lions Clubs and Kiwanis International, are also present. The Red Cross and UNICEF have national chapters.

TOURISM, TRAVEL, AND RECREATION

The government has promoted tourism so successfully that in the summer during the 1980s the number of San Marino residents was often exceeded by the number of visitors (20,00030,000 daily). Growth in the tourist industry has increased the demand for San Marino's stamps and coins, gold and silver souvenirs, handicrafts, and pottery.

Principal attractions are the three medieval fortresses at the summit of Mt. Titano and the magnificent view from there of Rimini and the Adriatic Sea. The State Tourism, Sports, and Entertainment Board maintains various recreational facilities.

There were 683 hotel rooms in 2003, with 1,549 beds. The average length of stay was 1.5 nights that year.

In 2005, the US Department of State estimated the daily cost of travel in San Marino at $227.

FAMOUS SANMARINESE

Giambattista Belluzzi, a 16th-century military engineer in the service of Florence, was born in San Marino. Well-known Italians who were associated with San Marino include Cardinal Giulio Alberoni (16641752), who attempted to subject the republic to papal domination in 173940; Count Alessandro Cagliostro (Giuseppe Balsamo, 174395), a Sicilian adventurer, imposter, and alchemist; Bartolommeo Borghesi (17811860), an antiquarian, epigrapher, and numismatist, who resided in San Marino from 1821 to 1860; and Giuseppe Garibaldi (180782), the great Italian patriot, who obtained refuge from the Austrians in San Marino in 1849.

DEPENDENCIES

San Marino has no territories or colonies.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Catling, Christopher. Umbria, the Marches, and San Marino. Lincolnwood, Ill.: Passport, 1994.

Duursma, Jorri. Self-Determination, Statehood, and International Relations of Micro-states: the Cases of Liechtenstein, San Marino, Monaco, Andorra, and the Vatican City. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Johnson, Virginia Wales. Two Quaint Republics: Andorra and San Marino. Boston: Estes, 1913.

Kochwasser, Friedrich. San Marino: die Älteste und Kleinste Republik der Welt. Herrenalb: Horst Erdmann, 1961.

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San Marino

SAN MARINO

Republic of San Marino

Repubblica di San Marino

COUNTRY OVERVIEW

LOCATION AND SIZE.

San Marino is an enclave lying wholly within northern Italy. It surrounds the 3-peaked Mount Titano (739 meters/2,425 feet) in the central Apennine Mountains, east of the city of Florence, Italy, and southwest of the city of Rimini, Italy, near the Adriatic Sea. With a total area of only 61.2 square kilometers (23.6 square miles), or about one-third the size of Washington, D.C., San Marino is one of the smallest countries in the world. The republic is also arguably the oldest in the world. It is named for its legendary founder, the 4th-century, Christian stonecutter and Catholic Saint Marinus. The capital is San Marino, a small town on the slopes of Mount Titano with a population of 4,498 (1996 estimate). Other population centers include Borgo Maggiore, Serravalle, and Domagnano.

POPULATION.

The population of San Marino was estimated at 27,336 in July 2001; it was less than 25,000 two years earlier. The growth rate was estimated at 1.49 percent in the same year, with a birth rate of 10.88 births per 1,000 population, exceeding the death rate of 7.65 per 1,000 population, all estimated in 2000. There is a high migration rate of 11.62 per 1,000 population (2000), mostly of people from adjacent Italian towns and villages. The population is somewhat less elderly than other European countries, and the percent of people under 15 years of age, 16 percent, is equal to that of people 65 or older. San Marino has a very high life expectancy at birth81.14 years for the total population, 85.02 years for women and 77.57 years for men. The fertility rate is estimated at 1.3 children per woman, which is comparable to Italy's rate. The workforce in 1999 included about 15,600 persons. The people of San Marino are distinctively Italian in their language, appearance, and culture; they use the Italian currency, and are mostly Roman Catholic, but are very proud of their independent political heritage. In addition to the native Sammarinese, there are also Italian immigrants.

OVERVIEW OF ECONOMY

The economy of San Marino is tiny but, nevertheless, it is stable and quite prosperous, particularly when compared to other Southern European countries. More than half of the country's gross domestic product 's (GDP) total worth of about $860 million has been traditionally produced in the tourism industry. On the average, close to 3.5 million visitors travel to San Marino annually, a huge number compared to the country's population of about 27,000.

Interestingly, one of the most reliable sources of income within tourism, apart from hotels, restaurants, shops, and other facilities, is the sale of collectibles and souvenirs such as historic coins and the world famous Sammarinese picturesque postage stamps, which are produced by the government. San Marino issued its first commemorative stamps in 1894 and, since then, these have become part of a notable and sustainable source of income. All 10 of the post office branches in San Marino sell such stamps and collectable coins, including some legal gold tender coins (lawful money).

Besides the tourism industry, San Marino makes most of its income from the manufacture and export of ceramics, tiles, building material, furniture, clothing, fabrics, paints, and some quality brands of spirits and wines. San Marino's bank system forms an integral part of the Italian banking system. Other key sectors are electronics and Internet-related activities.

Traditional economic activity in San Marino in the past relied mostly on stone quarrying, agriculture, sheep breeding, and wine and cheese making. Most Sammarinese families historically made their living as farmers and/or stone cutters. Building stone is the most important of the natural resources, as in much of Italy. Today's tiny agriculture sector focuses mostly on grains, grapes, and other fruits, as well as on animal husbandry, mostly cattle and pigs.

The per capita level of output and standard of living in San Marino are reasonably high and comparable to those of surrounding Italy, with a GDP per capita of about $32,000 (2000 estimate). GDP growth for the same year was 8 percent. San Marino is closely associated with the economic structures of the EU through the Italian economy and monetary and customs systems, with which it is closely integrated. San Marino also receives payments from the Italian government in exchange for permitting its monopolies on tobacco and other commodities on its territory.

POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, AND TAXATION

San Marino is a republic that has preserved some very ancient traditions that additionally attract tourists to the country. Although it has been greatly influenced by modern political developments in surrounding Italy, it also has been spared some of the turbulent moments in its larger neighbor's contemporary history. It is democratic and neutral, and even more sensitive than ever to the importance of liberty. San Marino is governed according to a constitution adopted on 8 October 1600. A newer electoral law of 1926 and a "Manuscript of Rights" of 1974 also serve some of the functions of a constitution. San Marino claims to be the world's oldest surviving republic, founded by Saint Marinus in 301 A.D. Its foreign policy is aligned with that of Italy, and the social trends in the republic also follow closely with those of its neighbor.

The executive authority comprises the 2 Captains Regent, the traditional co-heads of state, who are both members of the parliament and elected by that body; a Congress of State (cabinet), also elected by the parliament; and a senior Secretary of State for foreign and political affairs, who acts as the traditional head of government. In their tenure, the Captains Regent preside over the deliberations of the executive body, the Congress of State. Every 6 months, the Sammarinese parliament elects new Captains Regenttraditionally from opposing parties to provide checks and balances. Their investiture (inauguration ceremony) takes place on 1 April and 1 October of every year and is accompanied by a centuries-old ceremony. Once their term is over, Sammarinese citizens have 3 days in which to file any complaints about the in-office activities and behavior of out-going Captains Regent. If so warranted, judicial proceedings against the ex-heads of state may be initiated.

The legislative power is vested in a unicameral (having 1 chamber) parliament, a 60-member house named the Grand and General Council that is elected by universal suffrage for a term of 5 years. The electoral body once comprised the heads of the Sammarinese families exclusively, but it was gradually extended to include all citizens over 18 years of age.

