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Contemporary Theatre, Film and Television UXL NewsmakersInternational Dictionary of Films and FilmmakersThe Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Further reading

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Schwarzenegger, Arnold 1947–

Schwarzenegger, Arnold 1947–

(Arnold Strong)

PERSONAL

Full name, Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger; born July 30, 1947, in Graz (some sources cite Thal), Austria; immigrated to the United States, 1968, naturalized U.S. citizen, 1983; son of Gustav (a police chief) and Aurelia (maiden name, Jadrny) Schwarzenegger; married Maria Owings Shriver (a journalist and writer), April 26, 1986; children: Katherine Eunice, Christina Maria Aurelia, Patrick Arnold, Christopher Sargent Shriver. Education: University of Wisconsin Superior, B.A., business and international economics, 1980.Politics: Republican. Avocational Interests: Collecting art, motorcycling, horseback riding, travel, reading, classical music.

Addresses: Agent—William Morris Agency, One William Morris Place, Beverly Hills, CA 90212; Creative Artists Agency, 9830 Wilshire Blvd., Beverly Hills, CA 90212. Publicist—Full Picture, 8899 Beverly Blvd., Suite 412, West Hollywood, CA 90048; PMK, 8500 Wilshire Blvd., Suite 700, Beverly Hills, CA 90211-3105 (some sources cite 955 Carrillo Dr., Suite 200, Los Angeles, CA 90048).

Career: Actor, writer, director, and producer. Bodybuilder, 1962–76; Special Olympics, national weight training coach, 1977, international weight training coach, beginning in 1979; Arnold Classic Fitness Weekend and Annual Arnold Schwarzenegger Classic (body building competition, also known as Arnold Classic), founder; President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, chairperson, 1990–92; Council on Physical Fitness and Sports for the state of California, chairperson; Los Angeles Inner City Games, member of executive commission, beginning in 1991; Inner City Games Foundation, chairperson; produced and affiliated with body building events and competitions; volunteer with prison rehabilitation programs; affiliated with other organizations, including the Muhammad Ali Parkinson Research Foundation; spokesperson for products, appeared in advertisements, and appeared in commercials for political issues; Flex and Muscle and Fitness magazines, executive editor. Planet Hollywood (restaurant chain), co-owner, 1991–2000; Schatzi on Main (restaurant), Santa Monica, CA, co-owner; also a real estate investor and bricklayer. Elected governor of California, 2003; speaker at the 2004 Republican National Convention, New York City, 2004. Military service: Served in the Austrian Army, beginning 1965.

Member: Screen Actors Guild, Directors Guild of America.

Awards, Honors: Thirteen world champion body-building titles, 1965–80, including Mr. Universe, Mr. World, Mr. Olympia, and Junior Mr. Europe, as well as powerlifting championships and a designation as the best built man of Europe; Sportsman of the Year Award, Association of Physical Fitness Centers, 1977; Golden Globe Award, best acting debut in a motion picture—male, 1977, for Stay Hungry; Saturn Award nomination, best actor, Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy, and Horror Films, 1985, for The Terminator; Special Award, international star of the year, National Association of Theatre Owners, ShoWest Convention, 1985; Saturn Award nomination, best actor, 1988, for Predator; named video star of the year, Video Software Dealers Association, 1990; Timmie Award, Touchdown Club, 1990; National Leadership Award, Simon Wie-senthal Center, 1991, for support of Holocaust studies; Saturn Award nomination, best actor, 1991, and Video Premiere Award nomination (with Paul Verhoeven), best audio commentary, DVD Exclusive awards, 2001, both for Total Recall; named an entertainer of the year, E! Entertainment Television, 1991 and 2003; MTV Movie Award, best male performance, and Saturn Award nomination, best actor, both 1992, for Terminator 2: Judgment Day; Life Career Award, Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy, and Horror Films, 1992; Special Award, international star of the decade, ShoWest Convention, 1993; Saturn Award nomination, best actor, 1994, for Last Action Hero; Golden Globe Award nomination, best performance by an actor in a motion picture—comedy/musical, 1995, for Junior; Saturn Award nomination, best actor, and MTV Movie Award nominations, best dance sequence (with Tia Carrere) and best kiss (with Jamie Lee Curtis), all 1995, for True Lies; Golden Apple Award, male star of the year, Hollywood Women's Press Association, 1996; Bambi Award (Germany), international film category, 1996; honorary doctorate, University of Wisconsin Superior, 1996; Blockbuster Entertainment Award nomination, favorite supporting actor—science fiction, 1997, for Batman & Robin; MTV Movie Award nomination, best action sequence, 1997, for Eraser; Humanitarian Award, ShoWest Convention, 1997; Die Goldene Kamera (Golden Camera Award [Germany]), 1997; named one of the top 100 movie stars of all time, Empire magazine, 1997; named one of the most fascinating people of the year, 1997 and 2003; World Artist Award, Blockbuster Entertainment awards, 1998; American Cinematheque Award, American Cinematheque Gala Tribute, 1998; Blockbuster Entertainment Award nomination, favorite actor—action or science fiction, 1999, for End of Days; Father Flanagan Award for Service to Youth, Girls and Boys Town, 2000, for his work with the Special Olympics and the Inner City Games; Saturn Award nomination, best actor, 2001, for The 6th Day; Video Premiere Award nomination (with John Milius), best DVD audio commentary, 2001, for Conan the Barbarian; Taurus Honorary Award, World Stunt awards, 2001; Humanitarian Award, World Sports awards, 2001; Muhammad Ali Humanitarian Award, Celebrity Fight Night Foundation, 2002, for his work with the Special Olympics and the Inner City Games and his affiliation with the Muhammad Ali Parkinson Research Foundation; honorary doctorate, Chapman University, 2002; named one of the top ten box office stars of the 1990s, Star TV, 2003; Sport for Good Award, Laureus World Sport awards, 2003; Schwarzenegger's announcement on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno that he would run for the office of California governor was named the greatest television moment of 2003 by TV Guide, 2003; Teen Choice Award nomination, choice movie actor, 2004, for Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines; Maverick Tribute Award, Cinequest San Jose Film Festival, 2004; Schwarzenegger's performance in the film The Terminator was named to the 100 heroes and villains list, American Film Institute, 2006; received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame; named one of the greatest movie stars of all time, Entertainment Weekly magazine; the Arnold Schwarzenegger Stadium (which once included a museum of Schwarzenegger's training equipment), in Graz, Austria, was named in his honor.

CREDITS

Film Appearances:

(As Arnold Strong) Hercules, Hercules in New York (also known as Hercules Goes Bananas and Hercules: The Movie), Trimark Pictures, 1970.

(As Arnold Strong) Hood in Augustine's office, The Long Goodbye, United Artists, 1973.

Joe Santo, Stay Hungry United Artists, 1976.

Himself, Pumping Iron (documentary), Almi Cinema Five, 1977.

Handsome stranger, The Villain (also known as Cactus Jack), Columbia, 1979.

Lars (gym instructor), Scavenger Hunt, Twentieth Century-Fox, 1979.

Himself, The Comeback (documentary), 1980.

Himself, Body by Garret (short documentary), 1982.

Title role, Conan the Barbarian, Universal, 1982.

Title role, Conan the Destroyer, Universal, 1983.

Title role, The Terminator, Orion, 1984.

Colonel John Matrix, Commando, Twentieth Century-Fox, 1985.

Kalidor, Red Sonja, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer/United Artists, 1985.

Mark Kaminski (also known as Joseph P. Brenner), Raw Deal (also known as Triple Identity), DeLaurentiis Entertainment Group/Embassy Pictures, 1986.

Ben "Butcher of Bakersfield" Richards, The Running Man, TriStar, 1987.

Major Alan "Dutch" Schaefer, Predator (also known as Alien Hunter, Hunter, and Primevil), Twentieth Century-Fox, 1987.

