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Metropolitan Life Insurance Company

Metropolitan Life Insurance Company

1 Madison Avenue
New York, New York 10010-3690
U.S.A.
Telephone: (212) 578-2211
Toll Free: (800) 638-5433
Fax: (212) 578-3320
Web site: http://www.metlife.com

Public Company
Incorporateci:
1866 as National Travelers Insurance
Company
Employees: 46,000
Total Assets: $256.89 billion (2001)
Stock Exchanges: New York
Ticker Symbol: MET
NAIC: 524113 Direct Life Insurance Carriers

Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (MetLife) has a long history of leadership in the financial services market. MetLife is the largest life insurer in the United States with more than $2 trillion of life insurance in force. A leader in savings and retirement products and services for individuals, small business, and large institutions, MetLife serves 88 of the Fortune 100 largest companies. The company operates in more than a dozen countries and continues to expand its global markets, an important part of meeting its goal to serve 100 million customers by 2010.

Roots Dating Back to the Civil War: 1860s-70s

Metropolitans origins can be traced to the National Union Life and Limb Insurance Company, a firm originally chartered in 1863 to underwrite the lives and limbs of Union soldiers during the Civil War. The company had trouble getting started. Simeon Draper, the companys chief promoter, found it difficult to raise the necessary $100,000 capital. A company insuring only servicemen during the bloodiest war in U.S. history did not seem to be a very promising business proposal. Frustrated, Draper stepped down and a group of businessmen from Brooklyn petitioned the New York legislature to revise the companys charter to allow life insurance for civilians as well. National Union Life and Limbs president, Major General Daniel E. Sickles, a war hero, resigned shortly before the company actually began writing policies. Sickles was replaced by Orison Blount, a respected member of the business community. Blount, though multitalented, had no experience in the insurance business, and the company struggled to gain a foothold.

In 1865 the company changed its name to National Life and Travelers Insurance Company and underwent two reorganizations within a period of two years, in 1866 splitting its life and casualty lines into separate companies, National Life Insurance Company and National Travelers Insurance Company. The latter company initially offered only casualty lines, selling its first policy in 1867, and adding life insurance to its casualty lines later that year. National ultimately evolved into one of the premiere life insurance companies in the United States, Metropolitan.

On March 24, 1868, National Travelers Insurance Company was reorganized as Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. The companys president, James R. Dow, had led the National Travelers Insurance Company for several years. Originally, Dow had applied for the position of medical examiner for the casualty insurer, but because of his pleasant disposition, and a $15,000 investment, he was appointed a director and elected president. Dow and another director of the company, Joseph F. Knapp, had lobbied for the reorganizationin order to head the company in a single direction. When the company changed its name to Metropolitan Life Insurance Company it also dropped its casualty insurance business.

Metropolitans early years saw the rapid growth of the life insurance industry. The Industrial Revolution had introduced more hazards to everyday life, creating a widespread demand for insurance of all kinds. The Civil War had been a particular boom for the life insurance trade, and the industry grew at a frenzied pace in the wars wake. Whole life insurance was the preferred type of policy. Endowments were somewhat popular, term insurance was less common, and annuities were rare. In 1869, $614 million worth of life insurance had been written in the United States, of which Metropolitan had written 2,930 policies valued at $4.86 million.

The industrys growth was somewhat reckless in these early years. Many companies had trouble attracting agents without paying outrageous commissions. To get business, many agents insured questionable risks. Although Metropolitan had a successful first year, it was still small compared with other life insurers. It had just $594,000 in assets, compared with the $30 million of Mutual Life of New Yorkthe largest life insurance company at that time.

A significant portion of Metropolitans business in the early years came from New York Citys population of German immigrants. The company had two outstanding German-speaking agents, Abraham Kaufmann and Moritz Reno. A German division was soon set up, headed by Kaufmann. In 1869 Kaufmann initiated a relationship with a German fraternal society called the Hildise Bund. Metropolitan sold small life insurance policies to members of the society, with the bund collecting the premiums on a weekly basis. The organization required life insurancewith Metropolitanas a condition of membership from each of its applicants. As German settlers migrated west, so too did the bunds relationship with the company. Metropolitans agreement with the Hildise Bund was the companys first excursion into the field that would turn it into a giantworkingmans, or industrial, life insurance.

In 1871 Dow died and was succeeded as president by Joseph F. Knapp. In 1873 a severe depression gripped the nation. Metropolitans business dropped from 8,280 new policies in 1874 to 510 in 1879. Many life insurance companies were unable to meet their obligations and failed. As a result, popular confidence in life insurance hit an all-time low.

Revitalizing the Company Through Industrial Insurance: 1880s to Mid~1890s

In 1879 Knapp traveled to London to observe the success of the Prudential Assurance Company of London, a company that had become successful writing industrial insurance. Knapps interest in insurance for the masses was longstanding. He returned to New York more determined than ever to push Metropolitan into industrial insurance.

Knapp imported hundreds of British insurance agents familiar with industrial insurance to spearhead Metropolitans efforts. These recruits trained local agents in the art of writing life insurance for small amounts, collecting the premiums weekly, and accounting to the home office. Metropolitans success was stunning: $9 million in industrial insurance was written the first year; $18 million the second; and by 1886, just six years after the policy was officially introduced, Metropolitan had more than $100 million of industrial life insurance in force. The company expanded its agency force rapidly during the 1880s. Hundreds of new agents ventured west and south to sell insurance to the countrys working class. The cost of this expansion was great, and Knapp risked at least $650,000 of his own money to keep Metropolitan going during difficult years. By the time of Knapps death in 1891, Metropolitan had established itself as the leader in industrial insurance, with more policies in force than Prudential and John Hancock combined.

In October 1891, following the death of Knapp, Vice-President John Rogers Hegeman became president, but it was the companys new vice-president, Haley Fiske, who was in charge of the companys day-to-day operations and policymaking. Although Metropolitan was a leader in industrial insurance, its ordinary life business had dwindled. Fiske initiated an effort to recover it.

For the most part, life insurance companies were offering so-called tontine insurance. Named after its Neapolitan inventor, Lorenzo Tonti, these policies paid dividends to their subscribers. Tontine policies were basically annuities, but their values increased based on ones longevity. As subscribers died, their portion of the fund was ceded to surviving policyholders. The last survivor took all. Although Metropolitan had written such policies in its early days, in the 1890s it was critical of them. The companys rate book of 1892 stated, The Metropolitan believes the time has come when the plain common sense men who make up the bulk of life insurance policyholders are looking for a plain business contract which leaves nothing to the imagination; which borrows nothing from hope; requires definite conditions and makes definite promises in dollars and sense (as quoted in Marquis Jamess The Metropolitan Life: A Study in Business Growth). Metropolitan began to make inroads into the ordinary life business, writing no-frills nonparticipating policies like whole life, term life, single-premium life, limited-payment life, and endowments.