Italian magistrates, for both historical and social reasons of impartiality, have staffed the judicial system. The only native Sammarinese judges are the several Justices of the Peace, who may handle only civil cases in which disputed sums do not exceed 25 million lire (about $15,000). The traditional local Council of the Twelve serves as the highest court of appeals. It is elected by the Grand and General Council for the duration of the legislature.

The political parties in San Marino are traditionally very close to those in Italy, particularly the Christian Democrats, Socialists, and Communists. In the 1990s, however, among a series of disruptive political scandals, the Italian post-war political system was discredited and finally collapsed. A more complex and diversified system of new parties and alliances emerged from its debris. The centrist Christian Democratic Party, part of all ruling coalitions after 1948, dissolved and its members formed 2 new organizations, the Popular Party and the Christian Democratic Center. The new Democratic Party of the Left became the major left-wing party, including the majority of the reformed communists and many socialists. A smaller leftist group, the Communist Refoundation, retained some of the traditional Marxist policies, characteristic of the old communist party. The numerous Sammarinese political groups of the late 1990s accordingly included the conservative Democratic Christian Party (PDCS), the Progressive Democratic Party (PPDS), the Popular Democratic Party (APDS), the left-of-center Socialist Party (PSS), and the Communist Refoundation (RC), plus several other smaller groups, such as the Democratic Movement, the Popular Alliance, and the Socialists for Reform. Due to the small size of San Marino's population and electorate, no party has gained an absolute majority, so the government is usually run by a coalition. The parties sharing power currently are the Democratic Christian Party and the Socialist Party, but for several decades after World War II, San Marino was the only European country outside the Soviet sphere of influence ruled by a communist - socialist coalition. The elections held on 31 May 1998 (the next elections are to be held in May 2003) gave PDCS 40.8 percent of the popular vote, PSS received 23.3 percent, and PPDS had 18.6 percent. The composition of the current parliament and the Captains Regent reflects the stable economic situation in San Marino arising from having one of the lowest unemployment rates in Europe, a stable budget surplus , and zero national debt .

The role of the government in the economy is significant, although San Marino has developed a mature market economy. In the late 1980s, annual government revenue and expenditure were balanced at about $183 million, and since then the budget has accumulated a surplus. The state executive congress (cabinet), composed of 3 secretaries and 7 ministries, oversees the most vital economic activities, including those of the state-run Philatelic and Numismatic Office (stamps and coins). The government relies not only on tourism, taxes, and customs for revenue, but also on the sale of coins and stamps to collectors from throughout the world. In addition, the Italian government pays San Marino an annual budget subsidy provided under the terms of its basic treaty with Italy. The main issues facing the current government include economic and administrative problems related to San Marino's status as a close financial and trading partner with Italy while at the same time remaining officially separated from the EU.

Despite the tiny size of San Marino, it is an active player in the international community, with diplomatic ties to more than 70 countries. San Marino is a full member of the United Nations (UN), the International Court of Justice, the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Tourism Organization (WTO), the Council of Europe, the International Red Cross Organization, and the International Institution for the Unification of Private Law (UNIDROIT), among others. It also cooperates with the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, and has official relations with the European Union. From May to November 1990, San Marino held the rotating presidency of the European Council of Ministers.

INFRASTRUCTURE, POWER, AND COMMUNICATIONS

Italy supplies virtually all of San Marino's electricity, and the domestic automatic telephone system is completely integrated into the Italian telecommunications system. Main (fixed) phone lines (nearly 20,000) and cellular phones are ubiquitous, yet in 1999 there was only 1 local Internet service provider. The country has its own local television station and 3 local FM radio stations, although Italian broadcasting and cable TV is available everywhere. The republic has only a 1.5-kilometer (1 mile) cable railway, which connects the city of San Marino to the community of Borgo Maggiore. Virtually all of the 220 kilometers (138 miles) of roads in San Marino are paved. The country has no naval ports or airports, relying instead on Italy's extensive and advanced transportation facilities.

ECONOMIC SECTORS

The traditional foundation of San Marino's economy was agriculture and stone quarrying, while tourism and

Communications
Country Telephones a Telephones, Mobile/Cellular a Radio Stations b Radios a TV Stations a Televisions a Internet Service Providers c Internet Users c
San Marino 18,000 (1998) 3,010 (1998) AM 0; FM 3; shortwave 0 16,000 1 9,000 2 N/A
United States 194 M 69.209 M (1998) AM 4,762; FM 5,542; shortwave 18 575 M 1,500 219 M 7,800 148 M
Italy 25 M (1999) 20.5 M (1999) AM 100; FM 4,600; shortwave 9 50.5 M 358 (1995) 30.3 M 93 11.6 M
Monaco 31,027 (1995) N/A AM 1; FM N/A; shortwave 8 34,000 5 (1998) 25,000 2 N/A
aData is for 1997 unless otherwise noted.
bData is for 1998 unless otherwise noted.
cData is for 2000 unless otherwise noted.
SOURCE: CIA World Factbook 2001 [Online].

light industry have grown in importance. Wheat, barley, maize, olives, wine, and livestock and dairy products dominate agricultural output. Some building stone is still quarried. Manufactures include textiles, cement and building materials, leather goods, synthetic rubber products, and ceramics. Other important sources of income are the sale of postage stamps and collectible coins. In 1998, 60 percent of the labor force worked in the services sector, 38 percent in industry, and 2 percent in agriculture. In terms of industries, most workers were employed in tourism, banking, textiles, electronics, ceramics, cement, and wine production. No exact figures for sales of any industry are available, as the figures for San Marino are recorded as part of Italy's output.

AGRICULTURE

Arable land comprises some 17 percent of San Marino's rugged territory, and agricultural products include wheat, grapes, corn, olives, cattle, pigs, horses, beef, cheese, and hides. Italy supplies much of the republic's food, while main export products are wine and cheeses, renowned in Italy and abroad. Woods also cover a part of the land.

INDUSTRY

The government has a sound policy of promoting local producers. Electronics and Internet related activities have been added to the traditional Sammarinese construction materials manufacture, which includes building-stone quarrying, cement, ceramics, and tiles fabrication. Wood processing and fine furniture manufacturing are also well developed. Minting of coins and medals, printing of stamps and cards, and fine local handicrafts are the largest contributors to the economy in terms of revenue. Construction and the real estate market are another important source of income and occupation. Chemical industries, textiles, and apparel manufacturing also contribute to the country's exports.

SERVICES

The tourist sector is estimated to contribute over 50 percent of San Marino's GDP. In 1997, San Marino's rich history, charming mountain views, fine dining, and shopping attracted 3.4 million tourists. The republic's proximity to major maritime tourist resorts on the Adriatic Sea at Rimini and and to world centers of sophisticated tourism such as the museum cities of Florence and Venice also stimulated tourism. In finance, apart from the major Italian banks and insurance firms, there is only 1 local credit institution, the Istituto di Credito Sammarinese, which performs the functions of a central bank. Among other duties, this institution coordinates the country's banking system and performs treasury and tax collection services. Given the small size of the retail market, small, family-owned stores prevail. The Sammarinese also shop in larger retail establishments in Italy, however.

INTERNATIONAL TRADE

International trade is light in volume. About 85 percent of exports and imports are shipped to, or come from, Italy. Energy, automobiles, equipment, and most manufactured goods and food are imported. Besides Italy, primary trade partners include some EU members, eastern European and South America countries, China, and Taiwan.