Captain Ivan Danko, Red Heat, TriStar, 1988.

Julius Benedict, Twins, Universal, 1988.

Douglas Quaid, Total Recall, TriStar, 1990.

John Kimble, Kindergarten Cop, Universal, 1990.

The Terminator and Uncle Bob, Terminator 2: Judgment Day (also known as T2, T2: Extreme Edition, T2: Ultimate Edition, T2—Terminator 2: Judgment Day, El exterminator 2, and Terminator 2—Le jugement dernier), TriStar, 1991.

Himself, Feed (documentary), Original Cinema, 1992.

Himself, Dave, Warner Bros., 1993.

(Uncredited) Himself, The Last Party (documentary), Triton Pictures/LIVE Entertainment, 1993.

Jack Slater and himself, Last Action Hero, Columbia, 1993.

Himself, Beretta's Island, VCL Communications, 1994.

Himself, A Century of Cinema (documentary), 1994.

Dr. Alexander Hesse, Junior, Universal, 1994.

Harry Tasker, True Lies, Twentieth Century-Fox, 1994.

Howard Langston, Jingle All the Way, Twentieth Century-Fox, 1996.

The Terminator, Terminator 2: 3-D: Battle across Time (also known as Terminator 2: 3-D and T2: Terminator 2: 3-D), Landmark Entertainment/Lightstorm Entertainment, 1996.

U.S. marshal John Kruger (title role), Eraser, Warner Bros., 1996.

Himself, Stand Tall (documentary), 1997.

Mr. Freeze/Dr. Victor Fries, Batman & Robin (also known as Batman and Robin and Batman 4), Warner Bros., 1997.

Himself, Junket Whore (documentary), 1998.

Robert Neville, I Am Legend, Warner Bros., 1998.

Jericho Cane, End of Days, Universal, 1999.

Adam Gibson, The 6th Day (also known as On the Sixth Day, The Sixth Day, and Le sixieme jour), Columbia, 2000.

Voice of white wolf, Dr. Dolittle 2 (also known as Doctor Dolittle 2, DR.2, and DR2), Twentieth Century-Fox, 2001.

(Uncredited) Himself, Last Party 2000 (documentary; also known as The Party's Over), Lightning Entertainment, 2001, Film Movement, 2003.

Gordy Brewer, Collateral Damage, Warner Bros., 2002.

Bar patron, The Rundown (also known as Welcome to the Jungle), Universal, 2003.

The Terminator, Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines (also known as T3 and Terminator 3—Rebellion der Maschinen), Warner Bros., 2003.

Himself, How Arnold Won the West (documentary), MGI International, 2004.

Himself, WMD: Weapons of Mass Destruction (documentary), Cinema Libre Studio, 2004.

Prince Hapi, Around the World in 80 Days (also known as Around the World in Eighty Days), Buena Vista, 2004.

Arnold Schwarzenegger, The Kid & I, Slowhand Cinema Releasing, 2005.

Himself, Pursuit of Equality (documentary), 2005.

(In archive footage) Himself, Running with Arnold (documentary; also known as Pumping Politics), Panacea Entertainment/Purple Princess Productions, 2005.

(Uncredited; in archive footage) Conan the Barbarian, Manolito Espinberg, une vie de cinema (short film), ATICO/La Semilla del Futuro, 2005.

Some sources cite an appearance in On Wings as Eagles (also known as With Wings as Eagles), Paramount, 1998.

Film Producer:

Executive producer, Last Action Hero, Columbia, 1993.

The 6th Day (also known as On the Sixth Day, The Sixth Day, and Le sixieme jour), Columbia, 2000.

Television Appearances; Series:

(Uncredited; in archive footage) Himself, Fame in the Twentieth Century (documentary), BBC, PBS, and Arts and Entertainment, beginning 1993.

Television Appearances; Documentary Miniseries:

Himself, Naked Hollywood, [Great Britain], c. 1991, broadcast on A & E Premieres, Arts and Entertainment, 1991.

Voice of John G. Nicolay, Lincoln, ABC, 1992.

Himself, Hollywood Women, Independent Television (England), 1994.

Himself, Biography of the Millennium: 100 People—1000 Years, 1999.

Retrosexual: The 80s, VH1, 2004.

I Love the '90s: Part Deux, VH1, 2005.

(In archive footage) Himself, I Love the '70s: Volume 2, VH1, 2006.

Television Appearances; Movies:

Mickey Hargitay, The Jayne Mansfield Story (also known as Jayne Mansfield: A Symbol of the 50s), CBS, 1980.

(Uncredited) Man in chair in front of media truck, Christmas in Connecticut, TNT, 1992.

Television Appearances; Specials:

(In archive footage) Himself, Margret Duenser, auf der Suche nach den Besonderen, Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (ZDF, Germany), 1981.

Himself, Our Voices Ourselves, 1982.

Host, Carnival in Rio, 1983.

Himself, The Making of "Terminator," 1984.

The Special Olympics Opening Ceremonies, ABC, 1987.

Host, A Very Special Christmas Party (also known as Special Olympics Christmas Party), ABC, 1988.

Superstars and Their Moms, ABC, 1988.

The World's Greatest Stunts: A Tribute to Hollywood's Stuntmen, ABC, 1988.

(In archive footage) Himself, Off Your Duff, PBS, 1989.

Mike Tyson—A Portrait of the People's Champion (also known as A Special Look at the People's Champion—Mike Tyson), syndicated, 1989.

The Presidential Inaugural Gala, CBS, 1989.

Himself, The Barbara Walters Special (also known as Barbara Walters: Interviews of a Lifetime and The Barbara Walters Summer Special), ABC, 1990.

Himself and Douglas Quaid, The Making of "Total Recall" (short), 1990.

Grand marshal, The Hollywood Christmas Parade, syndicated, 1990.

Mary Hart Presents: Power in the Public Eye, syndicated, 1990.

The 1990 Goodwill Games, TBS, 1990.

Himself, The Making of "Terminator 2: Judgment Day" (short), 1991.

Himself, Victory and Valor: A Special Olympics All-Star Celebration (also known as The International Special Olympics All-Star Gala and Victory and Valor: Special Olympics World Games), ABC, 1991.

Entertainers '91: The Top of the Year, 1991.

Welcome Home, America! A USO Salute to America's Sons and Daughters, ABC, 1991.

Himself, Muhammad Ali's 50th Birthday Celebration, ABC, 1992.

Back to School '92 (also known as Education First!), CBS, 1992.

Hats Off to Minnie Pearl: America Honors Minnie Pearl, The Nashville Network, 1992.

Kathie Lee Gifford's Celebration of Motherhood, ABC, 1993.

The Macho Men of the Movies with David Sheehan, NBC, 1993.

The Road to Hollywood, NBC, 1993.

What Is This Thing Called Love?, ABC, 1993.

Himself, Sinatra: 80 Years My Way, ABC, 1995.

The First 100 Years: A Celebration of American Movies, HBO, 1995.

The Opening Ceremonies of the 1995 Special Olympics World Games, NBC, 1995.

Planet Hollywood Comes Home, ABC, 1995.

Himself, The Universal Story, Encore and Starz!, 1996.

Himself, "The 10 Most Fascinating People of 1997," The Barbara Walters Special (also known as Barbara Walters: Interviews of a Lifetime, Barbara Walters Presents The 10 Most Fascinating People of 1997, and The Barbara Walters Summer Special), ABC, 1997.

Masters of Fantasy: Joel Schumacher, Sci-Fi Channel, 1997.

(In archive footage) Himself, Sauna-Report Deutsch-land—Die nackte Lust am Schwitzen, 1998.

Himself, To Life! American Celebrates Israel's 50th (also known as America Celebrates Israel's 50th), CBS, 1998.

Host, Arnold's Rock 'n' Roll Bodybuilding Championship, UPN, 1998.

Himself, Arnold Schwarzenegger: Hollywood Hero, The Learning Channel, 1999.

