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The Hartz Mountain Corporation

The Hartz Mountain Corporation

400 Plaza Drive
Secaucus, New Jersey 07094
U.S.A.
Telephone: (201) 271-4800
Fax: (201) 271-0068
Web site: http://www.hartz.com

Private Company
Incorporated:
1926 as Hartz Mountain Pet Foods
Employees: 2,100 (estimated)
Sales: $977 million (2000 estimate)
NAIC: 311111 Dog and Cat Food Manufacturing

Since its founding, The Hartz Mountain Corporation has been instrumental in defining the pets supply industry. The Secaucus, New Jersey-based company markets approximately 1,500 different products, ranging from food to toys, for pet animals, birds, and fish. After nearly 75 years under the control of three generations of the Stern family, Hartz Mountain is now owned by the investment firm of J.W. Childs Associates, L.P., the result of a management-led buyout in December 2000.

Hartz Mountain Established in 1926

Devastated by soaring inflation and mounting unemployment, Germany during the 1920s was a country in near economic ruin and headed toward political disaster. For a vast majority of Germans, the future looked bleak: each year the economic depression worsened, leaving many of the countrys citizens destitute and looking for relief from a faltering government. Some found an answer to their myriad problems in a virulent, yet magnetic political leader who promised to make Germany the greatest nation in the world, while others looked for answers elsewhere. One of those who chose to leave Germany and start life anew elsewhere was a textile manufacturer named Max Stern. In 1926, Stern left Germany and immigrated to the United States, ready to begin a career that would help create and define an American industry. Stern carried with him the products of his new trade: 2,100 canaries taken from the famous Hartz Mountain region in Germany.

Initially, Stern sold his canaries to small pet stores, but he soon expanded the scale of his business when he began selling first to mass retailers and later to supermarkets and department stores. Sterns decision to broaden product exposure through mass retailers was the first of several crucial steps that laid the foundation for the pet supply empire that would follow. This decision led the company to expand its distribution network to accommodate the delivery of a greater number of birds, and also prompted it to offer a diversified product line. The companys distribution network took time to develop, but Stern broadened his product line shortly after opening his business, when in 1930 he began selling bird food in addition to Hartz Mountain canaries. By the beginning of Americas own decade-long struggle with depressed economic conditions, Stern had established the three distinctive attributes that would predicate the growth of his company and lead to its dominance of the U.S. pet supply industry.

Despite the harsh economic conditions during the 1930s and his inability to speak English, Stern was able to secure several contracts with mass retailers and, along with his brother, who had remained in Germany to purchase the canaries that Stern would sell in the United States, enjoyed considerable success over the next several decades. By the end of the 1950s, Sterns modest venture had become a formidable force in the pet supply industry, thanks largely to the growth and sophistication of the companys distribution network and the diverse assortment of products that bore the Hartz Mountain name. The company by this point sold birds, bird food, and bird accessories, products that by 1959 generated $18 million in sales, which Stern hoped to use to fund further product diversification. Following a family dispute in 1959, Stern bought out his brothers share in the company for $8 million.

Leonard Stern Joins the Company in 1959

Thereafter, Stern soon found a new partner: his son, Leonard N. Stern, who became involved in the family business during the late 1950s when his father ceded partial interest in Hartz Mountain to his three children. As a youth, Leonard Stern sold merchandise door-to-door; at age 17, he entered New York Universitys School of Commerce. Two-and-a-half years later he was graduated cum laude and subsequently earned his Masters of Business Administration degree at night while working days as a clerk.

In the late 1950s, Leonard and his brother Stanley purchased two failing companies involved in the fish and fish supply businessAquarium Supply Co. and Long Life Fish Food Productsand created a new company named Sternco Industries, which they then took public in 1962 after achieving nearly the same success in the fish and fish supply business as their father had in the bird and bird supply business. Shortly after taking Sternco Industries public, Stanley Stern left the company to pursue his interests in the real estate business. Leonard bought out Stanleys shares and then turned his attention to the growth of both Sternco Industries and Hartz Mountain.