MONEY

The Sammarinese economy is closely integrated with the Italian monetary and banking system. The Banking Act in Italy of 1990 introduced major changes as a part of the EU policy for free capital movement within the member states and a currency union, creating conditions for the reduction of public ownership of banks and liberalizing the regulations on foreign capital. In 1999, Italy and 10 other members of the EU switched from their national currencies to the single currency of the euro, as a part of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB). The euro has been in use since 1 January 1999, initially for electronic transfers and accounting purposes only, while euro coins and bills will be issued in 2002. At that time the Italian currency will cease to be legal tender. On 1 January 1999, control over Italian monetary policy , including the issues of setting the interest rates and regulating the money supply, was transferred to the European Central Bank (ECB). The need to adjust to the centralized European monetary and banking system requirements without being officially a member of the EU will be a serious challenge for the Sammarinese government

Exchange rates: San Marino
euros per US$1
Jan 2001 1.06594
2000 1.08540
1999 0.93863
1998 1,736.2
1997 1,703.1
1996 1,542.9
Note: Rates prior to 1999 are in Italian lire per US$.
SOURCE: CIA World Factbook 2001 [ONLINE].

in the near future. The benefits from the single European economic space, however, are expected to outweigh the drawbacks.

POVERTY AND WEALTH

With a high measure of GDP per capita, a low inflation rate (in terms of consumer prices) of 2 percent (1997 estimate), and the benefits of the monetary and economic union with Italy, the tiny republic offers its citizens a high standard of living. No data as to San Marino's economic equality index ( Gini index ) are available, but if Italy's index is used, the degree of economic equality in the republic should be characterized as outstanding compared with that of the United States and the United Kingdom. The size of the republic and its economic activity render little space for the accumulation of large private fortunes, but extreme poverty is not an issue in the country either. This is no wonder given the influence of socialist politics in the country's history. In this and other ways, San Marino more closely resembles the above-average economic and social structures of industrialized northern Italy

WORKING CONDITIONS

The small but affluent Sammarinese economy, the close popular scrutiny over the government's deliberations, the long tradition of socialist control, and one of the lowest unemployment rates in Europe almost rule out labor unrest in the republic. The new, more environmentally friendly industries that are gradually supplanting traditional stone quarrying are also more conducive to enhancing safety at work. Of a workforce of some 18,500, only 3 percent were unemployed in 1999.

COUNTRY HISTORY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

301 A.D. According to legend, San Marino was founded by the Christian stonecutter Marinus who sought refuge on Mount Titano from religious persecution.

GDP per Capita (US$)
Country 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000
San Marino N/A 20,000 N/A N/A 32,000
United States 28,600 30,200 31,500 33,900 36,200
Italy 19,600 21,500 20,800 21,400 22,100
Monaco 25,000 N/A N/A 27,000 N/A
Note: Data are estimates.
SOURCE: Handbook of the Nations, 17th,18th, 19th and 20theditions for 1996, 1997, 1998 and 1999 data; CIA World Factbook 2001 [Online] for 2000 data.

4TH TO 13TH CENTURIES. San Marino retains its independence despite the ambitions of the neighboring rulers and as new political entities develop and disappear throughout the land. The economy is based on agriculture and stonecutting.

1291. Roman Pope Nicholas IV officially recognizes San Marino's independence.

1503. Italian general Cesare Borgia briefly occupies the republic until his death several months later.

1739. Italian Roman Catholic Cardinal Alberoni uses military force to occupy San Marino, but civil disobedience against the invader and letters of protest to the Pope are answered by renewed papal recognition of San Marino's rights and restoration of independence.

1797. French leader Napoleon Bonaparte offers to expand the territory of San Marino as a gift and as a sign of friendship with the republic, but the Sammarinese authorities refuse.

1849. San Marino offers refuge to Italian revolutionary leader Giuseppe Garibaldi.

1862. San Marino signs a treaty of friendship (revised several times since) with Italy.

1943-45. During World War II, neutral San Marino hosts about 100,000 refugees from the embattled neighboring zones of Italy.

1945. A coalition of Communists and Socialists wins elections and rules for 12 years, creating the base of the welfare state and modern economic development.

1957. The Christian Democratic Party, aided by Communist dissidents, takes control of the government.

1978. A Communist coalition regains power and retains it for 14 years.

1992. San Marino becomes a member of the United Nations, while the Christian Democrats form a coalition government with the Socialists, a regime that continues to govern after the 1993 general elections.

1999. Control over the Italian monetary and banking system, used in San Marino, is transferred to the European Central Bank (ECB).

FUTURE TRENDS

The Sammarinese economy is closely related to Italy's and is highly dependent on the developmental trends of the EU. It is likely that the country will preserve its economyparticularly in the areas of tourism, services, and modern manufacturingmaintain its high living standards, and continue to attract tourists and collectors for the foreseeable future. The number of foreign visitors may even increase as the movement of people, particularly from Central Europe, becomes easier with their gradual integration in the EU and the positive changes concerning the wealth and leisure of their people.

The government's desire to maintain the republic's autonomy and independence may be challenged, however, by the advance of European integration, the increasing competition following the liberalization of commerce and services, and notably by the coming of the single European monetary system. The benefits of the unified European economic space, however, will almost definitely outweigh the problems and possible drawbacks. It is not likely that Sammarinese bank revenues will significantly decline without the exchange fees they charged before San Marino adopted the euro: the monetary union with Italy and the location of the republic as an enclave in Italian territory never generated a large foreign exchange turnover even before the European monetary union took effect.

DEPENDENCIES

San Marino has no territories or colonies.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Global Investment Business Center, Inc. staff. San Marino: A Country Study Guide. International Business Publications, February 2001.

Repubblica di San Marino. <http://www.sanita.segreteria.sm>. Accessed August 2001.

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. World Factbook 2000. <http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/index.html>. Accessed August 2001.

U.S. Department of State. U.S. Department of State Background Notes: San Marino, November 1998. <http://www.state.gov/www/background_notes/sanmarino_9811-bgn.html>. Accessed January 2001.

Valentin Hadjiyski

CAPITAL:

San Marino.

MONETARY UNIT:

Italian lira (plural is lire). One Italian lira (L) equals 100 centesimi. There are notes of L1,000, 2,000, 5,000, 10,000, 50,000, and 100,000, and coins of L50, 100, 200, and 500. San Marino also mints its own coins, having the same value as the Italian ones. San Marino has a customs union with Italy, and it switched to the new European unit, the euro, along with Italy and other members of the European Union (EU) in 1999 for all forms of "written money"checks, bank transactions, and credit cards. In January 2002, the euro will be issued as coins and notes, and the lira will be phased out.

CHIEF EXPORTS:

Building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, ceramics, furnishings, textiles, apparel.

CHIEF IMPORTS:

Energy, automobiles, equipment, a wide variety of consumer manufactures, clothing, food.

GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT:

$860 million (purchasing power parity, 2000 estimate).

BALANCE OF TRADE:

All San Marino foreign trade data are included with the statistics for Italy and no separate statistics are available.

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San Marino

SAN MARINO

The Most Serene Republic of San Marino

Major City:
San Marino

INTRODUCTION

SAN MARINO is located in northeastern Italy and is one of the world's smallest and oldest republics. The picturesque landlocked country is surrounded entirely by Italy. The small nation is largely sustained by tourism. San Marino developed around a 9th century monastery, gradually acquiring the institutions of a small state. Its independence has been challenged by various popes, ruling families, and conquerors. However, its high and isolated position, well-trained army, and strategic insignificance permitted San Marino's population to remain free from the control of the Holy Roman Emperor or the Pope. The Congress of Vienna recognized San Marino as a sovereign state in 1815. In 1862, San Marino entered into a friendship treaty and customs union with Italy. The treaty was renewed in 1939 and amended in 1971.