The 1999 Special Olympics—World Summer Games, ABC, 1999.

(In archive footage) Himself, Kino kolossal—Herkules, Maciste & Co. 2000.

Himself, The Making of "Terminator 2: 3-D" (short), 2000.

Himself, AFI's 100 Years, 100 Thrills: America's Most Heart-Pounding Movies (also known as AFI's 100 Years … 100 Thrills), CBS, 2001.

Himself, I Love Lucy's 50th Anniversary Special, CBS, 2001.

Himself, What Is a Producer?, E! Entertainment Television, 2001.

2001 Winter Special Olympics (also known as 2001 Special Olympics World Winter Games), PAX TV, 2001.

(Uncredited; in archive footage) Himself, Playboy: Inside the Playboy Mansion, Arts and Entertainment, 2002.

Himself, Raw Iron: The Making of "Pumping Iron," Cin-emax, 2002.

(In archive footage) Himself, Aaret der gik, Danmarks Radio (DR, Denmark), 2003.

Himself, E! Entertainer of the Year 2003, E! Entertainment Television, 2003.

Himself, Macy's 4th of July Spectacular, NBC, 2003.

Himself, "The 10 Most Fascinating People of 2003," The Barbara Walters Special (also known as Barbara Walters: Interviews of a Lifetime, Barbara Walters Presents The 10 Most Fascinating People of 2003, and The Barbara Walters Summer Special), ABC, 2003.

(Uncredited) Himself, Trier, Kidman og Cannes, TV2 Danmark (Denmark), 2003.

(Uncredited; in archive footage) Himself, TV 2 003—Aaret I ord og billeder, TV2 Danmark, 2003.

Himself and the Terminator, Super Bowl XXXVII, ABC, 2003.

Host and appearance in archive footage, AFI's 100 Years … 100 Heroes and Villains (also known as AFI's 100 Years, 100 Heroes and Villains: America's Greatest Screen Characters), CBS, 2003.

(In archive footage) Himself, Last Laugh '04 (also known as Comedy Central's "Last Laugh '04"), Comedy Central, 2004.

(In archive footage) Himself, Rated"R": Republicans in Hollywood, American Movie Classics, 2004.

Himself, AFI's 100 Years, 100 "Movie Quotes": The Greatest Lines from American Film, CBS, 2005.

Himself, Legends Ball, ABC, 2006.

Television Appearances; Awards Presentations:

Presenter, The 56th Annual Academy Awards, ABC, 1984.

Presenter, The 62nd Annual Academy Awards Presentation, ABC, 1990.

The All-Star Pro Sports Awards, ABC, 1990.

Presenter, The 49th Annual Golden Globe Awards, TBS, 1992.

Presenter, 1992 MTV Movie Awards, MTV, 1992.

Presenter, 1993 MTV Movie Awards, MTV, 1993.

Presenter, The 52nd Annual Golden Globe Awards, TBS, 1995.

(Uncredited) Presenter, The 67th Annual Academy Awards, ABC, 1995.

Soul Train Lady of Soul Awards, syndicated, 1996.

The ShoWest Awards, TNT, 1997.

(In archive footage) The 69th Annual Academy Awards, ABC, 1997.

(Uncredited) Presenter, The 70th Annual Academy Awards, ABC, 1998.

Blockbuster Entertainment Awards, UPN, 1998.

Hollywood Salutes Arnold Schwarzenegger: An American Cinematheque Tribute (also known as Hollywood Salutes Arnold Schwarzenegger), TNT, 1998.

Presenter, The 72nd Annual Academy Awards Presentation (also known as The 72nd Annual Academy Awards), ABC, 2000.

(Uncredited) Presenter, 2000 Blockbuster Entertainment Awards, Fox, 2000.

My VH1 Music Awards '01, VH1, 2001.

Second Annual World Sports Awards, 2001.

2001 ABC World Stunt Awards, ABC, 2001.

Host, 2002 ABC World Stunt Awards, ABC, 2002.

Presenter, The 60th Annual Golden Globe Awards, NBC, 2003.

(Uncredited) Presenter, 2003 ABC World Stunt Awards (also known as Third Annual Taurus World Stunt Awards), USA Network, 2003.

(In archive footage) The Award Show Awards Show, TRIO, 2003.

2004 Taurus World Stunt Awards, 2004.

(Uncredited) The 62th Annual Golden Globe Awards, NBC, 2005.

Television Appearances; Episodic:

Contestant, The Dating Game, ABC and syndicated, 1973.

The Merv Griffin Show, CBS, 1975.

Josef Schmidt, "Dead Lift," The Streets of San Francisco, ABC, 1977.

Muscleman, "Lifting Is My Life," The San Pedro Beach Bums, ABC, 1977.

Himself, Dinah! (also known as Dinah! & Friends), syndicated, 1977.

Himself, V.I.P.—Schaukel, Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (ZDF, Germany) and Oesterreichischer Rundfunk (ORF, Austria), 1977.

Himself, Late Night with David Letterman, NBC, 1985.

Himself, Good Morning Britain (also known as TV-am), TV-am and Independent Television (England), 1986.

Himself, Mensch Meier, [West Germany (now Germany)], 1986.

Himself, "Wetten, dass …? aus Linz," Wetten, dass …?, Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen, 1988.

Himself, The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson (also known as The Best of Carson), NBC, 1988.

(Uncredited) Himself, Saturday Night Live (also known as NBC's "Saturday Night," Saturday Night, Saturday Night Live '80, SNL, and SNL 25), NBC, 1988, 1991.

X-Con, "The Switch," Tales from the Crypt (also known as HBO's "Tales from the Crypt'), HBO, 1990.

Himself, "Wetten, dass …? aus Saarbrucken," Wetten, dass …?, Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen, 1991.

(Uncredited) Himself, Late Night with David Letterman, NBC, 1991.

Himself, Aspel & Company, Independent Television, 1993.

Himself, Howard Stern (also known as The Howard Stern Radio Show), E! Entertainment Television, 1994, 1998, 1999, 2002, 2003.

Himself, "Wetten, dass …? aus Hannover," Wetten, dass …?, Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen, 1996.

Himself, E-Explosiv—Das Magazin (also known as Ex-plosiv), RTL (Germany), 1996.

Himself, Mundo VIP, SIC Televisao (Portugal), 1996 (multiple episodes), 1997.

Himself, The Tonight Show with Jay Leno, NBC, 1996, 2002, multiple episodes in 2003, 2004, and 2005.

(Uncredited; in archive footage) Himself, Femmes Fatales: Sharon Stone, 1998.

Himself, The Magic Hour, syndicated, 1998.

Himself, "Charles Atlas: Modern Day Hercules," Biography (also known as A & E Biography: Charles Atlas), Arts and Entertainment, 1999.

Himself, "The Weider Brothers: Men of Iron," Life and Times, CBC, 1999.

Himself, Intimate Portrait: Kelly Preston, Lifetime, 1999.

Himself, Intimate Portrait: Loni Anderson, Lifetime, 1999.

Himself, Late Night with Conan O'Brien, NBC, 1999.

Himself, WWF Smackdown! (also known as Smackdown!, Smackdown! Xtreme, World Wrestling Federation Smackdown!, and WWE Smackdown!), UPN, 1999.

Himself, "Arnold Schwarzenegger: Flex Appeal," Biography (also known as A & E Biography: Arnold Schwarzenegger), Arts and Entertainment, 2000.

Himself, "Night of Championships," WCW Monday Nitro (also known as nWo Nitro, WCW Monday Nitro Live!, and World Championship Wrestling Monday Nitro), TNT, 2000.

Himself, "Siegfried & Roy," The E! True Hollywood Story (also known as THS), E! Entertainment Television, 2000.

El chuache, El informal, Telecinco (Spain), 2001.

Himself, "Behind the Scenes of 'Collateral Damage,'" HBO First Look, HBO, 2002.