Scrutiny of Industrys Practices: Late 1890s-Early 1900s

The late 1890s and early 1900s were a time of journalistic muckraking, and insurance companies, like big business in general, became targets for the pens of journalistic zealots. Particularly unpleasant for Metropolitan were accusations that industrial insurance, which covered even a familys youngest children, encouraged infanticide for the collection of benefits. Metropolitan spearheaded the defense of industrial insurance, and after several years the controversy died down. Life insurance companies, however, were not out of the investigative woods. In a few years the most comprehensive probe yet would bring about reform in the industry.

In 1905 a New York State legislative committee headed by Senator William W. Armstrong launched an investigation of the major life insurance companies, hoping to do away with any abusive practices. The chief counsel for the investigation was Charles Evans Hughes, later governor of New York and chief justice of the Supreme Court. Hughes called top executives of all the major life insurance companies to testify before the committee, including several officersHegeman among themof Metropolitan, the fourth largest life insurer at the time.

Company Perspectives:

For its future success, the company can draw on the reservoir of history that has produced an enduring set of corporate values based on over 130 years of integrity, social responsibility, strong leadership, financial strength, and innovative products and services.

Although acknowledging that there were certain deficiencies in industrial insurance, the committee made no recommendations for change to the life insurance market. Tontine insurance, which Metropolitan had decided years before not to write, was outlawed altogether. Limits were placed on the amount of ordinary insurance that companies could write each year. Huge companies such as New York Life Insurance Company and Equitable were forced to change drastically their business practices, but Metropolitan was given merely what amounted to a slap on the wristabuses were cited but no remedies proposed nor penalties imposed. It gave the company a degree of public confidence not enjoyed by other companies, which helped its sales surge past its competitors in the next few years. By 1909 Metropolitan had more life insurance in force than any other company.

The Armstrong Committee hearings did bring to light some questionable practices conducted by Metropolitan, however, and resulted in charges of third-degree forgery and perjury being brought against Hegeman. The actual impropriety of certain transactions was questionable, and in time all of the charges were dismissed.

Restructuring Business: 1910s-20s

While this controversy shook the halls of justice, Metropolitan agents continued the business of writing life insurance. The company had grown considerably over the years. As 1905 dawned the company had $1.47 billion of insurance in force. In 1909 the headquarters at 1 Madison Avenue was expanded. The company commissioned the architectural firm Le Brun and Sons, the same firm that had created its original edifice at the same address in 1893, to design a new building. The well-known Metropolitan Tower was the result. The 50-story tower was the worlds tallest building until 1913 and was considered one of the wonders of the modern world.

In 1913 Metropolitan was authorized to write accident and health insurance. In 1914 it wrote its first group accident and health policy on its own employees. A year later annual medical and dental checkups were given to employees.

In January 1915 Metropolitan transformed from a stock company to a mutual company, in effect becoming owned by its policyholders. The change was intended to thwart future attempts by unscrupulous stockowners to manipulate the insurance companys millions for personal gain. From this point on, the companys profits were redistributed to its policyholders in the form of dividends.

U.S. participation in World War I resulted in about 18,000 claims by the survivors of U.S. servicemen on life insurance policies at Metropolitan and 7,500 claims from Canadian servicemen. By the end of the war $8.25 million was paid in death benefits. After the war, a worldwide flu outbreak took a far greater toll, claiming 83,000 Metropolitan policyholders by June 30, 1919. Met paid $27.6 million as a result of that epidemic.

In April 1919 President John R. Hegeman died, after 28 years at the Metropolitan helm. He had spent a total of 49 years as an officer of the company, having seen its assets increase by a factor of 55, and insurance in force by a factor of 17. His close associate over those years, Haley Fiske, assumed the presidency.

For the next ten years, Fiske continued to introduce new forms of coverage and improve old forms. In 1921 industrial policies were liberalized to pay full benefits beginning with the date of issue rather than half benefits for the first six months. In 1928 a double-indemnity clause provided for the payment of double the face value of an industrial insurance policy in the case of accidental death. These improvements were made without additional premiums.

During the prosperous early 1920s, all forms of life insurance sold extremely well. Group policies added considerably to Metropolitans success during the decade. Assets topped $2 billion in 1926. The companys group life insurance in force grew from $60 million in 1919 to $2.25 billion a decade later. In 1928 the company wrote the largest group policy to date, for the General Motors Corporation for $400 million.

Key Dates:

1863:
A group of New York businessmen form National Union Life and Limb Insurance Company.
1865:
The company is renamed National Life and Travelers Insurance Company.
1866:
Life and casualty lines split into two separate companies.
1868:
National Travelers Insurance Company is reorganized as Metropolitan Life Insurance Company.
1879:
The addition of industrial life insurance helps to revive the company following nearly a decade of economic depression.
1893:
Metropolitan Tower, which would become a New York landmark, is commissioned.
1909:
Metropolitan has more life insurance in force than any other company.
1915:
The company is transformed into a mutually held company.
1939:
A federal investigation of life insurance companies is launched, but the industry ultimately is left to police itself.
1946:
By March, Metropolitan has paid out $42.1 million on World War II deaths.
1966:
Metropolitan is replaced by Prudential as the number one life insurer in terms of assets.
1975:
The company begins writing individual retirement annuities.
1980:
The company completes the largest single building purchase (Pan Am Building) in history.
1998:
The board of directors authorizes demutualization.
2000:
Metropolitan Life Insurance Company (MetLife) launches the seventh largest IPO ever held in the United States.

Great Depression and World War II: 1930s-40s

In March 1929 Frederick H. Ecker became president of Metropolitan upon Haley Fiskes death. Several months later the stock market crashed and the Great Depression started. Metropolitans conservative investment policies helped it to weather the hard times. The company had stayed out of the speculative equities markets and had focused instead on real estate and bonds. The stock market crash initially had a positive impact on life insurance sales. Investors who had lost heavily tried to supplement the losses to their estates by increasing their life insurance. Ordinary insurance sold at record volume in 1930 and 1931. As the Great Depression deepened, however, and unemployment reached massive proportions, new policies stagnated and many policyholders were forced to discontinue their premium payments and allow their policies to lapse. In addition, many borrowed money against their policies or surrendered them for the cash value. Metropolitan was in sound financial condition and had no trouble meeting its obligations. Adjustments in the companys investment portfolio were necessary as rents fell and farm commodity prices dropped; Metropolitan reduced its investments in city mortgage and farm lending.

The Great Depression of the 1930s and the New Deal philosophy that accompanied it focused a great deal of attention on the nations financial industries. In the late 1930s U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt urged Congress to look into malpractice of big business. The lawmakers responded by establishing the Temporary National Economic Committee for the Investigation of Concentration of Economic Power. The TNEC, as the committee became known, spent a year, beginning in 1939, interviewing officers of life insurance companies. The first witness called was Metropolitans Frederick Ecker, chairman of Metropolitans board of directors since 1936, when Leroy A. Lincoln had become president. After much testimony, the TNEC issued its report in 1941. Government officials were hoping for federal regulation of ordinary life insurance, and the addition of industrial insurance to the new Social Security program. The TNEC, however, in a mere three pages, suggested only that the states beef up their existing regulatory mechanisms. The committees most forceful recommendation affected a large segment of Metropolitan Lifes business, asking for a change in the operation of the industrial insurance business, and stating that in the alternative the elimination of such coverage might be required. Without proposing any new means of federal regulation, however, the life insurance industry was, for the most part, left to police itself.

