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Error

ERROR

A mistake in a court proceeding concerning amatter of lawor fact, which might provide a ground for a review of the judgment rendered in the proceeding.

The nature of the error dictates the availability of a legal remedy. Generally speaking, mistaken or erroneous application of law will void or reverse a judgment in the matter. Conversely, errors or mistakes in facts, upon which a judge or jury relied in rendering a judgment or verdict, may or may not warrant reversal, depending upon other factors involved in the error. However, appellate decisions make a distinction—not so much between fact and law, but rather, between harmless error and reversible error—in deciding whether to let stand or vitiate a judgment or verdict.

In litigation, a harmless error means that, despite its occurrence, the ultimate outcome of the case is not affected or changed, and the mistake is not prejudicial to the rights of the party who claimed that the error occurred. In other words, the party claiming error has failed to convince an appellate court that the outcome of the litigation would have been different if the error had not occurred. Most harmless errors are errors of fact, such as errors in dates, times, or inconsequential details to a factual scenario.

On the other hand, error that is deemed harmful in that it biased the ultimate decision of a jury or judge, constitutes reversible error, i.e., error that warrants reversal of a judgment (or modification, or retrial). A reversible error usually refers to the mistaken application of a law by a court, as where, for example, a court mistakenly assumes jurisdiction over a matter that another court has exclusive jurisdiction over. A court may erroneously apply laws and rules to admit (or deny the admission of) certain crucial evidence in a case, which may prove pivotal or dispositive to the outcome of the trial and warrant reversal of the judgment. Occasionally, a court may charge the jury with an instruction that applies the wrong law, or with an improper interpretation of the correct law. If the party claiming error can prove that the error was prejudicial to the outcome of the case or to the party's rights, the error will most likely be deemed reversible.

An example of potential harmful or reversible error of both law and fact might involve the age of a rape victim in a criminal trial for statutory rape, (where guilt is premised upon the actual age of the victim, and not on whether the sexual conduct was consensual).

In appellate practice, a party may not appeal an error that it induced a court to make (as by petitioning or moving the court to make a ruling which is actually erroneous). Appellate decisions refer to this as an invited error and will not permit a party to take advantage of the error by having the decision overruled or reversed.

The general use of the term error is often distinct from the use of the word mistake, especially in the law of contracts. In such cases, a mistake of law or fact (in the making of a contract, or performance thereupon) might result in a finding of harmless or reversible error, but the terms are not transitional.

cross-references

Clerical Error; Plain-Error Rule.

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"Error." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Error." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 25, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/law/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/error

"Error." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. . Retrieved June 25, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/law/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/error

error (sampling and non-sampling)

error (sampling and non-sampling) There are many sources of inaccuracy, or error, in a survey. Sampling error consists of bias in sample selection procedures, plus random sampling error. Non-response bias can be measured and analysed after interviewing is completed. There is scope for less visible and less measurable error in the interviewing process itself, and in the subsequent coding and classification of replies. Interviewer bias affects some interviews, and interviewers do occasionally make mistakes, such as overlooking a whole section of a questionnaire. Coding errors arise when data are prepared for analysis. They consist of simple mispunches, from striking the wrong key to code a reply, and misclassification, as when a job description is not read or understood correctly, and is allocated to the wrong occupation code. Edit and consistency checks after data preparation will identify some but not all coding errors. Surveys require rigorous attention to detail at every stage in the process to reduce error to the minimum. Even small inaccuracies at each stage can mount up to an appreciable amount of total error in the end.

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"error (sampling and non-sampling)." A Dictionary of Sociology. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"error (sampling and non-sampling)." A Dictionary of Sociology. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 25, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/error-sampling-and-non-sampling

"error (sampling and non-sampling)." A Dictionary of Sociology. . Retrieved June 25, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/error-sampling-and-non-sampling

error

er·ror / ˈerər/ • n. a mistake: spelling errors. ∎  the state or condition of being wrong in conduct or judgment: the crash was caused by human error. ∎  Baseball a misplay by a fielder that allows a batter to reach base or a runner to advance. ∎  technical a measure of the estimated difference between the observed or calculated value of a quantity and its true value. ∎  Law a mistake of fact or of law in a court's opinion, judgment or order. ∎ Philately a postage stamp or item of postal stationery showing a major printing or perforation mistake. PHRASES: see the error of one's ways realize or acknowledge one's wrongdoing.

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"error." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"error." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 25, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/error-0

"error." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved June 25, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/error-0

Error

226. Error

  1. Breeches Bible, the the Geneva Bible, so dubbed because it stated that Adam and Eve made themselves breeches. [Br. Hist.: Brewer Dictionary, 101]
  2. Cortez alluded to in a poem by Keats, mistaken for Balboa, as discoverer of Pacific Ocean. [Br. Poetry: On First Looking into Chapmans Homer]
  3. Wicked Bible, the misprinted a commandment as Thou shalt commit adultery. [Br. Hist.: Brewer Dictionary, 102]
  4. seacoast of Bohemia Shakespearean setting in a land with no seacoast. [Br. Drama: Shakespeare The Winters Tale, III,iii]

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"Error." Allusions--Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Error." Allusions--Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 25, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/error

"Error." Allusions--Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. . Retrieved June 25, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/error

error

error
1. The difference between a computed, observed, or measured value or condition and the true, specified, or theoretically correct value or condition.

2. An incorrect result resulting from some failure in the hardware of a system.

3. An incorrect step, process, or data definition in for example a program. See also semantic error, syntax error.

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"error." A Dictionary of Computing. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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error

error, in law: see appeal.

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"error." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"error." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 25, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/error

"error." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved June 25, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/error

error

errorjarrah, para, Tara •abracadabra, Aldabra •Alhambra • Vanbrugh •Cassandra, Sandra •Aphra, Biafra •Niagara, pellagra, Viagra •bhangra, Ingres •Capra • Cleopatra •mantra, tantra, yantra •Basra •Asmara, Bukhara, carbonara, Carrara, cascara, Connemara, Damara, Ferrara, Gemara, Guadalajara, Guevara, Honiara, Lara, marinara, mascara, Nara, Sahara, Samara, samsara, samskara, shikara, Tamara, tiara, Varah, Zara •candelabra, macabre, sabra •Alexandra • Agra • fiacre •Chartres, Montmartre, Sartre, Sinatra, Sumatra •Shastra • Maharashtra • Le Havre •gurdwara •Berra, error, Ferrer, sierra, terror •zebra • ephedra • Porto Alegre •belles-lettres, Petra, raison d'être, tetra •Electra, plectra, spectra •Clytemnestra • extra •chèvre, Sèvres •Ezra

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"error." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 25 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"error." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 25, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/error

"error." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved June 25, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/error