Himself, "Collateral Damage," HBO First Look, HBO, 2002.

Himself, "The Making of Ivan Reitman," Life and Times, CBC, 2002.

(In archive footage) Himself, "Terminator," The E! True Hollywood Story (also known as THS), E! Entertainment Television, 2002.

Himself, "25 Toughest Stars," Rank, E! Entertainment Television, 2002.

Voice of Baron von Steuben, "Valley Forge," Liberty's Kids: Est. 1776 (animated; also known as Liberty Kids), PBS, 2002.

Himself, Secrets of Superstar Fitness, Discovery Health Channel, 2002.

Himself, "Behind the Scenes of T3," HBO First Look, HBO, 2003.

Himself, "Sharon Stone," Biography (also known as A & E Biography: Sharon Stone), Arts and Entertainment, 2003.

Himself, "Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines," HBO First Look, HBO, 2003.

Himself, BBC World News, BBC and PBS, 2003.

Himself, Channel 4 News (also known as ITN Channel 4 News), Channel 4 (England), 2003.

Himself, The Oprah Winfrey Show (also known as Oprah), syndicated, 2003.

Himself, Otro rollo con: Adal Ramones (also known as Otro rollo), [Mexico], 2003.

Himself, Richard & Judy, Channel 4, 2003.

(In archive footage) Himself, The Screensavers, TechTV (later G4TechTV), 2003.

Himself, Tinseltown TV (also known as Tinseltown.TV), International Channel, 2003.

(In archive footage) Himself, Celebrities Uncensored, E! Entertainment Television, 2003, 2004.

Himself, Dennis Miller, CNBC, 2004.

Himself, Famous: Arnold Schwarzenegger, Biography Channel, 2004.

(In archive footage) Himself, 101 Biggest Celebrity Oops (also known as E's "101"), E! Entertainment Television, 2004.

(In archive footage) Himself, 101 Most Unforgettable SNL Moments (also known as E's "101"), E! Entertainment Television, 2004.

Himself, 60 Minutes (also known as TV Land Legends: The 60 Minutes Interviews), CBS, 2004.

Himself, Hannity & Colmes, Fox News Channel, 2004, 2005.

Himself, "I Love Lucy," The E! True Hollywood Story (also known as THS), E! Entertainment Television, 2005.

Himself, "The Leomiti-Higgins Family," Extreme Makeover: Home Edition, ABC, 2005.

Himself, "Sylvester Stallone," Biography (also known as A & E Biography: Sylvester Stallone), Arts and Entertainment, 2005.

Himself, Corazon de …, Television Espanola (TVE, Spain), 2005.

Himself, Hardball with Chris Matthews (also known as Hardball), CNBC, 2005.

Himself, NBC Nightly News, NBC, 2005.

Himself, The O'Reilly Factor, Fox News Channel, 2005 (multiple episodes).

Himself, Bl!tz (also known as Blitz), [Germany], 2006.

Himself, Meet the Press, NBC, 2006.

Himself, Taff, [Germany], 2006.

Himself, This Week (also known as This Week with George Stephanopoulos), ABC, 2006.

Appeared as himself in "The Films of James Cameron" and "The Films of Ivan Reitman," both episodes of The Directors, Encore; appeared in episodes of other series, including The Critic (animated), ABC and Fox; and Friday Night Videos, NBC.

Television Appearances; Pilots:

Rico, Happy Anniversary and Goodbye, CBS, 1974.

Television Director; Movies:

Christmas in Connecticut, TNT, 1992.

Television Director; Episodic:

"The Switch," Tales from the Crypt (also known as HBO's "Tales from the Crypt'), HBO, 1990.

Television Executive Producer; Specials:

Arnold's Rock 'n' Roll Bodybuilding Championship, UPN, 1998.

Radio Appearances; Episodic:

Himself, Howard Stern (also known as The Howard Stern Radio Show), 1994, 1998, 1999, 2002, 2003.

RECORINGS

Videos:

Himself, Shape Up with Arnold, c. 1982.

Himself, The Making of "The Terminator": A Retrospective (short), LIVE Home Video, 1992.

Himself, T2: More Than Meets the Eye, 1993.

Himself, A Century of Science Fiction, 1996.

Himself, Falco—Hoch wie nie, 1998.

Himself, Conan Unchained: The Making of "Conan" (also known as Conan Unchained: The Making of "Conan the Barbarian"), Universal Studios Home Video, 2000.

Himself, End of Days: The Beginning (short; also known as Spotlight on Location: End of Days), Universal Studios Home Video, 2000.

Himself, Anthony Quinn: The Final Words, White Star, 2001.

Himself, Dirty Harry: The Original, Warner Home Video, 2001.

Himself, If It Bleeds We Can Kill It: The Making of "Predator" (short), Twentieth Century-Fox, 2001.

Himself, Imagining "Total Recall" (short), Artisan Entertainment, 2001.

Himself, Other Voices: Creating "The Terminator," Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, 2001.

Himself, Predator: The Unseen Arnold (short), Twentieth Century-Fox Home Entertainment, 2001.

Himself, Collateral Damage: The Hero in a New Era (short), Warner Home Video, 2002.

(In archive footage) Himself, Christmas from Hollywood, Koch Vision, 2003.

Himself, Inside "Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines" (short), Warner Home Video, 2003.

(In archive footage) Himself, Sex at 24 Frames per Second (documentary; also known as Playboy Presents "Sex at 24 Frames per Second: The Ultimate Journey through Sex in Cinema"), Playboy Entertainment Group, 2003.

T-101, T3 Visual Effects Lab (short), Warner Home Video, 2003.

Terminator 3: Sky Net Database (short), Warner Home Video, 2003.

(In archive footage) Himself, East Meets West: "Red Heat' and the Kings of Carolco, Lions Gate Films, 2004.

(In archive footage) Himself, A Stuntman for All Seasons: A Tribute to Bennie Dobbins, Lions Gate Films, 2004.

(In archive footage) Himself, Shadows of the Bat: The Cinematic Saga of the Dark Knight—Batman Unbound, Warner Home Video, 2005.

Jack Slater in "Big Gun" music video, AC/DC: Family Jewels, Sony, 2005.

Video Producer:

Shape Up with Arnold, c. 1982.

Albums:

Arnold Schwarzenegger's Total Body Workout, 1983.

Music Videos:

Bon Jovi, "Say It Isn't So," 1990.

Guns 'n' Roses, "You Could Be Mine," 1991.

AC/DC, "Big Gun," 1993.

Video Games:

The Terminator, Terminator 2: Judgment Day, Midway Manufacturing Corporation, 1991.

Harry Tasker, True Lies, Nintendo of America, 1995.

The Terminator, Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines (also known as Terminator 3: War of the Machines), Atari, 2003.

The Terminator, Terminator 3: Redemption, Atari, 2004.

WRITINGS

Nonfiction:

Arnold: Building the Legs of an Oak, Schwarzenegger, 1974.

Arnold: Developing Maximum Muscularity and Ultimate Definition, Schwarzenegger, 1975.

Building a Chest Like a Fortress, Schwarzenegger, 1975.

Arnold: Building Jumbo-Wide Shoulders, Schwarzenegger, 1976.

Arnold: The Art of Physical Display, Schwarzenegger, 1977.

(With Douglas Kent Hall) Arnold: The Education of a Bodybuilder, Simon & Schuster, 1977.

(With Hall) Arnold's Bodyshaping for Women, photographs by Hall, Simon & Schuster, 1979.

ARNOLD CAL 80, Fireside Books, 1979.

(With Bill Dobbins) Arnold's Bodybuilding for Men, Simon & Schuster, 1981.

ARNOLD CAL 82, Fireside Books, 1981.

ARNOLD CAL 83, Fireside Books, 1982.