Although he would not become president and chief executive officer of Hartz Mountain until 1971, Leonard Stern wielded considerable control within the company during the 1960s. As executive vice-president and chief operating officer, he spearheaded several of its most defining marketing moves. He broadened the companys product line substantially to include dog and cat accessoriesdog toys, cat litter, shampooswhich enabled the company to tap into the burgeoning growth of supermarkets at the time, yet purposely stayed away from entering into the dog and cat food business to avoid competition from entrenched pet food producers. Hartz Mountain was going to establish market dominance, both father and son had decided, and the fragmented pet supply and accessory industry provided the perfect arena in which their well-organized and diversified company could compete.

By the mid-1970s, Max and Leonard Stern were well on their way toward fulfilling their goal. Hartz Mountain by this point controlled roughly one-third of the nearly $900 million pet supply business through the companys 1,200 products, which ranged from birds, fish, hamsters, and gerbils to pet food, pet health care products, and accessories. The company that was now regarded as one of the few giants in the industry bore little resemblance to the fledgling enterprise launched by Max Stern in the mid-1920s (it could no longer sell the companys original product because the importation of canaries was made illegal in 1972). Nevertheless, by this time, canaries represented only five percent of Hartz Mountains sales, and racks of Hartz Mountain merchandise displayed in their distinctive orange packaging occupied pet supply departments in retail outlets across the nation, in many cases being the only pet products stores stocked. The companys distribution system, by now the industrys prototype after 50 years of improvement and solidification, left competitors with little territory that was not firmly held by Hartz Mountain, leading the business press to hail the Stern organization as the General Motors of the pet supply industry. Other accolades followed, and soon industry pundits were claiming Max and Leonard Stern had done to the pet supply industry what Kodaks George Eastman had done to the photography industry and what Henry Ford had done to the automobile industry.

Leonard Stern, by this point in full control of Hartz Mountain, had demonstrated his business acumen in other arenas as well. In addition to masterminding Hartz Mountains rousing growththe company recorded $135 million in sales in 1972, then nearly doubled that amount five years later despite a nationwide economic recessionStern had purchased sizable acreage in Secaucus and Meadowlands, New Jersey, during the mid-1960s, which by the following decade had risen enormously in value. With his real estate holdings Stern formed a private company he named Hartz Mountain Industries, then shortly thereafter began reorganizing the Stern family empire into distinct segments. In order to rase the $40 million needed for the Meadowlands project, Stern took Hartz Mountain Pet Foods public in 1972. The following year Stern merged Hartz Mountain Pet Foods into Sternco Industries, the fish and fish supply company he and his brother had formed years earlier, to create Hartz Mountain Corp. Hartz Mountain stood atop its field, enjoying more than a 75 percent market share in many of its market niches and holding a nearly unassailable lead over its competitors.

Legal Challenges in the 1970s

During this time, Hartz Mountain faced several difficulties. First, in the early 1970s, a magazine article was published claiming that the chemical used in Hartz flea collars was potentially harmful; the flea collar was the companys biggest seller and contributed roughly $15 million in annual sales at the time. Then, more serious allegations were levelled at Hartz Mountain, its executive personnel, and Leonard Stern. Specifically, accusations arose concerning the companys alleged violation of antitrust laws by exerting undue pressure on distributors to deal in Hartz Mountain products exclusively. Several lawsuits were brought by competitors and distributors against Hartz Mountain during the 1970s, charging that the companys far-reaching and well-developed distribution techniques were overly aggressive, forced distributors to handle Hartz Mountain products exclusively, and involved taking the products of competitors off the shelves and replacing them with Hartz Mountain products. Ultimately, these matters were settled, and, admitting no wrongdoing, Hartz Mountain paid court settlements and a $20,000 fine to the Federal Trade Commission.

Company Perspectives:

Hartz Mountain offers quality pet products catering to the individual needs of a vast array of household pets that include dogs, cats, parakeets, canaries, parrots, cockatiels, finches, goldfish, tropical fish, reptiles, ferrets, chinchillas, hamsters, and rabbits.