World War II resulted in a number of policy changes for Metropolitan customers. While existing policies were continued under the same terms, new policies were written as war risks with special premiums and stipulated conditions. For the most part, the business of life insurance remained the same, except for the extraordinary numbers of claims due to combat. By March 1946 Metropolitan paid out $42.1 million on 51,956 lives lost as a direct result of the war.

Increased Investment: 1950s-60s

After the war, Metropolitan continued to grow rapidly and its investment dollars went into real estate projects all over the country, including landmark middle-income complexes in the Stuyvesant Town and Riverton districts in New York City. The rents on these properties were kept low in exchange for tax breaks from the city.

In 1951 Leroy A. Lincoln became chairman of the board at Metropolitan. Charles G. Taylor took over the duties of president but soon was replaced by Frederick W. Ecker, whose father had held the office years before and was now elevated to honorary chairman. Throughout the 1950s, Metropolitan was the leading life insurer in the United States, having enjoyed that position steadily since 1909. Metropolitan held to a conservative investment posture and continued to offer low-cost insurance. In 1954, the company was the first in life insurance to install a major computer system. Metropolitan continued to support health and safety practices. In 1956 the company was behind a push to set up poison control centers.

In 1957 Frederick W. Ecker became CEO of Metropolitan and in 1959, chairman of the board. The younger Eckers leadership stressed conservatism. Metropolitan was the largest private capital pool in the country, and the company managed it so tightly that some thought the company old-fashioned. Equities investments were avoided in the 1960s as they were in the 1920s. Other insurance companies implemented more aggressive investment and marketing strategies.

In 1963 Gilbert Fitzhugh became president of Metropolitan. In 1966 he moved up to chairman of the board and the presidency was filled by Charles A. Siegfried. In 1966 Metropolitan was replaced by Prudential as the number one life insurer in terms of assets. Prudential surpassed it in number of policies in force in 1974.

In 1968, a year after race riots rocked U.S. cities, the life insurance companies made a commitment to invest in inner cities. Metropolitan Life invested $322 million for rebuilding or new building of housing. Chairman Fitzhugh recognized the need of the company to respond to recent changes in the business, and Metropolitan, for the first time, purchased common stocks for its portfolio. Equities investments reached $1 billion in 1972. In addition to loosening up the companys investment strategy, Fitzhugh looked for new areas of insurance to market. Metropolitan began offering aviation reinsurance after 1971, and formed a subsidiary, Metropolitan Property and Liability Insurance, in 1972.

Policy Changes: 1970s

Metropolitan also made changes in its life insurance business. New products were offered, including individual variable annuities, in 1969, and after 1972 the company abandoned the debit insurance business upon which it had been built. Agents would no longer collect premiums weekly or monthly on low-cost policies.

Beginning in 1970, Metropolitan began to decentralize its operations by setting up a number of regional service centers across the country. By the end of the decade, Metropolitan had head offices at Tampa, Florida; Tulsa, Oklahoma; Providence, Rhode Island; Dayton, Ohio; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Aurora, Illinois; and New York City. Regional computing centers for record keeping were set up at Greenville, South Carolina; Wichita, Kansas; and Scranton, Pennsylvania.

In October 1973 Richard R. Shinn became chairman of Metropolitan Life. Like his predecessor, Shinn had spent his entire career at Metropolitan, becoming president in 1969. Shinn continued Metropolitans course of diversification. In 1975 the company began writing individual retirement annuities. In 1976 a subsidiary to reinsure health insurance, Metropolitan Insurance and Annuity Company, was established. In 1978 a subsidiary to reinsure property and casualty business, Metropolitan Reinsurance, began operations.

Metropolitan focused also on group policy coverage. In 1974 its group life broke an industry record with $ 118.68 billion in force. In 1976 Metropolitan introduced Multiple Employer Trust group policies, which provided insurance under employee benefit programs. In 1978 group plans covering 50 to 200 employees were introduced. By 1979 Metropolitan had more than $200 billion of group insurance in force. Total life insurance in force topped $300 billion.

By the end of the decade, the flaws of Metropolitans decentralization program, begun in 1970, became apparent. Spreading out the companys bureaucracy had caused frustration among employees, and the sales staff was defecting at a rate of 40 percent per yearhigh turnover for Metropolitan. Although agents were encouraged to solicit middle- and upper-income customers, few big policies were written. The corporate initiative to push bigger policies was simply being ignored. One frustrated Met salesman commented, as reported in the November 21, 1977, issue of Business Week, This metamorphosis has not been thought out as thoroughly as executives at the top might lead you to believe. Just go out and try to sell a policy over $10,000. Youll find the underwriters in the home office using a fine-tooth comb. They think anybody who wants a big policy is trying to cheat the company. It takes seven to eight weeks to get the big cases through.

Revitalizing the companys personal insurance sales mechanism became a priority in 1979. The number of managers between the chief marketing officer and the sales representative was reduced from six to three over the next five years. An open-door policy was instituted in order to eliminate the memo-writing mentality at Met. Executive Vice-President Pierre Maurer, in charge of the reorganization, told employees in 1983, Always wage war against paperits the greatest waster of management time and energy, (as reported by Bests Review, July 1984). By the mid-1980s, Metropolitan was a leaner company, having eliminated 60 percent of its redundant middle management.

Diversification: 1980s

In 1980 Metropolitan purchased the Pan Am Building in New York City for $400 million. The sale was the largest single building purchase in history. The company also established a joint venture with Metropolitan Structures of Chicago, resulting in one of the largest commercial real estate development companies, with a net worth of $500 million. In the whirlwind financial climate of the 1980s, Metropolitan entered risky investment areas. It dabbled in leveraged buyouts and in venture-capital investments for high-technology research and development.

Deregulation of financial services throughout the 1980s gave impetus to a number of new subsidiaries. In 1982 Metropolitan Tower Life was formed to write specialty lines. In 1983 MetLife Marketing Corporation was set up to supplement the agency distribution system; MetLife General Insurance Agency was formed to sell products, through agents, that Metropolitan Life Insurance Company did not offer; and MetLife Capital Corporation was established as an equipment leasing company. In 1984 the company began using the name Metropolitan Life and Affiliated Companies, better to reflect its diverse nature. Also in 1984, a highly successful advertising campaign featuring the well-known Peanuts comic strip characters kicked off with the slogan, Get Met. It Pays.

A new management team, with John J. Creedon as CEO and president and Robert Schwartz as chairman, took over in 1983. Both were career Metropolitan men. Metropolitan continued to expand its product mix in an effort to regain lost ground from its rival, Prudential. In 1984 Metropolitans whole life plus policy, offering up to one-third more coverage with no increase in premium, introduced just three years prior, became the companys best-selling policy.