(With Dobbins and Bruce Algra) Encyclopedia of Modern Bodybuilding (also known as Arnold's Encyclopedia of Modern Bodybuilding), Simon & Schuster, 1984, revised edition published as The New Encyclopedia of Modern Bodybuilding: The Bible of Bodybuilding, Fully Updated and Revised (also known as The New Encyclopedia of Modern Bodybuilding), Simon & Schuster, 1998.

Arnold Schwarzenegger's Educational Bodybuilding, Holiday House, 1985.

(With Chris Silkwood and Nancy Levicki) Awesome Teen: Smart Choices for the 90s, Master Media, 1992.

(With Charles Gaines) Arnold's Fitness for Kids Ages Birth-5: A Guide to Health, Exercise, and Nutrition, Doubleday, 1993.

(With Gaines) Arnold's Fitness for Kids Ages 6-10: A Guide to Health, Exercise, and Nutrition, Double-day, 1993.

(With Gaines) Arnold's Fitness for Kids Ages 11-14: A Guide to Health, Exercise, and Nutrition, Double-day, 1993.

Culturismo, Roca Ediciones, 2004.

Nonfiction; Contributor to Books:

Tom Platz and Bill Reynolds, Pro-Style Bodybuilding, Sterling, 1985.

Mandy Tanny, The Muscular Gourmet, HarperCollins, 1988.

(Author of foreword) Hiro Yamagata, Yamagata, Yamagata Center, 1989.

Paul Reese with Joe Henderson, Ten Million Steps: The Incredible Journey of Paul Reese, Who Ran across America—A Marathon a Day for 124 Days—at Age 73, WRS, 1993.

Pat Roach, The Pat Roach Story, Brewin Books, 2002.

American College of Sports Medicine, ACSM Fitness Book, third edition, Human Kinetics Publishers, 2003.

(Author of foreword) Salome Thomas-El with Cecil Murphey, I Choose to Stay: A Black Teacher Refuses to Desert the Inner City, Dafina Books, 2003.

Author of a magazine fitness column, "Ask Arnold." Contributor to periodicals, including Muscle and Fitness, Newsweek, and Woman's World.

Scripts for Videos:

Shape Up with Arnold, c. 1982.

OTHER SOURCES

Books:

Andrews, Nigel, True Myths: The Life and Times of Arnold Schwarzenegger, Carol Publishing Group, 1996, revised edition published as True Myths: The Life and Times of Arnold Schwarzenegger, from Pumping Iron to Governor of California, Blooms-bury, 2003.

Blitz, Michael, and Louise Krasniewicz, Why Arnold Matters, Basic Books, 2004.

Butler, George, Arnold Schwarzenegger: A Portrait, Simon & Schuster, 1990.

Conklin, Thomas, Meet Arnold Schwarzenegger, Random House, 1994.

Flynn, John L, The Films of Arnold Schwarzenegger, Carol Publishing Group, 1995.

Gaines, Charles and George Butler, Pumping Iron: The Art and Sport of Bodybuilding, Simon & Schuster, 1974.

Green, Tom, Arnold!, St. Martin's Press, 1987.

Leamer, Laurence, Fantastic: The Life of Arnold Schwarzenegger, St. Martin's Press, 2005.

Leigh, Wendy, Arnold: An Unauthorized Biography, Congdon and Weed, 1990.

Lipsyte, Robert, Arnold Schwarzenegger: Hercules in America, HarperCollins, 1993.

Periodicals:

Cable Guide, September, 1985.

Contra Costa Times, December 23, 2004.

Economist, November 5, 2005, p. 26.

Education, winter, 1993, pp. 294-96.

Empire, October, 1997, p. 191.

Entertainment Weekly, June 11, 1993; fall, 1996, p. 97; April 23, 1999, p. 72.

Family Circle, May 16, 1995, p. 26.

Film Comment, May, 2005, pp. 28-34.

Film Quarterly, fall, 1990, p. 2.

Film Review, January, 2000, pp. 52-56.

GQ, June, 1993, pp. 158-63.

InStyle, May, 2000, p. 544.

Interview, October, 1985, pp. 40-48; July, 1991, p. 85.

Los Angeles Times, July 3, 2004.

McCall's, January, 1997, p. 42.

Moving Pictures, February 3, 2006, p. 33.

Muscle and Fitness, September, 1994, p. 134; August, 2003.

Oui, June, 1982, pp. 90-95, 106.

Parade, June 22, 2003, pp. 4-6.

People Weekly, October 14, 1985, p. 126; May 12, 1986, p. 53; May 19, 1997, p. 61; February 16, 1998, p. 181; September 21, 1998; February 18, 2002.

Playboy, January, 1988, p. 55.

Premiere, July, 1988; March, 2001, pp. 88-92, 119; March, 2002, p. 77.

Prevue, March, 1991, p. 24.

Radio Times, June 23, 1990, p. 22; September 3, 1994, p. 44.

Rolling Stone, January 17, 1985, p. 12; August 22, 1991, p. 38.

Starlog, July, 1990, p. 50; August, 1991; August, 1993.

Time, January 16, 2006, p. 46.

TV Guide, May 31, 2003, pp. 22-26.

Washington Post, August 17, 2003, pp. N1, N4-N5; September 7, 2003, pp. D1, D3; September 28, 2003, p. A7; November 18, 2003, pp. A1, A6; August 13, 2005.

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Schwarzenegger, Arnold

Schwarzenegger, Arnold

July 30, 1947 Graz, Austria

Actor, politician, bodybuilder

Most people successfully pursue one or two careers throughout their lives. By the age of fifty-six, Arnold Schwarzenegger had tackled at least threebodybuilding, acting, and politics. It is difficult to break into any one of these professions, yet Schwarzenegger managed to excel in each and every one. He earned thirteen world bodybuilding championships, is considered one of the most influential actors in Hollywood, and, in 2003, without ever running for political office before, he became the governor of California. If Schwarzenegger had listened to his many critics along the way, he never would have succeeded. However, with discipline, determination, and drive, he proved that an Austrian-born immigrant can achieve the American dream.

The need to succeed

Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger was born on July 30, 1947, the second son of Gustav and Aurelia Schwarzenegger. He was raised, along with older brother Meinhard, in the tiny village of Thal, just outside of Graz, Austria. Schwarzenegger's father, Gustav, was the local police chief, and the family lived above the police station where Gustav worked. The Schwarzenegger home was a humble one. In fact, they did not have indoor plumbing until Arnold was a teenager. This was not uncommon at the time, however, since families all over Europe were just beginning to recover from the effects of World War II (193945).

Before joining the police force, Gustav Schwarzenegger was a military officer, and he ran his household in strict military fashion. Both Arnold and Meinhard were required to get up before sunrise to tend to their chores. After chores came a rigorous exercise routine, followed by breakfast. Gustav also instilled a love of sports in his sons. Meinhard, who died when he was twenty-three years old in a car accident, was a boxing champion. Arnold showed promise as a soccer player. It was while performing exercises to strengthen his legs for soccer that Schwarzenegger turned to the sport that would eventually make him famous: bodybuilding.

Arnold Schwarzenegger pursued weightlifting and bodybuilding with a passion. He trained for hours a day, both at a local gym and at home where he set up a training area in a room that had no heat. He also studied anatomy and nutrition to understand how to become physically fit. His parents worried that he was obsessed with training, but Schwarzenegger had his eyes on a goal; that goal was to leave his little village behind and become a success in America.

"I learned something from all these years of lifting and training hard.... What I learned was that we are always stronger than we know."

Mr. Universe

In 1965, after he graduated from high school, Schwarzenegger joined the Austrian army. Just one month after enlisting, he won his first bodybuilding title, Mr. Junior Europe. The competition was held in Germany, and Schwarzenegger had left his army base without permission to compete. As a result, he spent the next year in the brig, which is a holding area for people in the military who have committed offenses. After he was released, Schwarzenegger resumed his training with gusto, often spending up to five hours a day in the gym.