By the end of the 1970s, Stern decided to return the company to private ownership and use the funds for developing his real estate interests. When Stern bought back the publicly-held shares in Hartz Mountain, he merged Hartz Mountain Corp. into Hartz Mountain Industries, the real estate and real estate development arm of the Stern empire. Despite the legal turmoil surrounding the company at the time, Hartz Mountain had relinquished little of its dominance in the pet supply industry and continued to exert overwhelming control in many of its markets. The 75 percent market share Hartz Mountains pet supply business reached during the 1970s continued to fuel the companys growth throughout the 1980s, as Stern turned his attention elsewhere in a bid to broaden the scope of his business interests.

From Pet Supplies to Publishing: Mid-1980s to 1990s

In 1985, Stern purchased the Village Voice, a well-known Manhattan weekly newspaper, from publisher Robert Murdoch for $55 million, then two years later launched another Manhattan weekly newspaper he christened 7 Days. In the mid-1990s, the L.A. Weekly would also be added to Sterns publishing interests. In 1988, Stern formed the Harmon Publishing Company, a new division developed to oversee his real estate publications.

Also during this time, Stern formed Hartz Group Inc. to once again separate his real estate development and building operation business from his pet supply business. In the hierarchical reshuffling that followed, Hartz Group was made the parent company of Hartz Mountain Corp., and Harmon Publishing Company was organized as a division of Hartz Group. Structured as such, the conglomeration of Hartz-controlled businesses entered the 1990s cast in their separate roles.

In 1990, after failing to receive a suitable offer from bidders, Stern ceased publication of 7 Days, which had proven to be a $10 million loser despite earning positive reviews and being nominated for a coveted National Magazine Award. Four years later, Harmon Publishing Company, which had acquired 60 publishing companies in its six years of business (all involved in publishing real estate magazines), was sold to United Advertising Periodicals for $108 million. With these business interests trimmed from his formidable corporate organization, Stern plotted his course for the mid-1990s and beyond, buoyed by the consistently strong performance of his pet supply business. The company continued as a largely family-run enterprise, with Sterns son Edward, who joined the firm in 1989, serving as executive vice-president of the Hartz Groups pet supply operations, and another son, Emmanuel, as executive vice-president of the real estate arm of the Hartz business.

With his father occupied with his media and real estate ventures, Edward was instrumental in growing the pet supply business. The company completed a number of acquisitions, including the addition of the Wardley and L/M brands. It also added manufacturing plants in America and Brazil to produce natural pet treats and rawhide for pet toys. In order to continue to develop products in line with the tastes of a new generation of pet owners, the company bolstered its research and development efforts in 1995, building new laboratories near its main New Jersey manufacturing plant. Out of these efforts came a new line of over-the-counter flea- and tick-control systems that was launched in 1998. Veterinary offices in the mid-1990s began to prescribe new squeeze-on topical flea and tick treatments that proved extremely popular with pet owners and severely eroded the sale of flea and tick treatments available at pet stores and other retailers. In supermarkets, where the company had experienced a slump in pet supply sales, these new and inexpensive over-the-counter products promised to restore lost revenue. Hartz Mountain also began to make a transition away from a direct-to-store distribution business model in order to reposition itself as a low cost marketer, developer, and manufacturer of pet supply products.

Hartz Relinquished as a Family Business

Edward Stern was named president of Hartz Mountain Corporation in 1997, but like his father he grew less interested in running the pet supply business. Early in 2000 he resigned his post, indicating that he preferred to devote his time to heading up the familys investment portfolio. By now the real estate business was thriving with the opening of luxury hotels in Manhattan and plans to build major television and movie production facilities in New Jersey. A year earlier Leonard Stern had put his publishing interests up for sale when none of his children expressed a desire to run them. In conjunction with Edwards resignation from Hartz Mountain, Robert Devine was named president and chief operating officer. Devine had joined the company as part of the Wardley Corporation acquisition in 1994. By July, management announced that it had retained JP Morgan to explore strategic business alternatives, indicating that it would consider selling the company.