In 1985 Metropolitan acquired Charter Security Life Insurance Companies and in so doing took over its line of Single Premium Deferred Annuities. A number of other acquisitions were completed that year: the Century 21 Real Estate franchise organization; the fifth largest full-service mortgage banker in the United States, Crossland Capital Corporation, which was renamed MetMor Financial, Inc.; Albany Assurance Company, Ltd., of the United Kingdom, a major marketer of variable life insurance and pension products; and Litton Industries Credit Corporation, a leasing company, renamed MetLife Capital Credit Corporation.

While looking for new markets for its products overseas, Metropolitan found some untapped markets in the United States. The company discovered that recent immigrants make good insurance customers. In 1983 Metropolitan began a marketing program geared to selling insurance to the 15 million Spanish-speaking people permanently residing in the United States. By 1985 Met was number one in the seven top Hispanic markets nationwide. In 1986 the company began to develop an Asian-American marketing strategy.

In 1986 Metropolitan introduced two new individual life insurance products, single premium life and universal variable life. It continued to add companies to enhance its mix of financial services in the later 1980s. In 1987 the assets of insolvent annuity-writer Baldwin-United Corporation and the Texas Life Insurance Company were acquired. In 1989 the group life and health business of the Allstate Insurance Company was purchased.

The trend in the late 1980s was toward globalization of financial markets. In keeping with the trend, Metropolitan initiated operations in Tokyo in January 1987. Six months later, the company entered into an agreement with Spains Banco Santander to sell insurance and pension products in that country. Metropolitan began selling insurance in Taiwan in 1989.

MetLife HealthCare Management Corporation was established in 1988 to set up health maintenance organizations. During the 1980s, health insurers were faced with rising healthcare costs. Metropolitan, long in the business of promoting healthful habits, in 1987 sponsored a two-hour television program as part of its assault on the fastest growing problem for health insurersacquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). By 1989 it had committed $6.5 million for AIDS education.

In 1989 Robert G. Schwartz took over the duties of president and CEO upon John J. Creedons retirement. Schwartz stated that the companys first priority for the future was to build upon the inherent strength in our traditional lines of businesspersonal insurance, group insurance, and investments. Schwartz also identified the goals of increased productivity, development of the companys people, accurate assessment of demographic changes, and strengthening Metropolitans ability to respond to market changes.

Metropolitan Life Insurance Companys sheer size and long tradition made it something of an institution in itself. While the company was for a time the victim of its own successcontent to follow market changes rather than anticipate themthe Metropolitan that emerged from the 1980s appeared to be positioned for success in the years ahead.

Traversing Rocky Terrain: 1990s

Harry P. Kamen, a longtime MetLifer, was named chairman and CEO in April 1993. He quickly faced a major problem: the discovery that agents in Tampa, Florida, were using deceptive sales practices. The resulting fallout was damaging not only to Metropolitan but to the entire life insurance industry.

Metropolitan agents had been selling nurses life insurance policies under the guise of retirement savings plans. The company had to pay out millions in rebates to affected customers as well as fines leveled by regulators. The distrust created had negative impact on earnings and, consequently, the companys financial ratings.

In response to the scandal, Metropolitan charged senior executives with overseeing changes designed to prevent a repeat performance. According to a March 1994 Sales & Marketing Management article, a business standards committee was created, the customer relations department was centralized, and ethics and compliance committees were established. The sales training and promotion programs, which had been under local control, also were centralized.

The word compliance took on new meaning throughout the industry. Before Metropolitan Life Insurance Co. came under fire when its agents were caught misrepresenting life insurance policies, the compliance department was thought of as a group of lawyers who filed policies with insurance departments or handled consumer complaints. A recent cartoon summed it up: It shows one executive telling another that running it by legal meant sprinting past the companys lawyers with document in hand, wrote Sean Armstrong for Bests Review in March 1995.

Not only had the Florida incident sparked investigations of MetLifes sales practices and materials in more than a dozen states, it triggered probes of other large insurers as well. The inquiries brought about changes in laws and regulations. For example, top executives and board members of insurers faced a greater degree of accountability for actions of their sales force. Insurers moved to clean house and the industrys professional organizations attempted to rebuild their tarnished reputation.

Beginning in October 1994 at its New York headquarters, Metropolitan Life began a massive re-engineering program. Increased earnings and improved customer service to policy holders topped its list of goals. An outside consulting firm helped Metropolitan examine all areas of operation. Plans for updating technologies, trimming costs, and improving return on investment were put in place. The companys operating earnings, total revenues, and net investment income all had declined from 1993 to 1994.

Metropolitan Lifes re-engineering program came with a big price tagand not just in consulting fees. The company reported a net loss of $672 million in 1995. According to an April 1996 National Underwriter Life & Health article, the years results were hurt by large capital losses, including write-offs related to the sale of three business units: Century 21 Real Estate Corp., MetMor Financial, and Metropolitan Trust Company of Canada. Additional capital loss came from the sale of real estate holdings: the company had been trying to reduce its percent of total investment assets in properties from about 10 percent to between 5 and 6 percent.

Metropolitan Lifes numbers improved in 1996 thanks to improvements in operations and due to its merger with New England Mutual Life: both net income and assets under management increased. The level of life insurance in force also climbed, to $1.6 trillion from $1.4 trillion the previous year.

MetLife is an extremely sound company financially, A.M. Bests Larry Mayewski, told National Underwriter in April 1997. They are conscious of earnings and return on capital, and have taken significant steps in recent years to get to a level of earnings for a company their size. There is really nothing striking that jumps out as a major problem. Robert H. Benmosche had been instrumental in ironing out some of the companys most pressing problems.

Benmosches marketing and operations skills led Kamen to bring him on board in 1995 to direct the integration of New England Mutual. Put in charge of the retail sales force in 1996, Benmosche focused on retention, compliance, and productivity. He also upgraded technology.

Benmosche had been flung into the world of business at a tender age, when his father died leaving his mother a hotel and restaurant to run and a load of debt to pay off. Following high school and college, he served in the Army and developed strong technical skills, setting up field communication networks overseas. Once back in civilian life he worked as a communications consultant and then with Chase Manhattan Banks systems group. From 1982 to 1995, Benmosche built a solid reputation at Paine Webber in the operations end of the brokerage business.

Benmosche was no less successful at Metropolitan: he rose to chairman, president, and CEO in January 1998. As head of Metropolitan, Benmosche faced a rapidly changing financial services industry. Megamergers were in the works putting increased pressure on mutual insurers such as MetLife. MetLife itself was seen as a possible buyout target by some. The companys core business of whole life insurance for the middle class had been in decline for much of the decade.

In November 1998 the board of directors approved the demutualization of the insurance company, and Benmosche began to prepare for entry into the public sector. Top management was streamlined; cost-cutting measures, including layoffs, were implemented; bonuses were more tightly tied to performance; new products, such as long-term care insurance, were introduced; a program to train agents in selling investment products was establishedconsumers increasingly put money once used for insurance premiums into stocks and mutual funds.

In the Public Eye: 2000 and Beyond

The barriers separating financial services businesses of insurance, banking, and brokerage were broken down by the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act in 1999. The Glass-Steagall Act of 1934 had kept these various sectors from crossing over into each others territory. Repealed, the drive to build multiproduct organizations was off and running and going public could help Metropolitan compete more effectively in the new environment. Among other things, it would increase the companys ability to raise capital.