MAJOR CITY

San Marino

The town of San Marino is on the slopes near the summit of Mt. Titano (2,457 feetnamed for the famous Titans of Roman mythology). According to tradition, San Marino was named for St. Marinus, a 4th-century Dalmatian mason who was working at Rimini. He fled with others to Mt. Titano seeking to avoid Emperor Diocletian's religious persecution of Christians. Over 4,000 people live in the town of San Marino, the capital of the country. Farming was once the main occupation, but it has been replaced by light manufacturing. High stone walls surround the town of San Marino. Tourism and money sent by citizens abroad are the main sources of income. The government gets revenue from selling stamps and coins, which are very popular internationally with collectors. Commercial activity is centered on Borgo Maggiore, 600 feet below the town of San Marino, where there is a weekly market and an annual livestock fair. The two areas are linked by a 1.5-mile winding road and by cable-car service. There is helicopter service to Rimini, Italy during the summer.

Recreation and Entertainment

The traditional national sport of San Marino is archery, and pistol and rifle practice are also popular. San Marino lies about 6 miles from Italy's Adriatic coast, making water sports popular as well. The Sammarinese also enjoy bocce (Italian lawn bowling), soccer, baseball, tennis, and basketball. The country also annually sponsors a Grand Prix Formula One auto racing event, although it must be held across the border in Italy because there is no suitable racetrack site in San Marino.

During the summer, some 20,000-30,000 foreigners visit the country each day. Hotels and restaurants have been built in recent years to accommodate the visitors.

The Palazzo del Valloni in the town of San Marino was rebuilt after falling victim to an accidental bombing by the British in World War II. The palace holds many of the nation's cultural archives, including famous paintings by Guernico and Strozzi, and a collection of rare coins and medals. The neo-Gothic Palazzo del Governo was built in 1894, but most other large buildings are of recent date, although many monuments have been rebuilt in an earlier style. The 14th-century church of St. Francesco in the lower part of the town is itself an architectural treasure and houses more historic paintings. The Basilica del Santo, in which the skull of St. Marinus is kept, is a 19th-century neo-classical structure that stands over the site of San Marino's original 5th-century church. The church of San Pietro next to the basilica houses the twoniched rock that, as legend says, Sts. Marinus and Leo used as beds. The three old fortresses of Guiata (built in the 11th century and rebuilt in the 15th century), Fratta (13th century), and Montale (16th century) are situated on the three pinnacles of Mt. Titano. The vista from the three fortresses overlooks the Italian town of Rimini and the Adriatic Sea.

The Crossbowmen's Corps dates back to before 1295 and has defended San Marino's independence throughout its history. The organization performs costumed demonstrations during the summer at the Cava dei Balestieri (Cross-bowman's Quarry), located by the cable car station. Public gardens near the quarry contain an outdoor sculpture gallery, with works by major contemporary sculptors such as Berti, Bini, Crocetti, and El Greco. The Museo Filatelico et Numismatico in Borgomaggiore shows every stamp and coin the republic has issued since 1877. The museum also houses Garibaldi memorabilia. San Marino provided sanctuary to Garibaldi and his associates from Italy during the 1840s.

COUNTRY PROFILE

Geography and Climate

San Marino is Europe's third-smallest country (after Vatican City and Monaco), with an area of only 23 square miles. San Marino is located entirely inside northeastern Italy close to the coast of the Adriatic Sea. The total area is only about 30% as large as Washington, D.C. The topography is lofty, as San Marino lies in the Apennine Mountains. The high cliffs of the Fratta tower not only provide scenic views of Italy but also of the Slovenian coastline across the Adriatic Sea. The climate is Mediterranean, with mild to cool winters and warm, sunny summers. Temperatures frequently fall below freezing in the winter and reach a maximum of 79° F in the summer.

Population

San Marino has an estimated 27,000 inhabitants. The Sammarinese are mostly of Italian ancestry, and most new immigration to the country is from Italy. The main destinations for those emigrating from the country are Italy, the United States, France, and Belgium.

Roman Catholicism is the official religion and the faith of most residents. San Marino has nine parishes, all belonging to a single diocese. Italian is the official language, and many residents speak in the regional Romagna dialect.

Government

San Marino has had its own statutes and governmental institutions since the 11th century. Today, legislative authority is vested in a unicameral parliament, the Great and General Council, consisting of 60 members who serve 5-year terms unless a majority votes to dissolve and calls for new elections.

Executive authority is exercised by the 11-member Congress of State (cabinet), composed of nine members chosen by the Great and General Council and two captains regent.

The captains regent are elected by the council from among its members for 6month terms. Their functions are largely honorary, although they also preside over meetings of the council and the congress and are empowered to propose legislation and to represent San Marino in its foreign relations. The captains regent are assisted by two secretaries of state (foreign affairs and internal affairs) and by several additional secretaries entrusted with specific portfolios.

The Congress of State is composed of de facto executives who head the various administrative departments in the government. These posts are divided among the parties who form the coalition government. The Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs has come to assume many of the prerogatives of a prime minister.

Membership in the Great and General Council is based on proportional representation and is selected from nominee lists submitted by the political parties. Voting is open to all adult citizens of the republic.

Judicial authority is turned over in part to Italian magistrates in both criminal or civil cases. Minor cases are handled by a local conciliatory judge. Appeals go, in the first instance, to an Italian judge residing in Italy; the final court of review is the Council of Twelvejudges chosen for 6-year terms (four every 2 years) from among the members of the Great and General Council.

For taxation purposes, the tiny republic is divided into in districts corresponding to the country's Roman Catholic parishes. For administration, it is divided into nine sections, or "castles. "The head of each castle is an elected committee led by an official known as the captain of the castle. New captains are chosen on annual holidays, April 1 and October 1, when captains regent are installed in office.

The flag is divided horizontally into two equal bands, sky blue below and white above, with the national coat of arms superimposed in the center. The coat of arms depicts the three historic tower fortresses of San Marino.

Arts, Science, Education

The educational system is modeled on Italy's. Primary education is compulsory for children ages 6-13, and San Marino has 14 elementary schools. Students pursue higher education at Italian universities. The literacy rate in San Marino for citizens ages 10 and older is 96%.

Commerce and Industry

The Italian government pays an annual budget subsidy to San Marino under terms of the republic's treaty with Italy. In return, San Marino relinquishes the following rights: free transit of imports through Italian ports; cultivation of agricultural products protected by Italian state monopoly; printing of bills and notes; operation of a commercial radio and television station; and establishment of a free trade zone.

San Marino's main industry (50% of the economy) is tourism, which provides for a high standard of living with relatively low taxes. Establishments related to tourism (hotels, restaurants, and shops) account for much of the country's employment.

Other economic activities in San Marino are farming and livestock raising, along with some light manufacturing. Livestock utilizes about 1,400 hectares (3,500 acres) and is devoted mostly to cows, oxen, and sheep. Cheesemaking is also important.

The sale of coins and postage stamps to collectors from throughout the world provides a small amount of revenue.

Transportation

There is regular bus service and seasonal helicopter service between San Marino and Rimini, Italy. An electrified railway once connected the two towns, but was never repaired after sustaining damage in World War II.

Communications

The telecommunications system is integrated into Italy's. There are three local FM radio stations and one television station receiving mostly foreign broadcasts. San Marino has two daily newspapers: Il Quatidiano Sammarinese, and San Marino Italia.

Health

Public health institutions include the State Hospital, a dispensary for the poor, and a laboratory of hygiene and prevention. All citizens receive medical care fully subsidized by the government.