Even as Hartz Mountain was completing a year of record revenue and profits in 2000, it was finalizing a sale of the company to J.W. Childs Associates, a leveraged buyout specialist with considerable experience investing in such consumer product companies as Snapple Beverage Corp. and General Nutrition Companies. Devine and his management team stayed on to run Hartz Mountain, holding great expectations for the future. The number of pet owners and pet households continued to rise in the United States, and the company began an initiative to expand export sales, with the goal of making them 20 percent of total sales. After nearly 75 years of family control, Hartz Mountain also made efforts to change the corporate culture, granting greater input from its employees.

Principal Subsidiaries

Hartz Canada; Hartz LTDA Brazil.

Principal Competitors

Ralston Purina Co.; lams Company; Mars Inc.

Key Dates:

1926:
Immigrant Max Stern founds the company to sell canaries.
1930:
The company begins to sell bird food.
1972:
Hartz Mountain goes public.
1979:
The company returns to private status.
2000:
Hartz Mountain is sold to J.W. Childs Associates in a management-led buyout.

Further Reading

American Home Products to Buy 2 Pet-Line Firms, Wall Street Journal, August 19, 1971, p. 13.

Blustein, Paul, Hartz Owner Made a Prime Target of a Big Grand Jury Investigation, Wall Street Journal, January 17, 1983, p. 25.

, Will the Canaries Come Home to Roost?, Forbes, April 17, 1978, pp. 5961.

Blustein, Paul, and Richard Greene, The Public Be Damned? In 1979?, Forbes, April 2, 1979, pp. 3840.

Byrd, Edward W., Ticked Off, Supermarket News, April 6, 1998, p. 51.

Cages to Collars; Hartz Mountain Finds Pet Supplies Growth Business, Barrons, February 9, 1976.

The Canaries That Laid Golden Eggs , Forbes, February 15, 1974, pp. 348.

Developer Stern to Launch Newspaper in Manhattan, Wall Street Journal, July 30, 1987, p. 26.

Donaton, Scott, 7 Days Folds After Bidders Balk, Advertising Age, April 23, 1990, p. 16.

Ex-Hartz Executive Convicted for Perjury Over Alleged Payoffs, Wall Street Journal, December 22, 1982, p. 7.

Fido and His Friends, Barrons, March 22, 1965, p. 11.

Hammer, Alexander R., A Billion Dollar Business Is Unleashed in Pet Sales, New York Times, April 7, 1968, p. F35.

Hartz Mountain Corp. Votes to Go Private Despite Objections by Minority of Holders, Wall Street Journal, February 14, 1979, p. 14.

Hartz Mountain May Go Private Via Cash Merger, Wall Street Journal, November 2, 1978, p. 20.

Leonard Norman Stern, Forbes, October 26, 1987, p. 137.

Leonard Stern Is Sued by Former Hartz Partner, Wall Street Journal, November 12, 1993, p. A5.

Mills, Joshua, Harmon Publishing Sale to Link Ad Periodicals, New York Times, February 1, 1994, p. D7.

One of the Family, Barrons, March 3, 1969, p. 11.

Robichaux, Mark, Hartz Brings Back Insect Spray Some Pet Owners Fear Is Fatal, Wall Street Journal, September 6, 1989, p. B6.

Sandler, Linda, Call This Business a Family Affair, Wall Street Journal, November 18, 1998, p. B18.

Two Hartz Ex-Aides Sentenced on Charges from Antitrust Suit, Wall Street Journal, May 24, 1984, p. 24.

Jeffrey L. Covell
update: Ed Dinger

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The Hartz Mountain Corporation

The Hartz Mountain Corporation

700 Frank E. Rodgers Boulevard South
Harrison, New Jersey 07029
U.S.A.
(201) 481-4800
Fax: (201) 481-3305

Private Company
Incorporated: 1926 as Hartz Mountain Pet Foods
Employees: 4,500
Sales: $850 million
SICs: 2047 Dog and Cat Food; 2048 Prepared Feeds, Not
Elsewhere Classified; 3199 Leather Goods, Not Elsewhere
Classified; 3999 Manufacturing Industries, Not Elsewhere
Classified

The product of a German immigrants struggle to survive in a new country, Hartz Mountain Corp. was started in 1926 as a dealer in canaries, then grew to dominate the American pet supply industry. By the 1990s, Hartz Mountain no longer sold canaries imported from the Hartz Mountain region in Germany, but sold nearly everything else a pet owner could desire. In their distinctive orange packaging, Hartz Mountain pet toys, accessories, shampoos, and foods graced the shelves of retail outlets throughout the United States and abroad, their presence a testament to the determination of the Hartzes to make their company an unrivaled giant in the pet supply industry.