The insurance companys 12 million policyholders were given the option to take stock, cash, or policy credits as part of the demutualization. MetLife would raise $2.5 billion through its April 2000 initial public offering (IPO).

Stock price soared during its first nine months on the market, but analysts began downgrading their ratings when MetLifes performance proved to be lackluster. The newly public company had made no large acquisitions, earnings per share remained flat, and net income slumped despite increased revenues.

According to a January 2001 American Banker article, Benmosche planned to boost earnings through aggressively restructuring the company and drawing more revenues out of its core institutional and individual insurance areas, which produced 91 percent of 1999s $25 billion in revenue.

MetLife also began redefining its brand identity in 2001. Since the mid-1980s, advertising had featured Snoopy. A new slogan, Have you met life today?, was introduced as part of a campaign emphasizing the financial services aspects of the company. On a related note, MetLife entered the retail banking business, providing another layer of services for its customers.

The September 11th attack on the United States resulted in a major blow to MetLifes 2001 net income: it fell 50 percent, in part due to related payouts and investment losses. On the other hand, revenues had climbed 18 percent since Benmosche took command. Return on equityhelped by a $1 billion stock buyback in 2001was also on the upswing. Consequently, Forbes declared in April 2002 that MetLife was in far better shape thanks to Benmosches efforts but also noted the turnaround effort was still a work in progress.

Principal Subsidiaries

Reinsurance Group of America, Incorporated; GenAmerica Financial Corporation; Texas Life Insurance Company; Nathan & Lewis Securities, Inc.; State Street Research & Management Company; Walnut Street Securities, Inc.; MetLife Bank, N.A.; MetLife Securities, Inc.

Principal Competitors

Prudential Insurance Company of America; American International Group; Aetna Life Insurance Company of America.

Further Reading

Armstrong, Sean, The Sales Police, Bests ReviewLife-Health Insurance Edition, March 1995, pp. 34 +.

Birger, Jon, Not Same Old Life, Crains New York Business, March 1, 1999, p. 1.

Brewer, Geoffrey, and Nancy Arnott, Can MetLife Insure Honest Selling?, Sales & Marketing Management, March 1994, p. 13.

Connolly, Jim, Met Life Incurs Costs As Revamping Continues, National Underwriter Life & HealthFinancial Services Edition, April 22, 1996, p. 31.

Coolidge, Carrie, Snoopys New Tricks, Forbes, April 15, 2002, p. 100.

Cox, Brian, Met Life in Midst of Huge Re-engineering Program, National Underwriter Life & HealthFinancial Services Edition, September 18, 1995, pp. 40+.

Dublin, Louis I., A Family of Thirty Million: The Story of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, New York: Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, 1943.

Gjertsen, Lee Ann, Does Bob Benmosches New MetLife Have What It Takes to Break Out?, American Banker, January 8, 2001, p. 1.

James, Marquis, The Metropolitan Life: A Study in Business Growth, New York: Viking Press, 1947.

Levinsohn, Alan, Insurers Go Public, Strategic Finance, July 2000, p. 68.

Mannino, Barbara, Staying the Course, Bests ReviewLife-Health Insurance Edition, May 1998, pp. 40 +.

MetLife Reinvents Its Identity with Launch of Ad Campaign, Bests Review, June 2001, p. 95.

Metropolitan Life: Citadel of Safety, Forbes, September 1, 1962.

Nathans, Leah, Fighter Pilot, Business Week, December 14, 1998, p. 124.

Schmitt, Frederick, Met Lifes 1996 Earnings Well Received by Analysts, National Underwriter Life & HealthFinancial Services Edition, April 14, 1997, pp. 3 +.

Van Aartrijk, Peter, Jr., Meet the New Metropolitan Life, Bests Review, July 1984.

Wipperfürth, Heike, Breaking Tradition, Remaking MetLife, Crains New York Business, April 9, 2001, p. 27.

Thomas M. Tucker

update: Kathleen Peippo

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"Metropolitan Life Insurance Company." International Directory of Company Histories. 2003. Retrieved August 27, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-2845600068.html

Metropolitan Life Insurance Company

Metropolitan Life Insurance Company

1 Madison Avenue
New York, New York 10010
U.S.A.
(212)578-2211
Fax: (212) 578-7298

Mutual Company
Incorporated:
1866 as National Travelers Insurance Company
Employees: 65,000
Assets: $98.74 billion

Metropolitan Life Insurance Company is the second-largest life insurer in the United States. The company has been a leader in the field since shortly after it was established. Metropolitan grew by providing insurance for the workersmall policies with premiums collected each week. The company dominated the field for most of the 20th century.

Metropolitans origins can be traced to the National Union Life and Limb Insurance Company, a firm originally chartered in 1863 to underwrite the lives and limbs of Union soldiers during the Civil War. The company had trouble getting started. Simeon Draper, the companys chief promoter, found it difficult to raise the necessary $100,000 capital. A company insuring only servicemen during the bloodiest war in U.S. history did not seem to be a very promising business proposal. Frustrated, Draper stepped down and a group of businessmen from Brooklyn petitioned the New York legislature to revise the companys charter to allow life insurance for civilians as well. National Union Life and Limbs president, Major General Daniel E. Sickles, a war hero, resigned shortly before the company actually began writing policies. Sickles was replaced by Orison Blount, a respected member of the business community. Blount, though multi-talented, had no experience in the insurance business, and the company struggled to gain a foothold.

In 1865 the company changed its name to National Life and Travelers Insurance Company, and underwent two reorganizations within a period of two years, in 1866 splitting its life and casualty lines into separate companies, National Life Insurance Company and National Travelers Insurance Company. The latter company initially offered only casualty lines, selling its first policy in 1867, and adding life insurance to its casualty lines later that year. National ultimately evolved into one of the premiere life insurance companies in the United States, Metropolitan.

On March 24, 1868, National Travelers Insurance Company was reorganized as Metropolitan Life Insurance Company. The companys president, James R. Dow, had led the National Travelers Insurance Company for several years. Originally, Dow had applied for the position of medical examiner for the casualty insurer, but because of his pleasant disposition, and a $15,000 investment, he was appointed a director and elected president. Dow and another director of the company, Joseph F. Knapp, had lobbied for the reorganizationin order to head the company in a single direction. When the company changed its name to Metropolitan Life Insurance Company it also dropped its casualty insurance business.

Metropolitans early years saw the rapid growth of the life insurance industry. The Industrial Revolution had introduced more hazards to everyday life, creating a widespread demand for insurance of all kinds. The Civil War had been a particular boom for the life insurance trade, and the industry grew at a frenzied pace in the wars wake. Whole life insurance was the preferred type of policy. Endowments were somewhat popular, term insurance was less common, and annuities were rare. In 1869, $614 million worth of life insurance had been written in the United States, of which Metropolitan had written 2,930 policies valued at $4.86 million.

