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Non-Alignment

Non-Alignment

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Non-alignment is a philosophy for the conduct of international relations that was introduced into the diplomatic and scholarly vocabulary in 1961 with the founding of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM). It was a product of the cold war, and its founders declared that they would not be aligned to either of the two competing political camps, led by the United States and the Soviet Union. The key intellectuals of Non-alignment philosophy have been Josip Tito, Fidel Castro, Julius Nyerere, Jawaharlal Nehru, Amilcar Cabral, and Léopold Senghor. The two central ideas of Non-alignment are the freedom to conduct an independent foreign policy and the eschewing of alliance politics. However, because the leading states of the NAM during its early yearssuch as Cuba and Yugoslaviawere closer to the USSR than to the United States, the movement has had the reputation of not promoting independent foreign policies. It has not been taken seriously in the academic power centers of international relations in North America and Europe. However, the NAM has been one of the most durable mechanisms of rhetorical mobilization for most of the former colonies of the world, and particularly powerful at the United Nations General Assembly, where the nonaligned bloc has been able to put on the agenda initiatives that the great powers would rather not debate, including, most prominently, proposals for a New International Economic Order and a New World Information and Communication Order.

It is useful to see Non-alignment as one of a variety of political strategies used by states to pursue their interests and survive in international politics. In contrast, the power politics strategy deployed by the most powerful states in the international system involves promoting alliances and placing military concerns ahead of economic and social development as objectives of foreign policy. In its early years (19611971), Non-alignment was seen as a form of neutrality, a philosophy of foreign policy conduct that eschewed international alliances of all types, even membership in the United Nations. However, the death knell of formal neutrality came with Switzerlands joining the United Nations in 2002. In contrast, Non-alignment has been durable, and its use of UN structures to pursue the collective foreign policy aims of its members is evidence of its attractiveness and viability as a third way of international relations. However, it is important to note that Non-alignment is not a revolutionary philosophy in international politics, because it adheres to the principle that the state is the primary actor in international affairs and it promotes the continued viability of the United Nations. The so-called cultural turn in international relations may mean that Non-alignment will be increasingly studied for its insights into identity construction in international politics.

SEE ALSO Alliances; Castro, Fidel; Diplomacy; International Economic Order; Nation-State; Negotiation; Nehru, Jawaharlal; Neutral States; Nyerere, Julius; State, The; Tito (Josip Broz); United Nations; World War II

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Simon, David. 2006. Fifty Key Thinkers on Development. London and New York: Routledge.

Singham, A. W., and Shirley Hune. 1986. Non-alignment in an Age of Alignments. New York: Lawrence Hill.

Mark D. Alleyne

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"Non-Alignment." International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Nov. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Non-Alignment." International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 18, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/applied-and-social-sciences-magazines/non-alignment

"Non-Alignment." International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. . Retrieved November 18, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/applied-and-social-sciences-magazines/non-alignment

Nonaligned Movement

Nonaligned Movement, organized movement of nations that attempted to form a third world force through a policy of nonalignment with the United States and Soviet Union. Yugoslavia, India, Indonesia, Egypt, and Ghana were instrumental in founding (1961) the movement, which grew out of the Bandung Conference (1955). Its members, mainly developing nations from Asia, Africa, and Latin America that embrace more than half the world's people, include true neutrals and many nations that were in fact aligned with one of the superpowers during the cold war. In light of the cold war's end, it reassessed its role and has redefined itself as a forum for its member nations to develop policies and positions that they can seek to implement at the United Nations and other international forums. The 120 member nations meet regularly to discuss their common interests. See also Third World.

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nonalignment

nonalignment See neutrality

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"nonalignment." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Nov. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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