The Ronald Reagan Comparison

Arnold Schwarzenegger was not the first celebrity to hold public office. For example, professional wrestler Jesse "The Body" Ventura (1951) was governor of Minnesota from 1998 until 2002, and from 1986 to 1988 actor/director Clint Eastwood (1930) was mayor of Carmel, California. The best-known celebrity-turned-politician, however, may be Ronald Reagan (19112004), former governor of California (19671975) and president of the United States (19811989). Throughout his run for governor, Schwarzenegger was constantly compared to Reagan for some obvious reasons: both were actors, both were very charismatic speakers, and both were new to politics when they ran for office. But, are there other similarities?

  • Age: Schwarzenegger and Reagan were both fifty-six years old when they became governor of California.
  • Nicknames: Reagan was known as "The Great Communicator" while Schwarzenegger was dubbed "The Oak" because of his strength and concentration.
  • Sports: Both men shared a love of sports and got their start in the world of athletics. Schwarzenegger was a bodybuilder; Reagan played football and was a swimmer. Reagan also got his first break into show business as an announcer for football and baseball games in Iowa.

His grueling schedule paid off in 1967, when, at the age of twenty, Schwarzenegger won his first Mr. Universe title. The Mr. Universe competition is an annual event sponsored by the National Amateur Bodybuilders Association (NABBA). Competitors are judged on such things as size and definition of muscles, balance and proportion of body parts, and overall presentation. The youngest person to ever win the competition, Schwarzenegger was confident that he would keep his title the following year. He was also excited because his dream of traveling to the United States was about to come true since the 1968 Mr. Universe competition was to be held in Miami, Florida.

Although he did not win the 1968 title in Miami, Schwarzenegger was noticed by fitness pioneer Joe Weider (1922). Weider was so impressed by the young bodybuilder that he invited him to stay in the United States and live and train with him in Los Angeles, California. Schwarzenegger jumped at the chance. Weider became Schwarzenegger's mentor, and from the late 1960s through the 1970s, Schwarzenegger devoted himself to training and competing. He reclaimed his Mr. Universe crown in 1969, and went on to dominate every major bodybuilding competition, including Mr. Universe, Mr. World, and Mr. Olympia.

In addition to being a star bodybuilder, Schwarzenegger helped popularize the sport. He wrote articles about his unique training methods for Weider's fitness magazines; he also was featured in a 1977 documentary about bodybuilding competitions, called Pumping Iron. The documentary was quite popular and gave Schwarzenegger his first taste of Hollywood celebrity. In 1980, at the age of thirty-three, he officially retired from bodybuilding to devote himself to a new career: acting.

Box-office gold

Schwarzenegger made a few low-budget movies in the 1970s, cast mostly in small roles that required big muscles, not big talent. In 1982 he was tapped to play the lead in Conan the Barbarian, based on the comic-book hero of the same name. Again, Schwarzenegger's strength was in his biceps, not his acting skills. Critics panned his performance, claiming that it was nearly impossible to understand his German-accented English. Audiences, however, loved the movie, which turned out to be a box-office hit. Two years later, in 1984, Schwarzenegger cemented his box-office appeal when he appeared in the movie The Terminator.

In The Terminator, Schwarzenegger played a violent cyborg (part robot, part human) who is sent from the future to exterminate the mother of humankind's future leader. He spoke seventy-four words in the movie, all delivered in a monotone, robotic voice. Audiences did not mind the lack of acting ability, and they flocked to see Schwarzenegger in the sci-fi thriller. The movie was so popular that Schwarzenegger became known for his character's famous one-liner: "I'll be back," or as Schwarzenegger pronounced it, "Awl be buck."

Action movies like The Terminator proved to be wildly popular with people of all ages, and Schwarzenegger proved to be the perfect action hero. He followed The Terminator with a string of movies, including Commando (1985), Predator (1987), Total Recall (1990), and True Lies (1994). He also continued the Terminator movies, starring in Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991), which produced the famous line, "Hasta la vista, baby," and Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines (2003). For his role in Terminator 3, Schwarzenegger was paid $30 million.

In addition to playing the tough-as-nails hero, Schwarzenegger starred in a number of comedies, including three movies made by director Ivan Reitman (1946): Twins (1988), Kindergarten Cop (1990), and Junior (1994). Moviegoers embraced the "lighter side of Arnold," and critics admitted that Schwarzenegger was growing as an actor. Everyone agreed that he was box-office gold. In fact, in 1993, he was recognized as the International Box Office Star of the Decade.

By 2004 Schwarzenegger had appeared in nearly thirty movies, and he brought his unique style to each role. One thing he never lost was his accent. Comedians and critics made countless jokes about the way "Ah-nuld" talked, but Schwarzenegger seemed to take it in stride. He also explained in a 1991 interview with Pat Broeske that he did not want to get rid of his accent completely because it had become, Broeske noted, "his trademark, his signature."

The family man

Schwarzenegger's trademark made him a very wealthy actor, and he used his money wisely, investing in real estate and several businesses, including the restaurant chain Planet Hollywood. He was also a devoted family man. Schwarzenegger met his wife, television journalist Maria Shriver (1955), in 1977. The couple married in 1986; they have four children, two boys and two girls. Shriver was no stranger to celebrity, considering she is part of one of the most famous families in the United States. Her mother, Eunice Kennedy Shriver (1921), is the sister of U.S. president John F. Kennedy (19171963).

Most people thought that the couple made a very odd pair. He was a brawny bodybuilder turned actor. She was a "brain" who graduated from Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., and was coanchor of CBS Morning News. He was a well-known supporter of the Republican Party. The Republican Party is considered to be the more conservative of the two major political parties in the United States. Shriver, as part of the Kennedy clan, was a Democrat to the core. Members of the Democratic Party are traditionally considered to be more liberal. Those closest to the couple, however, say they are a perfect match. Both have competitive drives; both are committed to their family; and both share a wacky sense of humor.

The Schwarzeneggers also share a commitment to politics and to social causes. Since 1979 they have been devoted to the Special Olympics, helping to raise funds and awareness. Established by Eunice Shriver in 1968, Special Olympics provides year-round sports training and sponsors annual athletic competitions for children and adults with mental retardation. There are Special Olympics programs in almost 150 countries; Arnold serves as the Special Olympics International Weight Training Coach.

In 1990 Schwarzenegger was given an incredible opportunity to spread his message about the importance of fitness when President George H. W. Bush (1924) appointed him chairman of the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports (PCPFS). According to the PCPFS Web site, the goal of the council is to "promote, encourage and motivate Americans of all ages to become physically active and participate in sports." Schwarzenegger was the perfect spokesman. With high energy and unlimited enthusiasm, he traveled across the country spreading the word that it was "hip to be fit." When Democrat Bill Clinton (1946) took over the presidency in 1993, Schwarzenegger resigned from the council.

The "Collectionator"

Schwarzenegger had been such a dynamic public figure in the Bush administration that people wondered if he was heading for a future in politics. Schwarzenegger denied the rumors for years, claiming he was too busy being a businessman and family man. In 2002, however, he spent a good deal of time campaigning in California for state grant money to fund after-school programs for children. And, in 2003, when California governor Gray Davis (1942) was threatened by a recall, the buzz was strong that Schwarzenegger would throw his hat in the ring.

The year 2003 was a strange one in California politics. Democrat Gray Davis, who had over twenty years of experience in politics, was governor, and had been since 1998. Throughout his first term in office, however, Davis faced a number of problems, including an outof-control budget, a sagging state economy, and electricity blackouts that left most of the state without power for some time during 2001. Californians were not happy, and they blamed Davis for the sad state of affairs. In 2002, just months into his second term of office, citizens started a campaign to recall Davis as governor. This meant that Davis, through a special election, would possibly be replaced.

The election led to media frenzy since it was the first time in California's history that a governor faced a recall. In addition, people came out of the woodwork to campaign for Davis's job. On August 6, 2003, Schwarzenegger fueled the frenzy by announcing that he, too, was going to run for governor. He made his announcement during an interview on the late-night television program The Tonight Show.