The industrys growth was somewhat reckless in these early years. Many companies had trouble attracting agents without paying outrageous commissions. To get business, many agents insured questionable risks. Although Metropolitan had a successful first year, it was still small compared to other life insurers. It had just $594,000 in assets, compared with the $30 million of Mutual Life of New Yorkthe largest life insurance company at that time.

A significant portion of Metropolitans business in the early years came from New York Citys population of German immigrants. The company had two outstanding German-speaking agents, Abraham Kaufmann and Moritz Reno. A German division was soon set up, headed by Kaufmann. In 1869 Kaufmann initiated a relationship with a German fraternal society called the Hildise Bund. Metropolitan sold small life insurance policies to members of the society, with the bund collecting the premiums on a weekly basis. The organization required life insurancewith Metropolitanas a condition of membership from each of its applicants. As German settlers migrated west, so too did the bunds relationship with the company. The cheapest policy was for $500 coverage, and the cost was 350 per week. The premiums collected were turned over to Metropolitan quarterly. Metropolitans agreement with the Hildise Bund was the companys first excursion into the field that would turn it into a giantworkingmans, or industrial, life insurance.

In 1871 Dow died, and was succeeded as president by Joseph F. Knapp. In 1873 a severe depression gripped the nation. Metropolitans business dropped from 8,280 new policies in 1874 to 510 in 1879. Many life insurance companies were unable to meet their obligations and failed. As a result, popular confidence in life insurance hit an all-time low.

In 1879 Knapp traveled to London to observe the success of the Prudential Assurance Company of London, a company that had become successful writing industrial insurance. Knapps interest in insurance for the masses was longstanding. He returned to New York more determined than ever to push Metropolitan into industrial insurance.

Knapp imported hundreds of British insurance agents familiar with industrial insurance to spearhead Metropolitans efforts. These recruits trained local agents in the art of writing life insurance for small amounts, collecting the premiums weekly, and accounting to the home office. Metropolitans success was stunning: $9 million in industrial insurance was written the first year; $18 million the second; and by 1886, just six years after the policy was officially introduced, Metropolitan had over $100 million of industrial life insurance in force. The company expanded its agency force rapidly during the 1880s. Hundreds of new agents ventured west and south to sell insurance to the countrys working class. The cost of this expansion was great, and Knapp risked at least $650,000 of his own money to keep Metropolitan going during difficult years. By the time of Knapps death in 1891, Metropolitan had established itself as the leader in industrial insurance, with more policies in force than Prudential and John Hancock combined.

In October 1891, following the death of Knapp, vice president John Rogers Hegeman became president, but it was the companys new vice president, Haley Fiske, who was in charge of the companys day-to-day operations and policy-making. While Metropolitan was a leader in industrial insurance, its ordinary life business had dwindled. Fiske initiated an effort to recover it.

For the most part, life insurance companies were offering so-called tontine insurance. Named after its Neapolitan inventor, Lorenzo Tonti, these policies paid dividends to their subscribers. Tontine policies were basically annuities, but their values increased based on ones longevity. As subscribers died, their portion of the fund was ceded to surviving policyholders. The last survivor took all. Although Metropolitan had written such policies in its early days, in the 1890s it was critical of them. The companys rate book of 1892 stated, The Metropolitan believes the time has come when the plain common sense men who make up the bulk of life insurance policyholders are looking for a plain business contract... which leave nothing to the imagination; which borrow nothing from hope; require definite conditions and make definite promises in dollars and sense, as quoted in Marquis Jamess The Metropolitan Life: A Study in Business Growth. Metropolitan began to make inroads into the ordinary life business, writing no-frills non-participating policies like whole life, term life, single-premium life, limited-payment life, and endowments.

The late 1890s and early 1900s were a time of journalistic muckraking, and insurance companies, like big business in general, became targets for the pens of journalistic zealots. Particularly unpleasant for Metropolitan were accusations that industrial insurance, which covered even a familys youngest children, encouraged infanticide for the collection of benefits. Metropolitan spearheaded the defense of industrial insurance, and after several years the controversy died down. Life insurance companies, however, were not out of the investigative woods. In a few years the most comprehensive probe yet would bring about reform in the industry.

In 1905 a New York State legislative committee headed by Senator William W. Armstrong launched an investigation of the major life insurance companies, hoping to do away with any abusive practices. The chief counsel for the investigation was Charles Evans Hughes, later governor of New York and chief justice of the Supreme Court. Hughes called top executives of all the major life insurance companies to testify before the committee, including several officersHegeman among themof Metropolitan, the fourth-largest life insurer at the time.

Although acknowledging that there were certain deficiencies in industrial insurance, the committee made no recommendations for change to the life insurance market. Tontine insurance, which Metropolitan had decided years before not to write, was outlawed altogether. Limits were placed on the amount of ordinary insurance that companies could write each year. Huge companies such as New York Life Insurance Company and Equitable were forced to change drastically their business practices, but Metropolitan was given merely what amounted to a slap on the wristabuses were cited but no remedies proposed nor penalties imposed. It gave the company a degree of public confidence not enjoyed by other companies, which helped its sales surge past its competitors in the next few years. By 1909 Metropolitan had more life insurance in force than any other company.

The Armstrong Committee hearings did bring to light some questionable practices conducted by Metropolitan, however, and resulted in charges of third-degree forgery and perjury being brought against Hegeman. The actual impropriety of certain transactions was questionable, and in time all of the charges were dismissed.

While this controversy shook the halls of justice, Metropolitan agents continued the business of writing life insurance. The company had grown considerably over the years. As 1905 dawned the company had $1.47 billion of insurance in force. In 1909 the headquarters at 1 Madison Avenue was expanded. The company commissioned the architectural firm Le Brun and Sons, the same firm that had created its original edifice at the same address in 1893, to design a new building. The well-known Metropolitan Tower was the result. The 50-story tower was the worlds tallest building until 1913 and was considered one of the wonders of the modern world.

In 1913 Metropolitan was authorized to write accident and health insurance. In 1914 it wrote its first group accident and health policy on its own employees. A year later annual medical and dental check-ups were given to employees. In 1909 the company instituted a revolutionary program, paying nurses to administer bedside care to sick policyholders. The company also pioneered in publicizing health and safety practices. Beginning in 1898 Metropolitan published informative booklets on safety and health. Health Hints for the Home was later distributed under the title A Friend in Need is a Friend Indeed. The company later used radio, motion pictures, and other media to carry its messages of safety and health.

In January 1915 Metropolitan transformed from a stock company to a mutual company, in effect becoming owned by its policyholders. The change was intended to thwart future attempts by unscrupulous stockowners to manipulate the insurance companys millions for personal gain. From this point on, the companys profits were redistributed to its policyholders in the form of dividends.

U.S. participation in World War I resulted in about 18,000 claims by the survivors of U.S. servicemen on life insurance policies at Metropolitan and 7,500 claims from Canadian servicemen. By the end of the war $8.25 million was paid in death benefits. After the war, a worldwide flu outbreak took a far greater toll, claiming 83,000 Metropolitan policyholders by June 30, 1919. Met paid $27.6 million as a result of that epidemic.