Devastated by soaring inflation and mounting unemployment, Germany during the 1920s was a country in near economic ruin headed toward political disaster. For a vast majority of Germans, the future looked bleak: each year the economic depression worsened, leaving many of the countrys citizens destitute and looking for relief from a faltering government. Some found an answer to their myriad problems in a virulent, yet magnetic political leader who promised to make Germany the greatest nation in the world, while others looked for answers elsewhere. One of those who chose to leave Germany and start life anew elsewhere was a textile manufacturer named Max Stern. In 1926, Stern left Germany and immigrated to the United States, ready to begin a career that would help create and define an American industry. Stern carried with him the products of his new trade: 2,100 canaries taken from the famous Hartz Mountain region in Germany.

Initially, Stern sold his canaries to small pet stores, but he soon expanded the scale of his business when he began selling first to mass retailers and later to supermarkets and department stores. Sterns decision to broaden product exposure through mass retailers was the first of several crucial steps that laid the foundation for the pet supply empire that would follow. This decision led the company to expand its distribution network to accommodate the delivery of a greater number of birds, and also prompted it to offer a diversified product line. The companys distribution network took time to develop, but Stern broadened his product line shortly after opening his business, when he began selling bird food in addition to Hartz Mountain canaries in 1930. By the beginning of Americas own decade-long struggle with depressed economic conditions, Stern had established the three distinctive attributes that would predicate the growth of his company and lead to its dominance of the U.S. pet supply industry.

Despite the harsh economic conditions during the 1930s and his inability to speak English, Stern was able to secure several contracts with mass retailers and, along with his brother, who had remained in Germany to purchase the canaries that Stern would sell in the United States, enjoyed considerable success over the next several decades. By the end of the 1950s, Sterns modest venture had become a formidable force in the pet supply industry, thanks largely to the growth and sophistication of the companys distribution network and the diverse assortment of products that bore the Hartz Mountain name. The company by this point sold birds, bird food, and bird accessories, products that generated $18 million in sales by 1959, which Stern hoped to use to fund further product diversification. Following a family dispute in 1959, Stern bought out his brothers share in the company for $8 million.

Thereafter, Stern soon found a new partner: his son, Leonard N. Stern, who became involved in the family business during the late 1950s when his father, in an effort to encourage his children to enter the business, ceded partial interest in Hartz Mountain to his three children. As a youth, Leonard Stern had sold merchandise door-to-door, then, at age 17, had entered New York Universitys School of Commerce. Two-and-a-half years later he was graduated cum laude and subsequently earned his Masters of Business Administration degree at night while working days as a clerk.

At Hartz Mountain in the late 1950s, Leonard and his brother Stanley purchased two failing companies involved in the fish and fish supply businessAquarium Supply Co. and Long Life Fish Food Productsand created a new company named Sternco Industries, which they then took public in 1962 after achieving nearly the same success in the fish and fish supply business as their father had in the bird and bird supply business. Shortly after taking Sternco Industries public, Stanley Stern left the company to pursue his interests in the real estate business. Leonard bought out Stanleys shares and then turned his attention to the growth of both Sternco Industries and Hartz Mountain.

Although he would not become president and chief executive officer of Hartz Mountain until 1971, Leonard Stern wielded considerable control within the company during the 1960s. As executive vice-president and chief operating officer, he spear headed several of its most defining marketing moves. He broadened the companys product line substantially to include dog and cat accessories (dog toys, cat litter, shampoos), which enabled the company to tap into the burgeoning growth of supermarkets at the time, yet purposely stayed away from entering into the dog and cat food business to avoid competition from entrenched pet food producers. Hartz Mountain was going to establish market dominance, both father and son had decided, and the fragmented pet supply and accessory industry provided the perfect arena in which their well-organized and diversified company could compete.