NOTES FOR TRAVELERS

Travelers must enter San Marino from Italy. As there are no frontier formalities imposed, any person visiting San Marino must comply with Italian passport/visa regulations as follows:

A passport is required. A visa is not required for tourist stays up to three months. For further information concerning entry requirements for Italy, travelers may contact the Embassy of Italy at 3000 White-haven Street NW, Washington, D.C. 20008. Tel: 202-612-4400 or via the Internet: http://www.italyemb.org, or the Italian Consulates General in Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, Newark, New Orleans, New York, Philadelphia, or San Francisco.

Those tourists planning to stay other than in hotels for more than one month should register with the local police station within eight days of arrival in Italy. Visitors to Italy may be required to demonstrate to the police upon arrival sufficient financial means to support themselves while in Italy. Credit cards, ATM cards, traveler's checks, prepaid hotel/vacation vouchers, etc. can be used to show sufficient means.

Currency is the Italia lira.

LOCAL HOLIDAYS

January 1 New Year's Day

January 6 Epiphany

February 5St. Agatha's Day and liberation of San Marino

March 25 Anniversary of the Arengo

April 1 Investiture of Captains-Regent (Spring) *Easter Monday

May 1Labor Day *Ascension

July 28 Fall of Fascism

August 14-16 Assumption and Bank Holiday

September 3 Anniversary of the Foundation of San Marino

October 1 Investiture of Captains-Regent (Fall)

November 1 All Saints' Day

November 2 Commemoration of the Dead

December 8 Immaculate Conception

December 24-26 Christmas

December 31 New Year's Eve

*Variable

RECOMMENDED READING

Catling, Christopher. Umbria, The Marches & San Marino. London: A & C Black, 1994.

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San Marino (country, Europe)

San Marino (sän märē´nō), officially Republic of San Marino, republic (2005 est. pop. 28,900), 24 sq mi (62 sq km), in the Apennines near the Adriatic Sea, SW of Rimini, N central Italy. It is the world's smallest republic and claims to be Europe's oldest existing state. The capital is San Marino (1988 est. pop. 4,140); Serravalle is the only other town.

People, Economy, and Government

Virtually all of the republic's inhabitants speak Italian and are Roman Catholic. About half of San Marino citizens live abroad, mainly in Italy, the United States, and France. Of note in San Marino are the Basilica of Santo Marino; towers (14th–16th cent.) built on each of the three peaks of Mt. Titano; the Gothic government house; and several museums of art.

San Marino's industries include banking and the manufacture of apparel, electronics, and ceramics. Tourism, however, is the country's economic mainstay. The sale of postage stamps and duty-free consumer goods are also sources of income. Wheat, grapes, corn, and olives are grown and cattle, pigs, and horses are raised. Wine and cheeses are the most important agricultural products. Building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, and ceramics are exported. The country imports many manufactured goods and much of its food, mostly from Italy. The republic receives an annual subsidy from Italy in return for having renounced certain rights, such as establishing a broadcasting station and growing tobacco. Although San Marino mints its own coins, Italian and Vatican City currencies are in general use.

San Marino is governed under the constitution of 1600 and the electoral law of 1926. Two regents (Capitani Reggenti), who are heads of state, are selected by the legislature from among its members for a period of six months. The secretary of state for foreign and political affairs, who is the head of government, is elected by the legislature for a five-year term, as is the cabinet. Legislative power in San Marino is vested in the popularly elected Grand Council (Consiglio Grande e Generale), which is made up of 60 members elected to five-year terms. Administratively, the country is divided into nine municipalities.

History

According to tradition, Marino, a Christian stonecutter from Dalmatia, took refuge (early 4th cent.) on Mt. Titano (2,300 ft/701 m), the chief geographical feature of present-day San Marino. By the mid-5th cent., a community was formed; because of its relatively inaccessible location and its poverty, it has succeeded, with a few brief interruptions, in maintaining its independence. In 1631 its independence was recognized by the papacy. In 1849, San Marino gave refuge to Garibaldi, the Italian patriot and soldier. Italy and San Marino signed a treaty of friendship and economic cooperation in 1862 (renewed and expanded several times). Volunteers from San Marino served with the Italians in World Wars I and II; Allied aircraft bombed the republic in 1944.

Following a period of Communist rule (1947–57), a coalition of Christian Democrats and Social Democrats came to power. In 1973, the Social Democrats left the coalition and were replaced by the Socialists and the tiny Movement for Statutory Liberties. In 1960 women were given the right to vote, and in 1973 they were granted the right to hold public office. A left-wing coalition led by the Communists ruled from 1978 to 1986, at which time the Communists joined with the Christian Democrats to form a new government. The coalition was reelected in 1988. The Communist party changed its name in 1990 to the Democratic Progressive party and continued in coalition with the Christian Democrats. In 1992, the Christian Democrats formed a new coalition with the Socialists; they remained in power following the 1993 and 1998. Governmental instability after the 2001 elections led to broad-based national unity government in 2003. In 2006 the Socialists and Democrats, a merger of the Socialists, former Communists, and others, won a plurality and formed a coalition government. Coalitions led by the Christian Democrats won the 2008 and 2012 elections. San Marino became a member of the United Nations in 1992.

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San Marino

San Marino

Official name: The Most Serene Republic of San Marino

Area: 61 square kilometers (24 square miles)

Highest point on mainland: Monte Titano (755 meters/2,477 feet)

Lowest point on land: Sea level

Hemispheres: Northern and Eastern

Time zone: 1 p.m. = noon GMT

Longest distances: 13 kilometers (8 miles) northeast to southwest; 9 kilometers (6 miles) southeast to northwest

Land boundaries: 39 kilometers (24 miles) total boundary length, all with Italy

Coastline: None

Territorial sea limits: None

1 LOCATION AND SIZE

San Marino is a tiny, landlocked country located entirely within Italy, about 24 kilometers (15 miles) southwest of the city of Rimini, in the Apennine Mountains between Italy's Marche and Romagna regions. It is Europe's third-smallest independent state (only Vatican City and Monaco are smaller) and the world's second-smallest republic (after Nauru). With an area of 61 square kilometers (24 square miles), San Marino is about one-third the size of Washington, D.C.

2 TERRITORIES AND DEPENDENCIES

San Marino has no territories or dependencies.

3 CLIMATE

San Marino has the mild, temperate climate typical of northeastern Italy. Summer highs rarely rise above 26°C (79°F), and winter lows rarely fall below 7°C (44°F). Annual rainfall averages between 56 centimeters (22 inches) and 80 centimeters (32 inches).

4 TOPOGRAPHIC REGIONS

Mount Titano dominates the landscape of San Marino; most of the irregularly shaped country is situated on its slopes and crest. There is enough level land at the base of the mountain for agriculture, however.

5 OCEANS AND SEAS

San Marino is landlocked.

6 INLAND LAKES

There are no sizable lakes in San Marino.

7 RIVERS AND WATERFALLS

San Marino lies largely within the basin of Italy's Marecchia River, into which the San Marino River drains, flowing northward and forming part of the republic's border with Italy. The Marano and Ausa Rivers drain into the Adriatic Sea.

8 DESERTS

There are no deserts in San Marino.

9 FLAT AND ROLLING TERRAIN

Mt. Titano is bordered by hills to the southwest, and there is also some level land at its base that has been cultivated.

10 MOUNTAINS AND VOLCANOES

The limestone peaks of Mt. Titano occupy the central part of the republic. There are three major peaks, each of which houses ruins of ancient fortifications. The summit of Mt. Titano (755 meters/2,477 feet) commands a panoramic view of the Adriatic Sea, which is only 19 kilometers (12 miles) away.

11 CANYONS AND CAVES

There are no well-known caves in San Marino. The famous Frasassi Caves, which are among the largest and most scenic in Europe, are located within 100 kilometers (62 miles) of the country, however, in the Apennines between Ancona and Assisi.