In April 1919 president John R. Hegeman died, after 28 years at the Metropolitan helm. He had spent a total of 49 years as an officer of the company, having seen its assets increase by a factor of 55, and insurance in force by a factor of 17. His close associate over those years, Haley Fiske assumed the presidency.

For the next ten years, Fiske continued to introduce new forms of coverage and improve old forms. In 1921 industrial policies were liberalized to pay full benefits beginning with the date of issue rather than half benefits for the first six months. In 1928 a double-indemnity clause provided for the payment of double the face value of an industrial insurance policy in the case of accidental death. These improvements were made without additional premiums.

During the prosperous early 1920s, all forms of life insurance sold extremely well. Group policies added considerably to Metropolitans success during the decade. Assets topped $2 billion in 1926. The companys group life insurance in force grew from $60 million in 1919 to $2.25 billion a decade later. In 1928 the company wrote the largest group policy to date, for the General Motors Corporation for $400 million.

In March 1929 Frederick H. Ecker became president of Metropolitan upon Haley Fiskes death. Several months later the stock market crashed and the Great Depression started. Metropolitans conservative investment policies helped it to weather the hard times. The company had stayed out of the speculative equities markets and had focused instead on real estate and bonds. The stock market crash initially had a positive impact on life insurance sales. Investors who had lost heavily tried to supplement the losses to their estates by increasing their life insurance. Ordinary insurance sold at record volume in 1930 and 1931. As the Great Depression deepened, however, and unemployment reached massive proportions, new policies stagnated and many policyholders were forced to discontinue their premium payments and allow their policies to lapse. In addition, many borrowed money against their policies or surrendered them for the cash value. Metropolitan was in sound financial condition and had no trouble meeting its obligations. Adjustments in the companys investment portfolio were necessary as rents fell and farm commodity prices dropped; Metropolitan reduced its investments in city mortgage and farm lending.

The Great Depression of the 1930s and the New Deal philosophy that accompanied it focused a great deal of attention on the nations financial industries. In the late 1930s U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt urged Congress to look into malpractice of big business. The lawmakers responded by establishing the Temporary National Economic Committee for the Investigation of Concentration of Economic Power. The TNEC, as the committee became known, spent a year, beginning in 1939, interviewing officers of life insurance companies. The first witness called was Metropolitans Frederick Ecker, chairman of Metropolitans board of directors since 1936, when Leroy A. Lincoln had become president. After much testimony, the TNEC issued its report in 1941. Government officials were hoping for federal regulation of ordinary life insurance, and the addition of industrial insurance to the new Social Security program. The TNEC, however, in a mere three pages, suggested only that the states beef up their existing regulatory mechanisms. The committees most forceful recommendation affected a large segment of Metropolitan Lifes business, asking for a change in the operation of the industrial insurance business, and stating that in the alternative the elimination of such coverage might be required. Without proposing any new means of federal regulation, however, the life insurance industry was, for the most part, left to police itself.

World War II resulted in a number of policy changes for Metropolitan customers. While existing policies were continued under the same terms, new policies were written as war risks with special premiums and stipulated conditions. For the most part, the business of life insurance remained the same, except for the extraordinary numbers of claims due to combat. By March 1946 Metropolitan paid out $42.1 million on 51,956 lives lost as a direct result of the war.

After the war, Metropolitan continued to grow rapidly and its investment dollars went into real estate projects all over the country, including landmark middle-income complexes in the Stuyvesant Town and Riverton districts in New York City. The rents on these properties were kept low in exchange for tax breaks from the city.

In 1951 Leroy A. Lincoln became chairman of the board at Metropolitan. Charles G. Taylor took over the duties of president but soon was replaced by Frederick W. Ecker, whose father had held the office years before and was now elevated to honorary chairman. Throughout the 1950s, Metropolitan was the leading life insurer in the United States, having enjoyed that position steadily since 1909. Metropolitan held to a conservative investment posture, and continued to offer low-cost insurance. In 1954, the company was the first in life insurance to install a major computer system. Metropolitan continued to support health and safety practices. In 1956 the company was behind a push to set up poison control centers.

In 1957 Frederick W. Ecker became CEO of Metropolitan and in 1959, chairman of the board. The younger Eckers leadership stressed conservatism. Metropolitan was the largest private capital pool in the country, and the company managed it so tightly that some thought the company old-fashioned. Equities investments were avoided in the 1960s as they were in the 1920s. Other insurance companies implemented more aggressive investment and marketing strategies.

In 1963 Gilbert Fitzhugh became president of Metropolitan. In 1966 he moved up to chairman of the board and the presidency was filled by Charles A. Siegfried. In 1966 Metropolitan was replaced by Prudential as the number-one life insurer in terms of assets. Prudential surpassed it in number of policies in force in 1974.

In 1968, a year after race riots rocked U.S. cities, the life insurance companies made a commitment to invest in inner cities. Metropolitan Life invested $322 million for rebuilding or new building of housing. Chairman Fitzhugh recognized the need of the company to respond to recent changes in the business, and Metropolitan, for the first time, purchased common stocks for its portfolio. Equities investments reached $1 billion in 1972. In addition to loosening up the companys investment strategy, Fitzhugh looked for new areas of insurance to market. Metropolitan began offering aviation reinsurance after 1971, and formed a subsidiary, Metropolitan Property and Liability Insurance, in 1972.

Metropolitan also made changes in its life insurance business. New products were offered, including individual variable annuities, in 1969, and after 1972 the company abandoned the debit insurance business upon which it had been built. Agents would no longer collect premiums weekly or monthly on low-cost policies.

Beginning in 1970, Metropolitan began to decentralize its operations by setting up a number of regional service centers across the country. By the end of the decade, Metropolitan had head offices at Tampa, Florida; Tulsa, Oklahoma; Providence, Rhode Island; Dayton, Ohio; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Aurora, Illinois; and New York City. Regional computing centers for record keeping were set up at Greenville, South Carolina; Wichita, Kansas; and Scranton, Pennsylvania.

In October 1973 Richard R. Shinn became chairman of Metropolitan Life. Like his predecessor, Shinn had spent his entire career at Metropolitan, becoming president in 1969. Shinn continued Metropolitans course of diversification. In 1975 the company began writing individual retirement annuities. In 1976 a subsidiary to reinsure health insurance, Metropolitan Insurance and Annuity Company, was established. In 1978 a subsidiary to reinsure property and casualty business, Metropolitan Reinsurance, began operations.

Metropolitan focused also on group policy coverage. In 1974 its group life broke an industry record with $118.68 billion in force. In 1976 Metropolitan introduced Multiple Employer Trust group policies, which provided insurance under employee benefit programs. In 1978 group plans covering 50 to 200 employees were introduced. By 1979 Metropolitan had more than $200 billion of group insurance in force. Total life insurance in force topped $300 billion.

By the end of the decade, the flaws of Metropolitans decentralization program, begun in 1970, became apparent. Spreading out the companys bureaucracy had caused frustration among employees, and the sales staff was defecting at a rate of 40% per yearhigh turnover for Metropolitan. While agents were encouraged to solicit middle- and upper-income customers, few big policies were written. The corporate initiative to push bigger policies was simply being ignored. One frustrated Met salesman commented, as reported in Business Week of November 21, 1977, This metamorphosis has not been thought out as thoroughly as executives at the top might lead you to believe. Just go out and try to sell a policy over $10,000. Youll find the underwriters in the home office using a fine-tooth comb. They think anybody who wants a big policy is trying to cheat the company. It takes seven to eight weeks to get the big cases through.