By the mid-1970s, Max and Leonard Stern were well on their way toward fulfilling their goal. Hartz Mountain by this point controlled roughly one-third of the nearly $900 million pet supply business through the companys 1,200 products, which ranged from birds, fish, hamsters and gerbils to pet food, pet health care products, and accessories. The company that was now regarded as one of the few giants in the industry bore little resemblance to the fledgling enterprise launched by Max Stern in the mid-1920s, and could no longer sell the companys original product because the importation of canaries was made illegal in 1972. Nevertheless, by this time, canaries represented only five percent of Hartz Mountains sales, and racks of Hartz Mountain merchandise displayed in their distinctive orange packaging occupied pet supply departments in retail outlets across the nation, in many cases being the only pet products stores stocked. The companys distribution system, by now the industrys prototype after 50 years of improvement and solidification, left competitors with little territory that was not firmly held by Hartz Mountain, leading the business press to hail the Stern organization as the General Motors of the pet supply industry. Other accolades followed, and soon industry pundits were claiming Max and Leonard Stern had done to the pet supply industry what Kodaks George Eastman had done to the photography industry and what Henry Ford had done to the automobile industry.

Leonard Stern, by this point in full control of Hartz Mountain, had demonstrated his business acumen in other arenas as well. In addition to masterminding Hartz Mountains rousing growththe company recorded $135 million in sales in 1972, then nearly doubled the total five years later despite a nationwide economic recessionStern had purchased sizable acreage in Secaucus and Meadowlands, New Jersey, during the mid-1960s, which by the following decade had risen enormously in value. With his real estate holdings Stern formed a private company he named Hartz Mountain Industries, then shortly thereafter began reorganizing the Stern family empire into distinct pieces. In order to rase the $40 million needed for the Meadowlands project, Stern took Hartz Mountain Pet Foods public in 1972. The following year Stern merged Hartz Mountain Pet Foods into Sternco Industries, the fish and fish supply company he and his brother had formed years earlier, to create Hartz Mountain Corp. Hartz Mountain stood atop its field, enjoying more than a 75 percent market share in many of its market niches and holding a nearly unassailable lead over its competitors.

During this time, Hartz Mountain faced several challenges. First, in the early 1970s, a magazine article was published claiming that the chemical used in Hartz flea collars was potentially harmful; the flea collar was the companys biggest seller and contributed roughly $15 million in annual sales at the time. Then, more serious allegations were levelled at Hartz Mountain, its executive personnel, and Leonard Stern. Specifically, accusations arose concerning the companys alleged violation of antitrust laws by exerting undue pressure on distributors to deal in Hartz Mountain products exclusively. Several lawsuits were brought by competitors and distributors against Hartz Mountain during the 1970s, charging that the companys far-reaching and well-developed distribution techniques were overly aggressive, forced distributors to handle Hartz Mountain products exclusively, and involved taking the products of competitors off the shelves and replacing them with Hartz Mountain products. Ultimately, these matters were settled, and, admitting no wrongdoing, Hartz Mountain paid court settlements and a $20,000 fine to the Federal Trade Commission.

By the end of the 1970s, Stern decided to take the company private and use the funds for developing his real estate interests. When Stern bought back the publicly-held shares in Hartz Mountain, he merged Hartz Mountain Corp. into Hartz Mountain Industries, the real estate and real estate development arm of the Stern empire. Despite the legal turmoil surrounding the company at the time, Hartz Mountain had relinquished little of its dominance in the pet supply industry and continued to exert overwhelming control in many of its markets. The 75 percent market share Hartz Mountains pet supply business reached during the 1970s continued to fuel the companys growth throughout the 1980s, as Stern turned his attention elsewhere in a bid to broaden the scope of his business interests.