12 PLATEAUS AND MONOLITHS

San Marino's mountains rise steeply from its lower elevations, with no plateaus among them.

13 MAN-MADE FEATURES

San Marino's most famous man-made features are the three medieval fortresses that sit atop the three peaks of Mt. Titano, on steep cliffs overlooking both the Italian town of Rimini and the Adriatic Sea.

14 FURTHER READING

Books and Periodicals

Carrick, Noel. San Marino. New York: Chelsea House, 1988

Catling, Christopher. Umbria, The Marches, and San Marino. London: Black, 1994.

"Now, After 1,600 Years, Time to Join the World (San Marino to Become Member of the United Nations)." New York Times: February 26, 1992.

Web Sites

Lonely Planet: Destination San Marino. http://www.lonelyplanet.com/destinations/europe/san_marino/printable.htm (accessed April 24, 2003).

U.S. Department of State: Background note: San Marino. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5387.htm (accessed April 24, 2003).

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San Marino

San Marino

Basic Data
Official Country Name: Republic of San Marino
Region: Europe
Population: 26,937
Language(s): Italian
Literacy Rate: 96%

The smallest republic in the world, San Marino was founded in 350 A.D. According to the 1997 Information Please Almanac, St. Marinus and a group of Christians first settled it. The San Marino constitution provides for a parliamentary form of government; the Parliament has 60 members and has legislative and administrative powers.

Compulsory education in San Marino begins at the age of 6 and continues until the age of 14. It consists of five years of primary education and three years of lower secondary education, which can be taken through a state or non-state school or through home schooling (European Education 1999).

San Marinese preschools accept all children between the ages of three and six. Attendance is free. Primary school attendance is compulsory for children ages 6 to 11. Students are given yearly, state-required final exams to determine whether or not they may continue onto the next level (European Education 1999).

Lower secondary education is compulsory for children between the ages of 11 and 14. After completing lower secondary education, students may leave school or continue for another three years in upper secondary education after which they can go onto higher education. Higher education is offered at San Marino's one major university, L'Universita di San Marino. It offers four different types of degrees (European Education 1999). San Marino also offers several types of nonformal education such as classical, scientific, artistic, technical, and vocational schools and adult education programs.

The Ministry of Education has the responsibility of supervising all educational institutions. The Ministry also plans and promotes educational research. The schools are funded by the state, and money is distributed to schools depending on their needs.

Teachers in San Marino attend teacher training schools, and they must take general culture and psychology classes. Specialization classes can be taken after graduation (Eurydice 1997).

Education is very important in San Marino. In the future, their educational programs will continue to change based on changes in society.


Bibliography

The 1997 Information Please Almanac. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1997.

European Education Profile. The British Council, 2000. Available from http://www.britishcouncil.sm.education/.

The Eurydice Database San Marino, 2001. Available from http://www.psy.it/ordpsic/psy_e_u.html.


Deanna Edens

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San Marino

San Marino

Basic Data

Official Country Name: Republic of San Marino
Region (Map name): Europe
Population: 26,937
Language(s): Italian
Literacy rate: 96%

The Republic of San Marino, the world's smallest republic and Europe's oldest state, is situated entirely within Italy's borders. There are five daily newspapers within the country's total area of 61.2 square kilometers. However, due to its location and small size (the entire country is only about one-third the size of Washington, D.C.), it relies on the Italian press for its news coverage. Most regional and Italian national newspapers, particularly Il Resto del Carlino, include San Marino coverage. Daily newspaper circulation is approximately 72 per 1,000 people.

The country has one state-owned television station and one state-owned radio station, but San Marino also receives Italian television broadcasts. The country has two Internet service providers as of 2001. The literacy rate in San Marino is extremely high96 percentand citizens enjoy a free press. The country's per capita income was $32,000 in 2000.

Nearly all of San Marino's citizens speak Italian, the official language, and the majority of the country is Roman Catholic. San Marino's political system is a democracy, with five major political parties.

Bibliography

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The World Fact-book 2002. Available from http://www.cia.gov.

The Columbia Encyclopedia, sixth ed. 2001.

World Desk Reference, 2002.

Carol Marshall

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San Marino

San Marino World's smallest republic and perhaps Europe's oldest state, in the Apennines, near the Adriatic Sea, ne Italy. According to legend, it was founded in the early 4th century ad. Its mountainous terrain enabled it to retain a separate status, becoming an independent commune in the 13th century. The economy is largely agricultural. Manufacturing is also important, but tourism is vital to the state's income. While San Marino has its own currency and stamps, Italian and Vatican City equivalents are widely used. It possesses its own legislative assembly, the Great and General Council, which elects Captains Regent as heads of state. There are two towns: Serraville (2000 pop. 8400), and the capital San Marino (2000 pop. 4400). Area: 61sq km (24sq mi). Pop. (2000) 27,100.

http://www.traveldocs.com/sm

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San Marino

San Marino

Culture Name

Sammarinese

Alternative Name

La Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino (The Most Serene Republic of San Marino)

Orientation

Identification. San Marino takes its name from its founder, Marinus, who according to legend founded the republic in 301 c.e. San Marino is comprised of native Sammarinese and Italian citizens. Although Italian-speaking and heavily influenced by the surrounding Italian culture, the Sammarinese have maintained their individuality through the centuries, have a strong sense of identity, and are proud of their unique culture.

Location and Geography. San Marino, one of the smallest republics in the world, is located in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy, south of the city of Rimini on the northern part of the Adriatic coast. Approximately 24 square miles (61 square kilometers) in size, San Marino is completely landlocked. Situated in the central part of the Apennine mountains, San Marino is dominated by the three-peaked Mount Titano, which is 2,437 feet (743 meters) high. There are several streams and small rivers, including the Ausa, Marano, and the San Marino. The terrain is rugged but the climate is Mediterranean with mild to cool winters and warm, sunny summers. The capital is located in the main town, also called San Marino. Other important towns include Serravalle, Borgo Maggiore, and Domagnano.

Demography. A 1997 survey put the population of San Marino at 24,714 of which 14 percent are were fourteen years old and younger, 68 percent were between fifteen and sixty-four years old, and 18 percent were sixty-five years old and over. The population is divided ethnically between Sammarinese and Italians. San Marino is one of the most densely populated countries in the world with an average of more than 860 people per square mile (332 per square kilometers). The republic is approximately 5.5 miles (9 kilometers) across and 8 miles (13 kilometers) long. It is estimated that sixteen thousand Sammarinese live in other countries.

Linguistic Affiliation. The official number of languages spoken in San Marino is two: a Sammarinese dialect and standard Italian. Approximately 83 percent of the population speak Sammarinese, which is considered a variation of the Emiliano-Romagnolo dialect found in the surrounding Italian region. Standard Italian is the language of everyday use, although typical Sammarinese phrases and expressions are used regularly.

Symbolism. The Sammarinese flag consists of two equal bands of white (above) and light blue (below) with the national coat of arms placed in the center. The coat of arms features a shield with three towers on three peaks flanked by a wreath, with a crown above and a scroll below bearing the word Libertas (Liberty). The towers represent the three fortified towers on Mount Titano which have been strategic in the defense of the republic throughout its history. The national holiday is 3 September, the Anniversary of the Foundation of the Republic.

History and Ethnic Relations

Emergence of the Nation. San Marino was founded in 301 c.e. by a Christian stonemason, Marinus, who fled the island of Arbe off the Dalmation coast to escape the anti-Christian persecution of the Roman Emperor Diocletian. Taking refuge on Mount Titano, Marinus founded a small community of Christians. The area had been inhabited since prehistoric times, although records date back only to the Middle Ages. In memory of Marinus, the area was named the Land of San Marino, then the Community of San Marino, and finally the Republic of San Marino. The state of San Marino maintained its independence despite frequent invasions by the rulers of Rimini, and in 1291 Pope Nicholas IV recognized San Marino's independence.