Revitalizing the companys personal insurance sales mechanism became a priority in 1979. The number of managers between the chief marketing officer and the sales representative was reduced from six to three over the next five years. An open-door policy was instituted in order to eliminate the memo-writing mentality at Met. Executive vice president Pierre Maurer, in charge of the reorganization, told employees in 1983, Always wage war against paperits the greatest waster of management time and energy, as reported by Bests Review of July 1984. By the mid-1980s, Metropolitan was a leaner company, having eliminated 60% of its redundant middle management.

In 1980 Metropolitan purchased the Pan Am Building in New York City for $400 million. The sale was the largest single building purchase in history. The company also established a joint venture with Metropolitan Structures of Chicago, resulting in one of the largest commercial real estate development companies, with a net worth of $500 million. In the whirlwind financial climate of the 1980s, Metropolitan entered risky investment areas. It dabbled in leveraged buyouts, and in venture-capital investments for high-technology research and development.

Deregulation of financial services throughout the 1980s gave impetus to a number of new subsidiaries. In 1982 Metropolitan Tower Life was formed to write specialty lines. In 1983 MetLife Marketing Corporation was set up to supplement the agency distribution system; MetLife General Insurance Agency was formed to sell products, through agents, that Metropolitan Life Insurance Company did not offer; and MetLife Capital Corporation was established as an equipment-leasing company. In 1984 the company began using the name Metropolitan Life and Affiliated Companies, better to reflect its diverse nature. Also in 1984, a highly successful advertising campaign featuring the well-known Peanuts comic characters kicked off with the slogan, Get Met. It Pays.

A new management team, with John J. Creedon as CEO and president and Robert Schwartz as chairman, took over in 1983. Both were career Metropolitan men. Metropolitan continued to expand its product mix in an effort to regain lost ground from its rival, Prudential. In 1984 Metropolitans whole life plus policy, offering up to one-third more coverage with no increase in premium, introduced just three years prior, became the companys best-selling policy.

In 1985 Metropolitan acquired Charter Security Life Insurance Companies and in so doing took over its line of Single Premium Deferred Annuities. A number of other acquisitions were completed that year: the Century 21 Real Estate franchise organization; the fifth-largest full-service mortgage banker in the United StatesCrossland Capital Corporation, which was renamed MetMor Financial, Inc.; Albany Assurance Company, Ltd., of the United Kingdom, a major marketer of variable life insurance and pension products; and Litton Industries Credit Corporation, a leasing company, renamed MetLife Capital Credit Corporation.

While looking for new markets for its products overseas, Metropolitan found some untapped markets in the United States. The company discovered that recent immigrants make good insurance customers. In 1983 Metropolitan began a marketing program geared to selling insurance to the 15 million Spanish-speaking people permanently residing in the United States. By 1985 Met was number-one in the seven top Hispanic markets nationwide. In 1986 the company began to develop an Asian-American marketing strategy.

In 1986 Metropolitan introduced two new individual life insurance products, single premium life and universal variable life. It continued to add new companies to enhance its mix of financial services in the later 1980s. In 1987 the assets of insolvent annuity-writer Baldwin-United Corporation and the Texas Life Insurance Company were acquired. In 1989 the group life and health business of the Allstate Insurance Company was purchased.

The trend in the late 1980s was toward globalization of financial markets. In keeping with the trend. Metropolitan initiated operations in Tokyo in January 1987. Six months later, the company entered into an agreement with Spains Banco Santander to sell insurance and pension products in that country. Metropolitan began selling insurance in Taiwan in 1989.

MetLife HealthCare Management Corporation was established in 1988 to set up health-maintenance organizations. During the 1980s, health insurers were faced with rising health-care costs. Metropolitan, long in the business of promoting healthful habits, in 1987 sponsored a two-hour television program as part of its assault on the fastest growing problem for health insurersacquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). By 1989 it had committed $6.5 million for AIDS education.

In 1989 Robert G. Schwartz took over the duties of president and CEO upon John J. Creedons retirement. Schwartz stated that the companys first priority for the future was to build upon the inherent strength in our traditional lines of businesspersonal insurance, group insurance, and investments. Schwartz also identified the goals of increased productivity, development of the companys people, accurate assessment of demographic changes, and strengthening Metropolitans ability to respond to market changes.

Metropolitan Life Insurance Companys sheer size and long tradition make it something of an institution in itself. While the company was for a time the victim of its own success content to follow market changes rather than anticipate themthe Metropolitan that emerged from the 1980s was positioned for success in the years ahead.

Principal Subsidiaries

MetLife Security Insurance Companies: Metropolitan Insurance and Annuity Company: Metropolitan Property and Casualty Insurance Company: Metropolitan Reinsurance Company: Metropolitan Tower Life Insurance Company: Texas Life Insurance Company: MetLife Capital Corporation: MetLife Capital Credit Corporation: MetLife Funding. Inc.: MetLife Securities. Inc.: MetLife-State Street Investment Services. Inc.: State Street Research & Management Company: Century 21 Real Estate Corporation: Cross and Brown Company: Farmers National Company: MetMor Financial. Inc.: Corporate Health Strategies. Inc.: MetLife HealthCare Management Corporation: MetHotels. Inc.: Metropolitan Life Holdings Limited (Canada): Metropolitan Life Insurance of Canada: Metropolitan General Insurance Company (Canada): Metropolitan Insurance Company (Canada): Metropolitan Trust of Canada: Morguard Investments. Limited (Canada): MetLife (UK) Limited: Albany Life Assurance Company. Limited (U.K.): Metropolitan Reinsurance Company (UK) Limited: ACFC Corporate Finance Limited (U.K.): Albany Home Loans Limited (U.K.): Century 21 Real Estate Agency Limited (U.K.): Santander Met. S.A. (Spain, 50%): Seguros Genesis (Spain): Metropolitan Insurance and Annuity Company (Taiwan): Kolon-Met Life Insurance Company, Ltd. (South Korea. 50%).

Further Reading

Dublin, Louis I.. A Family of Thirty Million: The Story of the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, New York, Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, 1943; James, Marquis, The Metropolitan Life: A Study in Business Growth, New York, Viking Press, 1947; Metropolitan Life: Citadel of Safety, Forbes, September 1, 1962; Van Aartrijk, Peter Jr., Meet the New Metropolitan Life, Bests Review, July 1984.

Thomas M. Tucker

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"Metropolitan Life Insurance Company." International Directory of Company Histories. 1991. Encyclopedia.com. 27 Aug. 2016 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Metropolitan Life Insurance Company." International Directory of Company Histories. 1991. Encyclopedia.com. (August 27, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-2840700108.html

"Metropolitan Life Insurance Company." International Directory of Company Histories. 1991. Retrieved August 27, 2016 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-2840700108.html

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