In 1985, he purchased the Village Voice, a well-known Manhattan weekly newspaper, from publisher Robert Murdoch for $55 million, then two years later launched another Manhattan weekly newspaper he christened 7 Days. In the mid-1990s, the L.A. Weekly would also be added to Sterns publishing interests. In 1988, Stern formed the Harmon Publishing Company, a new division developed to oversee his real estate publications.

Also during this time, Stern formed Hartz Group Inc. to once again separate his real estate development and building operation business from his pet supply business. In the hierarchical reshuffling that followed, Hartz Group was made the parent company of Hartz Mountain Corp., and Harmon Publishing Company was organized as a division of Hartz Group. Structured as such, the conglomeration of Hartz-controlled businesses entered the 1990s cast in their separate roles.

In 1990, after failing to receive a suitable offer from bidders, Stern ceased publication of 7 Days, which had proven to be a $10 million loser despite earning positive reviews and being nominated for a coveted National Magazine Award. Four years later, Harmon Publishing Company, which had acquired 60 publishing companies in its six years of business (all involved in publishing real estate magazines), was sold to United Advertising Periodicals for $108 million. With these business interests trimmed from his formidable corporate organization, Stern plotted his course for the mid-1990s and beyond, buoyed by the consistently strong performance of his pet supply business. The company continued as a largely family-run enterprise, with Sterns son Edward serving as executive vice-president of the Hartz Groups pet supply operations, and another son, Emmanuel, as executive vice-president of the real estate arm of Hartzs business.

Further Reading

American Home Products to Buy 2 Pet-Line Firms, Wall Street Journal, August 19, 1971, p. 13.

Blustein, Paul, Hartz Owner Made a Prime Target of a Big Grand Jury Investigation, Wall Street Journal, January 17, 1983, p. 25.

_____, Will the Canaries Come Home to Roost?, Forbes, April 17, 1978, pp. 5961.

Blustein, Paul, and Richard Greene, The Public Be Damned? In 1979?, Forbes, April 2, 1979, pp. 380.

Cages to CollarsHartz Mountain Finds Pet Supplies Growth Business, Barrons, February 9, 1976.

The Canaries That Laid Golden Eggs , Forbes, February 15, 1974, pp. 3438.

Developer Stern to Launch Newspaper in Manhattan, Wall Street Journal, July 30, 1987, p. 26.

Donaton, Scott, 7 Days Folds After Bidders Balk, Advertising Age, April 23, 1990, p. 16.

Ex-Hartz Executive Convicted for Perjury Over Alleged Payoffs, Wall Street Journal, December 22, 1982, p. 7.

Fido and His Friends, Barrons, March 22, 1965, p. 11.

Hammer, Alexander R., A Billion Dollar Business Is Unleashed in Pet Sales, New York Times, April 7, 1968, p. F35.

Hartz Mountain Corp. Votes to Go Private Despite Objections by Minority of Holders, Wall Street Journal, February 14, 1979, p. 14.

Hartz Mountain May Go Private Via Cash Merger, Wall Street Journal, November 2, 1978, p. 20.

Leonard Norman Stern, Forbes, October 26, 1987, p. 137.

Leonard Stern Is Sued by Former Hartz Partner, Wall Street Journal, November 12, 1993, p. A5.

Mills, Joshua, Harmon Publishing Sale to Link Ad Periodicals, New York Times, February 1, 1994, p. D7.

One of the Family, Barrons, March 3, 1969, p. 11.

Robichaux, Mark, Hartz Brings Back Insect Spray Some Pet Owners Fear Is Fatal, Wall Street Journal, September 6, 1989, p. B6.

Two Hartz Ex-Aides Sentenced on Charges from Antitrust Suit, Wall Street Journal, May 24, 1984, p. 24.

Jeffrey L. Covell

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"The Hartz Mountain Corporation." International Directory of Company Histories. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Oct. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"The Hartz Mountain Corporation." International Directory of Company Histories. . Encyclopedia.com. (October 17, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/books/politics-and-business-magazines/hartz-mountain-corporation-0

"The Hartz Mountain Corporation." International Directory of Company Histories. . Retrieved October 17, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/books/politics-and-business-magazines/hartz-mountain-corporation-0