Schwarzenegger spent the next several months campaigning in rather untraditional ways. For example, he chatted with Oprah Winfrey (1954) on her afternoon talk show, and he was interviewed by disc jockey Howard Stern (1954), who is known for his outrageous radio antics. Schwarzenegger peppered his interviews with references to his movies, promising to say "Hasta la vista" to new taxes and calling himself the "Collectionator," since one of his goals was to ask the federal government for funds to bail California out of its economic crisis.

Arnold to the rescue

All of the media attention prompted voters to turn out in droves, and on October 8, 2003, the citizens of California elected Arnold Schwarzenegger governor with 48.6 percent of the vote. On November 17, during his swearing-in ceremony, Schwarzenegger commented, "It is no secret that I'm a newcomer to politics. I realize I was elected on faith and hope. And I feel a great responsibility not to let the people down."

The public may have felt they needed an action hero to come to their aid, but political commentators had their doubts. Schwarzenegger was able to campaign on catchy phrases, but what would he do once in office? According to political consultant David Axelrod in a 2003 Time article, "This isn't the movies. No one is going to throw him a ray gun so he can blow up the deficit."

Schwarzenegger's first days in office were watched closely. He made good on several of his campaign promises, including lowering car taxes. He was also applauded for trying to get California Democrats and Republicans to work together to help solve the state's budget problems. Schwarzenegger, however, was just beginning to flex his political muscles. His state still faced a staggering amount of debt, and he tried to figure a way out without hurting social programs like education and health care.

In March 2004, voters passed Schwarzenegger's Proposition 57, which would allow the state to use bonds (low-interest, long-term loans) to slash $15 billion from the ever-growing debt. Politicians considered the proposition to be a daring move, but Schwarzenegger was used to taking chances, and he had faith that the voters would believe in him. In a rally held just after the vote, and reported on CNN, he reassured the public that his borrowing plan would "make California the golden state that it once was."

Just months into office, people began to speculate once again what was next for Arnold Schwarzenegger, family man, businessman, actor, and now governor. When he appeared on the television program Meet the Press, in February 2004, host Tim Russert wondered if perhaps Schwarzenegger had his eye on the White House. Schwarzenegger shooed away the question, commenting that he had been too busy tackling California's problems to think about his next move. "I have no idea," he commented, "I haven't thought about that at all."

But, can we believe him, since that is exactly what Schwarzenegger said when asked if he would ever run for political office? He faces one big obstacle, however. According to the U.S. Constitution, only citizens who were born in the United States are eligible to be president. Although Schwarzenegger became a citizen in 1983, he was born in Austria. A change, or amendment, to the constitution has been proposed that would make it possible for anyone who has been a U.S. citizen for at least twenty years to seek the presidency. And, as Ah-nuld has proven time and again, anything is possible.

For More Information

Periodicals

Boss, Suzie. "Hey, Kids, Get Physical!" Newsweek (August 27, 1990): pp. 6264.

Broeske, Pat H. "Arnold Schwarzenegger." Interview (July 1991): p. 85.

Streisand, Betsy. "Reality Check: Effect of Arnold Schwarzenegger's Government." U.S. News & World Report (January 12, 2004): p. 26.

Tresniowski, Alex, et al. "What Makes Them Run?" People Weekly (August 25, 2003): pp. 5058.

Tumulty, Karen, and Terry McCarthy. "All That's Missing Is the Popcorn." Time (August 18, 2003): pp. 2230.

Web Sites

Russert, Tim. "Interview with Arnold Schwarzenegger and Ralph Nader." NBC News'Meet the Press (February 22, 2004). http://msnbc.msn.com/id/4304155 (accessed on May 30, 2004).

Schwarzenegger.com: The Official Web site. http://www.schwarzenegger.com (accessed on May 30, 2004).

"Schwarzenegger's Inauguration Speech." CNN.com: Inside Politics. http://www.cnn.com/2003/ALLPOLITICS/11/17/arnold.speech (accessed on May 31, 2004).

"Schwarzenegger Wins Budget Test." CNN.com: Inside Politics (March 3, 2004). http://www5.cnn.com/2004/ALLPOLITICS/03/03/california.proposition.ap (accessed on May 30, 2004).

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Schwarzenegger, Arnold

SCHWARZENEGGER, Arnold



Nationality: Austrian/American. Born: Graz, Austria, 30 July 1947; became U.S. citizen, 1983. Education: Studied at University of Wisconsin, Superior, B.A. in business and international economics. Family: Married Maria Schriver, 1986, three children: Katherine, Christina, Patrick. Career: From 1962—bodybuilder, in England, then in U.S. from late 1960s; 1976—retired from bodybuilding, film debut as Arnold Schwarzenegger, in Stay Hungry; 1980—appointed chairman of the President's Council on Physical Fitnesss and Sports (resigned 1993); 1991—reputedly paid $15 million for his role in Terminator 2. Part-owner of Planet Hollywood and Schatzi restaurants. Awards: 13 world champion bodybuilding titles, 1965–80; Golden Globe for Best Newcomer, for Stay Hungry, 1976. Address: 3110 Main Street, #330, Santa Monica, CA 90405, U.S.A.


Films as Actor:


(as Arnold Strong)

1970

Hercules in New York (Hercules Goes to New York; Hercules: The Movie; Hercules Goes Bananas) (Arthur Allan Seidelman) (title role)

1973

The Long Goodbye (Altman) (as a hood)


(as Arnold Schwarzenegger)

1976

Stay Hungry (Rafelson) (as Joe Santo)

1977

Pumping Iron (George Butler—doc) (as himself)

1979

Scavenger Hunt (Michael Schultz); The Villain (Cactus Jack) (Needham) (as handsome stranger)

1981

The Jayne Mansfield Story (Jayne Mansfield: A Symbol of the 50's) (Lowry—for TV) (as Mickey Hargitay)

1982

Conan the Barbarian (Milius) (title role)

1984

Conan the Destroyer (Fleischer) (title role); The Terminator (Cameron) (title role)

1985

Red Sonja (Fleischer) (as Kalidor); Commando (Lester) (as John Matrix)

1986

Raw Deal (Irvin) (as Kaminski)

1987

The Running Man (Glaser) (as Ben "Butcher of Bakersfield" Richards); Predator (McTiernan) (as Maj. Alan "Dutch" Schaefer)

1988

Red Heat (Walter Hill) (as Capt. Ivan Danko); Twins (Reitman) (as Julius Benedict)

1990

Total Recall (Paul Verhoeven) (as Douglas Quaid); Kindergarten Cop (Reitman) (as Detective John Kimble)

1991

Terminator 2: Judgment Day (Cameron) (as the Terminator)

1992

Feed (Rafferty and Ridgeway—doc) (as himself); Lincoln (Kunhardt—doc) (as voice of John G. Nicolay)

1993

Last Action Hero (McTiernan) (as Sergeant Jack Slater/himself, + exec pr); Dave (Reitman) (as himself)

1994

True Lies (Cameron) (as Harry Tasker); Junior (Reitman) (as Dr. Alexander Hesse); Beretta's Island (as himself)

1996

Eraser (Chuck Russell) (as John Kruger, the Eraser); Crusade (Verhoeven)

1997

Batman & Robin (Schumacher) (as Mr. Freeze/Dr. Victor Fries)

1998

The Magic Hour (Dimitch—series for TV) (as himself)

1999

End of Days (Hyams) (as Jericho Cane)

2000

The 6th Day (Spottiswoode) (as Adam Gibson)



Films as Director:

1992

Christmas in Connecticut (for TV)



Publications


By SCHWARZENEGGER: books—

Arnold's Bodyshaping for Women, New York, 1979.

Arnold's Bodybuilding for Men, New York, 1981.

Arnold's Encyclopaedia of Modern Bodybuilding, New York, 1984.

