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Substrate

Substrate


A substrate is the substance upon which an enzyme acts in an enzymatic reaction. Enzymes are biological catalysts that increase the rate of chemical reactions by decreasing the activation energy required for that reaction. An enzyme catalyzes a chemical reaction converting a substrate reactant to a product. An individual enzyme generally has more than one substrate and may be specific to several reaction intermediates that are part of an over-all reaction.

The three-dimensional structure of an enzyme determines its substrate binding specificity. A simple hypothesis proposed by German chemist Emil Fischer in 1894 suggested that the specificity of an enzymatic reaction could be likened to a lock and key. In the lock and key hypothesis, the geometric complementarity of the structures of the enzyme (the lock) and the substrate (the key) accounts for the specificity of the reaction. Although scientists were not able to determine the actual three-dimensional structures of enzymes and substrates until many years later, the basic idea of the lock-and-key hypothesis has held. A more refined hypothesis, known as the induced fit hypothesis, proposes that the binding of the substrate by the enzyme changes the structure of the enzyme, resulting in an even greater affinity of the enzyme for the substrate. The site on an enzyme that binds the substrate (known simply as the substrate binding site) is most often a pocket or cleft in the approximately globular structure of the enzyme.

The term substrate has another meaning in chemistry. Some chemical syntheses are carried out in mixed phases; for example, the reactants exist in solution but the reaction itself occurs at the surface of a solid. The identity of the solid, specified in experimental protocols, influences the synthesis reactions, and the solid is referred to as the substrate.

see also Fischer, Emil Hermann.

Robert Noiva

Bibliography

Berg, Jeremy M.; Tymoczko, John L.; and Stryer, Lubert (2002). Biochemistry, 5th edition. New York: W. H. Freeman.

Voet, Donald; Voet, Judith G.; and Pratt, Charlotte W. (2002). Fundamentals of Biochemistry, updated edition. New York: Wiley.

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substrate

sub·strate / ˈsəbˌstrāt/ • n. a substance or layer that underlies something, or on which some process occurs, in particular: ∎  the surface or material on or from which an organism lives, grows, or obtains its nourishment. ∎  the substance on which an enzyme acts. ∎  a material that provides the surface on which something is deposited or inscribed, for example the silicon wafer used to manufacture integrated circuits.

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"substrate." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"substrate." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 18, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/substrate-0

"substrate." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved August 18, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/substrate-0

SUBSTRATE

SUBSTRATE, also substratum. A LANGUAGE or aspect of a language which affects another usually more dominant language, often where the speech of a colonized people influences the superimposed language of the conquering group: for example, the syntax of GAELIC providing the model for the IrE construction I am after eating my dinner (I have eaten my dinner) in the English of bilingual English/Gaelic-speakers and of some unilingual English-speakers. Compare SUPERSTRATE.

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"SUBSTRATE." Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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substrate

substrate
1. (in biochemistry) The substance upon which an enzyme acts in biochemical reactions.

2. (in biology) The material on which a sedentary organism (such as a barnacle or a plant) lives or grows. The substrate may provide nutrients for the organism or it may simply act as a support.

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"substrate." A Dictionary of Biology. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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substrate

substrate
1. (biochem.) The reactant acted upon by an enzyme.

2. (substratum) Any object or material upon which an organism grows or to which an organism is attached; an underlying layer or substance.

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"substrate." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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substrate

substrate
1. (biochem.) The reactant acted upon by an enzyme.

2. (substratum) Any object or material upon which an organism grows or to which an organism is attached; an underlying layer or substance.

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"substrate." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"substrate." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Retrieved August 18, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/substrate

substrate

substrate
1. (biochem.) The reactant acted upon by an enzyme
.
2. (substratum) Any object or material upon which an organism grows or to which an organism is attached; an underlying layer or substance.

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"substrate." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"substrate." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Retrieved August 18, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/substrate-0

substrate

substrate
1. The substance on which an enzyme acts.

2. The medium on which micro‐organisms grow.

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"substrate." A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"substrate." A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. . Retrieved August 18, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/substrate

substrate

substrate (sub-strayt) n. the specific substance or substances on which a given enzyme acts.

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"substrate." A Dictionary of Nursing. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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substrate

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