The territory of San Marino consisted only of Mount Titano until 1463 when the republic formed an alliance against Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta, Lord of Rimini, who was later defeated. As a reward, Pope Pius II gave San Marino the towns of Fiorentino, Montegiardino, and Serravalle. In the same year the town of Faetano voluntarily joined the young state. The nation has remained the same size ever since.

San Marino has been occupied by invaders only twice, both for short periods of time. In 1503 Cesare Borgia, known as Duca Valentino, occupied the country until his the death of his father Rodrigo Borgia, Pope Alexander VI, the same year. The political unrest following the Pope's death forced Cesare Borgia to withdraw his forces from San Marino. In 1739 Cardinal Alberoni, in an attempt to gain more political power, used military force to occupy San Marino but civil disobedience and clandestine communications with the current Pope, Clement XII, helped to ensure recognition of San Marino's rights and restoration of its independence. Since 1862 San Marino has had an official treaty of friendship, revised several times, with Italy.

National Identity. The Sammarinese are proud of their history and have a strong sense of unity due to San Marino's small size and unique place in the world.

Ethnic Relations. There is a large resident Italian population in the republic, and contact with the surrounding Italian regions have helped ensure close cultural and ethnic ties between the Sammarinese and the Italians. Although there is a free flow of people in and out of San Marino, it is extremely difficult to acquire citizenship. A person can become a citizen only by being born in the republic, and only if both parents are citizens; or by marrying a Sammarinese. Citizenship through naturalization is rare. As a consequence, San Marino has a population that is still almost exclusively native Sammarinese.

Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space

San Marino is a mountainous nation consisting of small hill towns. Stone, brick, and tile are some of the principal building materials and like many Italian towns, the center of town is piazza which also serves a social function as a gathering place. The capital, the City of San Marino, is a fortified town as are many of the other towns of San Marino. Much of the original medieval fortifications remain, including three fortified towers located on the peaks of Mount Titano. These towers, called La Guaita, La Cesta, and Il Montale, are still linked by ramparts and walls constructed from the local sandstone. The oldest part of the capital dates from the early twelfth century. In the older sections of San Marino there are still many buildings dating from the Renaissance period in the early 1400s.

Food and Economy

Food in Daily Life. Food and meals are an important part of life in San Marino. The cuisine is Mediterranean, emphasizing fresh and locally grown produce, pasta, and meat. Although it is similar to that of the Italian Romagna region which borders San Marino, the cuisine of San Marino features its own typical dishes. Traditional recipes include faggioli con le cotiche, a dark bean soup flavored with bacon and traditionally prepared at Christmas; pasta e cece, a soup of chickpeas and noodles flavored with garlic and rosemary; and nidi di rondine (literally, "swallow's nest"), a dish of pasta with smoked ham, cheese, beef, and a tomato sauce, which is then covered with a white sauce and baked in the oven. Roast rabbit with fennel is also a popular Sammarinese dish. Other popular local dishes include bustrengo, a cake made with raisins; cacciatello, a mixture of milk and eggs; and zuppa di ciliege, cherries stewed in red wine and sugar and served on local bread. San Marino also produces high quality wines, the most famous of which are the Sangiovese, a strong red wine; and the Biancale, a dry white wine. There are many small family-owned restaurants, often providing outdoor seating in the summer, which play an important role in the lives of the Sammarinese, as meals are a daily part of family life and socializing.

Basic Economy. Tourism is one of the most important parts of San Marino's economy and many businesses cater to the tourist trade. The sale of collectible postage stamps and coins also constitutes a major part of the republic's revenue. Until the latter part of the twentieth century, farming, mining, and stone working formed the core of San Marino's economy. White sandstone was once abundant but most of the quarries are now closed. Sandstone is now extracted in limited quantities for decorative and artistic purposes rather than for construction. In addition to wine, the production and export of alcoholic spirits and liqueurs is a significant industry, along with other agricultural products such as wheat, grapes, corn, olives, cattle, pigs, horses, beef, cheese, and hides. Although San Marino still has a strong agricultural sector, it is dependent on imports from Italy in order to meet all of its needs.

San Marino's standard of living is high with an average per capita yearly income of about $32,000 (U.S.). San Marino's GDP is around $500 million (U.S.) annually with the rate of inflation at 2.2 percent. Unofficial estimates put the GDP growth rate at 8 percent.

Land Tenure and Property. Approximately 65 percent of San Marino is covered by farmland and pine forests with the rest consisting of parks, public spaces and buildings. Both private and public ownership of property exists in the republic.

Commercial Activities. The tourist sector generates more than 50 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) of San Marino, with an average of 3.2 million tourists visiting the republic San Marino every year. Small businesses such as souvenir shops and restaurants depend heavily on tourism. Other important commercial activities include the sale of historic coins and postage stamps. In 1894 San Marino issued the first commemorative stamps which have been an important source of income for the republic ever since.

Major Industries. Important industries include banking and the manufacturing of clothing, electronics, paint, synthetic rubber, telecommunications equipment, and ceramics. Important export products include building stone, lime, wood, chestnuts, wheat, wine, baked goods, hides, and ceramics. San Marino's main trading partner is Italy, accounting for 85 percent of exports. Agricultural products and consumer goods are imported from Italy, eastern Europe, South America, China and Taiwan.

Trade. Italy is San Marino's major trading partner. Trade statistics are included with those for Italy.

Division of Labor. According to a 1998 study, the workforce of San Marino was divided as follows: 4,254 (25 percent) worked in the broad public sector; 5,637 (34 percent) worked in industry; 3,140 (16.5 percent) worked in the commercial sector; 1,492 (9.1 percent) worked in construction; 505 (2.7 percent) worked in banking and insurance; 355 (2.1 percent) worked in transportation and communications; 248 (1.6 percent) were involved in agriculture; 1,779 (9.3 percent) worked in a variety of businesses and services. The unemployment rate is around 2 percent. Recent figures place the unemployment rate at about 2.2 percent for women and at 1.8 percent for men.

Social Stratification

Classes and Castes. San Marino's small population and high standard of living have helped ensure a relatively balanced distribution of wealth. The government maintains a policy of full employment for all its citizens and works with the private sector to ensure that all Sammarinese who wish to work are employed. San Marino's small size, power-sharing government, high standard of living, and educated population have made it a country with very little social stratification.

Political Life

Government. Created in the early Middle Ages, the original governing body was the Arengo, made up of the heads of each family. Today the Arengo is the electoral body, while the main governing body is the Great and General Council. In 1243, the first two captains regent were nominated by the council and this system has continued to this day. The council is composed of sixty members who are elected every five years under a proportional representation system. The duties of the Council consist of approving the budget and nominating the captains regent and heads of the executive.

Every six months, the council elects two captains regent to be heads of state for a six-month term. The regents are chosen from opposing parties in order to provide a balance of power. The investiture of the captains regent takes place on 1 April and 1 October every year. Once a regent's term is completed, citizens have three days to file any complaints about the regent's activities. If warranted, judicial proceedings against the ex-head of state may be initiated.

Executive power is held by the State Congress, which is composed of three secretaries and seven ministries. The Council of Twelve is elected by the Great and General Council for the duration of the legislature and serves as a jurisdictional body as well as a court of appeals. Two government officials represent the state in financial and patrimonial matters.