Arnold: The Education of a Bodybuilder, with Douglas Kent Hall, New York, 1986.

Arnold's Fitness for Kids Ages Birth-5: A Guide to Health, Exercise, and Nutrition, with Charles Gaines, New York, 1993.

Arnold's Fitness for Kids Ages 6–10: A Guide to Health, Exercise, and Nutrition, with Charles Gaines, New York, 1993.

Arnold's Fitness for Kids Ages 11–14: A Guide to Health, Exercise, and Nutrition, with Charles Gaines, New York, 1993.

The New Encyclopedia of Modern Bodybuilding, with Bill Dobbins, 1999.

By SCHWARZENEGGER: articles—

Interview with K. Honeycutt, in American Film (Washington, D.C.), May 1982.

"Schwarzenegger on Predator," interview with Dann Gire, in Cinefantastique (Oak Park, Illinois), vol. 18, no. 1, 1987.

"Mr. Big," interview with Mike Bygrave, in Radio Times (London), 23 February 1991.

Interview with Pat H. Broeske and Herb Ritts, in Interview (New York), July 1991.

Interview with Jenny Cooney, in Empire (London), September 1991.

"Big Bang Theory," interview with Susan Goldman, in Time Out (London), 3 August 1994.


On SCHWARZENEGGER: books—

Green, Tom, Arnold!, New York, 1987.

Butler, George, Arnold Schwarzenegger: A Portrait, New York, 1990.

Dorsey, Charles B., Arnold Schwarzenegger, Paris, 1990.

Leigh, Wendy, Arnold: An Unauthorized Biography, London, 1990.

Flynn, John L., The Films of Arnold Schwarzenegger, Secaucus, New Jersey, 1993; rev. ed., 1995.

Conklin, Thomas, Meet Arnold Schwarzenegger, New York, 1994.

McCabe, Bob, Arnold Schwarzenegger, London, 1994.

Wright, Adrian, Arnold Schwarzenegger: A Life on Film, London, 1994.


On SCHWARZENEGGER: articles—

McGillivray, David, in Films and Filming (London), June 1986.

Brauerhoch, A., "Glanz und Elend der Muskelmänner," in Frauen und Film (Frankfurt), August 1986.

Thompson, Anne, and Tom Soter, "Total Recall, Total Arnie," in Empire (London), August 1990.

Current Biography 1991, New York, 1991.

Desanglois, L., "Arnold Schwarzenegger," in Revue du Cinéma (Paris), October 1991.

Briggs, Joe Bob, "Whatever You Say, Arnold," in Playboy (Chicago), January 1992.

Svetkey, Benjamin, "What, Me Worry?," in Entertainment Weekly (New York), 11 June 1993.

James, C., "Film View: Arnold as Icon: From Hulk to Hero," in New York Times, 27 June 1993.

Young, Toby, "Soapbox: Arnold Schwarzenegger," in Modern Review, August-September 1994.

Stars (Mariembourg), Winter 1995.

Szebin, F.C., "Schwarzenegger, Mr. Freeze," in Cinefantastique (Forest Park), vol. 29, no. 1, 1997.


* * *

Considering he has made a mere 20-odd movies, Arnold Schwarzenegger's career has gone through numerous distinct and bizarre phases. His evolution, from a bodybuilder who appeared in such consciously silly entries as Hercules in New York and Conan the Barbarian to sci-fi death machine in the Terminator movies to comic actor in such films as Twins and Junior, has been strange, to say the least. His films have shown consistency, however, in that Schwarzenegger's performance style has always exhibited the basic hallmarks of postmodernity: pastiche and parody. First gaining notoriety as a professional bodybuilder, he recognized opportunities to appear in such outrageously over-the-top films as the Conan series, for example, which were little more than pumped-up B movies (with big budgets), films Schwarzenegger clearly (and quite rightly) did not take entirely seriously. His constant mugging to the camera in the documentary Pumping Iron did more than win him the Mr. Universe title: it proved his innate theatrical sensibility and his canny comic abilities.

But Schwarzenegger's first real breakthrough came with The Terminator, in which he cleverly turned down the offer to play the hero and opted instead for the role of evil robot. The film, a characteristically action-packed entry from director James Cameron, had an entertaining but intelligent Oedipal time-warp sci-fi concept, some excusably cheesy special effects, and a, well, perfectly robotic performance by Schwarzenegger. The subsequent huge box-office success of the film secured Schwarzenegger's place in the American cultural Zeitgeist.

Schwarzenegger's deadpan performance immediately drew comparisons to Clint Eastwood, an actor famous for his minimalist style. This performance style would carry on in other films, including Commando, Raw Deal, The Running Man, Predator, Total Recall, and Terminator 2: Judgment Day, among others. Schwarzenegger also appropriated Eastwood's stinging penchant for the one-liner (e.g., "Make my day"), many of which became popular catchphrases and Schwarzenegger trademarks ("I'll be back" in particular). Eastwood would acknowledge the debt Schwarzenegger owed him when he referred to the former bodybuilder as "my son" during the 1995 Academy Award ceremonies.

Schwarzenegger's career took a disastrous turn in 1993 with The Last Action Hero, an ultra-self-reflexive take on the action movie. The film has its entertaining moments, but fans appeared uncomfortable with the artifices of the action film being laid quite so bare—thus the film flopped despite one of the most expensive publicity campaigns in Hollywood history (including an ad posted on the space shuttle, the first of its kind). Schwarzenegger has also been far less successful when trying his hand at out-and-outright comedies (Twins and Junior), where he is simply uncontrolled as a performer. Junior was a brave and interesting gender-challenging role for Schwarzenegger; the film's premise had him the first man ever to become pregnant. Again, audiences seemed uncomfortable with this wall of muscles in a maternal position, and the film did mediocre box office.

Schwarzenegger's last major success was True Lies, a film which divided critics with its misogynist and racist overtones, resurrecting speculation that the actor had far-right leaning politics. Schwarzenegger has become something of an anti-Jane Fonda, notorious for his support of conservative causes and politicians, including Ronald Reagan and George Bush. Like Fonda, Schwarzenegger's persona is also not without contradictions (he is married to Maria Schriver, a member of America's most famous liberal clan the Kennedys, for example). Like his politics and personal life, Schwarzenegger's appearances on-screen can be read as perfect open texts: the audience can choose to see his machismo as role-model material to be emulated and adored, or as astute post-modern parody of the ludicrous masculine male ideal.

—Matthew Hays

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Schwarzenegger, Arnold Alois

Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger, 1947–, Austrian-American actor, bodybuilder, and politician, b. Thal, Austria. He began competing in bodybuilding contests in his teens, and won his first of five Mr. Universe titles in 1967. He achieved public recognition for bodybuilding as a sport, and his quest in 1975 for his sixth of seven Mr. Olympia titles was chronicled in the documentary Pumping Iron (1977). He went on to become a Hollywood action star in such films as Conan the Barbarian (1982), The Terminator (1984) and its sequels, and True Lies (1994). His other movies include Predator (1987), Total Recall (1990), and such later and less successful films as Collateral Damage (2002) and Escape Plan (2013). He married Maria Shriver (daughter of Sargent Shriver) in 1987 (they separated in 2011), and was chairman (1990–92) of the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports under President George H. W. Bush.

An increasingly politically active Republican during the 1990s, Schwarzenegger ran for the California governorship and won when Gray Davis was recalled in 2003. Initially popularly, Schwarzenegger suffered setbacks in 2005 when voters rejected several ballot measures he supported that would have place limits on the power and influence of the legislature and public employee unions. Subsequently, however, he adopted a less partisan approach, cooperating with the Democratic legislature on a minimum-wage hike and controls on greenhouse gas pollution, but his last years before he retired (2010) were marked by state financial difficulties due to recession.

See his autobiography (with P. Petre, 2012), biography by L. Leamer (2005).

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