The judicial system of San Marino is entrusted to foreign executives for both historical and social reasons. The only Sammarinese judges are the justices of the peace, who handle only civil cases where sums do not exceed 25 million lire (around $16,000 [U.S.]).

Leadership and Political Officials. San Marino is a democratic republic with several political parties. The three main parties are the Democratic Christian Party of San Marino, the Socialist Party of San Marino, and the Progressive Democratic Party of San Marino; there are several other smaller parties. Because of San Marino's small size and population, it is difficult for any one party to gain a pure majority, and most of the time the government is ruled by a coalition. The current parties in power are the Democratic Christian Party and the Socialist Party.

Social Problems and Control. San Marino faces economic and administrative problems related to its status as a close financial and trading partner with Italy while at the same time remaining separated from the European Union. Another important issue facing the government is improving relations among the parliament, the cabinet, and the captains regent.

Military Activity. San Marino is officially neutral and does not have an army or any alliances with other nations. The last battle in which San Marino actively participated was in 1463. The republic has been invaded and occupied several times since then but has always maintained its position of neutrality. There is a symbolic military force of eighty men who participate in San Marino's ceremonial events and occasionally assist the police. In a time of crisis, however, the government can call all adult males to arms as happened during World War II when San Marino was directly involved in the war as the target of heavy bombing and as a haven for thousands of refugees.

Social Welfare and Change Programs

The Institute for Health and Social Security, a public organization that is independently managed, provides health care, social services, and social security. San Marino provides cradle-to-grave health care for all its citizens as well as retirement pensions.

Gender Roles and Statuses

The Relative Status of Women and Men. In San Marino today, women have most of the social and political rights that men have. Women received the right to vote in 1960 and the right to hold office in 1973. The first female captains regent were elected shortly thereafter. Nevertheless, slightly more men than women receive some form of higher education, and the unemployment rate is higher for women as well. These differences are in part due to the changing role of women in San Marino and the transition the republic has undergone in the late twentieth century, as its economy has moved away from agriculture and deemphasized industrialization.

Marriage, Family, and Kinship

Domestic Unit. In a small and unified country like San Marino, family plays an important role. Extended family and kin are an important part of the social structure of the republic. With the transition from an agricultural to a more industrialized economy following World War II, the nuclear family has replaced the extended family as the basic domestic unit. There are approximately eight marriages per one thousand and the divorce rate is relatively low. If they are no longer able to care for themselves, older family members usually live with their younger relatives. Children often continue to live at home with their parents well into adulthood, until higher education is completed or they start their own families.

Socialization

Infant Care. Public day care and nursery schools are available for children under the age of five.

Child Rearing and Education. The school system in San Marino is very similar to that in Italy and is obligatory until the age of sixteen. Children attend state-run primary and secondary schools, choosing a particular type of school when they reach the high school level.

Higher Education. There are no universities or colleges in San Marino and those students who decide to pursue higher education usually attend university in Italy where San Marino's high school diplomas are recognized.

Etiquette

Standards of etiquette are similar to those in Italy. Due to the important tourist industry, the Sammarinese are accustomed to welcoming people from all over the world.

Religion

Religious Beliefs. The predominant religion, Roman Catholicism, is still regarded as the principal religion. Historically, the Sammarinese have been against the Vatican's political control over their republic but have embraced the pope's spiritual authority on religious matters. The importance of Catholicism in San Marino has led to the involvement of the church in many state occasions; many of San Marino's official ceremonies are held in the Basilica, the republic's main church, or in other churches. There are a total of nine Catholic parishes all of which comprise the diocese of San Marino.

Religious Practitioners. There is no official state religion but practitioners of Roman Catholicism predominate. There are no figures available for the number of non-Catholic practitioners.

Rituals and Holy Places. The Basilica dates from the fourteenth century and contains the remains of Saint Marino.

Medicine and Health Care

San Marino is able to provide low-cost health care for its citizens through clinics and a small hospital. Although the level of care is high, for certain types of health care the Sammarinese must turn to hospitals outside of the republic. The average life expectancy is placed at seventy-seven for men and eighty-five for women. The Sammarinese birthrate is around 11 births per 1,000 people, while the infant mortality is rate 3 out of every 1,000 births.

Secular Celebrations

There are five official national festivals in San Marino all of which celebrate important events in the republic's history: 5 February, the anniversary of the republic's liberation from the occupying forces of Cardinal Alberoni in 1740; 25 March marks the day in 1906 when the Arengo implemented the democratic form of government that exists today; 1 April and 1 October, the two days when the captains regent take office; and 3 September, the feast day of the patron saint and founder of the republic, Saint Marino.

The Arts and Humanities

Support for the Arts. The Sammarinese proudly support and maintain several small museums as well as take an active interest in cultural activities including film, music, and literature.

Graphic Arts. San Marino's long history and extended periods of peace have endowed it with a substantial artistic legacy including paintings by several important Italian artists from the Renaissance and Baroque periods. There are also numerous sculptures placed throughout public spaces. Traditional crafts, such as stone carving and ceramics, have been able to survive in part from the tourist industry.

The State of the Physical and Social Sciences

San Marino's small population and its lack of a university means that it is not able to support academic research at the postsecondary level. Many Sammarinese, however, go on to pursue successful careers in academia and research outside the republic.

Bibliography

Cardinali, Marino. San Marino e la sua Storia, (San Marino and its history), 1982.

Carrick, Noel. San Marino, 1988.

Edwards, Adrian. San Marino, 1996.

Grimes, Barbara. Ethnologue, 13th ed., 1996.

Ricci, Corrado. La Repubblica di San Marino (The Republic of San Marino), 1906.

Rogatnick, Joseph H. "Little States in a World of Powers: A Study of Conduct of Foreign Affairs by Andorra, Lichtenstein, Monaco, and San Marino," Ph.D. dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1976.

Web Sites

Il Portale della Repubblica di San Marino (The Gateway to the Republic of San Marino). Electronic document. Available from http://www.omniway.sm

San Marino. Electronic document. Available from http://www.photius.com/wfb/wfb1999/san_marino

U.S. Department of State. Background Notes: San Marino. Electronic document. Available from http://www.stategov/www/background_notes/sanmarino_9811_bgn.html

M. Cameron Arnold

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San Marino (city, United States)

San Marino (săn mərē´nō), residential city (1990 pop. 12,959), Los Angeles co., S Calif.; inc. 1913. Of interest is the Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens.

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San Marino

San Marino

SAMMARINESE … 29

The people of San Marino are called Sammarinese. The population is almost all of Italian descent.

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"San Marino." Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of World Cultures. 1999. Encyclopedia.com. 29 May. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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San Marino

San MarinoMano, piano •Arno, boliviano, Bolzano, Carnot, chicano, guano, Kano, llano, Locarno, Lugano, Marciano, Marrano, meccano, oregano, Pisano, poblano, Romano, siciliano, soprano, SukarnoRenault, steno, tenno •techno • Fresno • Pernod •ripieno, volcano •albino, bambino, beano, Borodino, Borsalino, cappuccino, casino, chino, Comino, concertino, Filipino, fino, Gino, keno, Ladino, Latino, Leno, maraschino, merino, Monte Cassino, Navarino, neutrino, Pacino, palomino, pecorino, Reno, San Marino, Sansovino, Torino, Trevino, Valentino, vino, Zenominnow, winnow •Llandudno • Gobineau • domino •Martineau •lino, rhino, wino •tonneau • Grodno •Livorno, porno •Mezzogiorno •cui bono?, kimono, Mono, no-no, phono •Bruno, Gounod, Juneau, Juno, Uno •Huguenot • pompano •Brno, inferno, journo, Salerno, Sterno

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"San Marino." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. 2007. Encyclopedia.com. 29 May. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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