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fair

fair, market exhibition at which producers, traders, and consumers meet either to barter or to buy and sell goods and services. Before the development of transportation and marketing, fairs furnished the primary opportunity for the exchange of merchandise, and served as centers of community social life. Among the ancient Greeks and Romans the days of the public market were also used to announce new public laws. In early Christian times special occasions for marketing were frequently attached to religious gatherings, notably those of pilgrims coming to a town to celebrate a special feast. In the Middle Ages fairs were the major means of exchanging commodities not produced for subsistence. Fairs were incorporated by royal charter and had their own officials, laws, and courts. Major trade routes affected the growth of individual fairs; among the most prominent were those of Geneva, Antwerp, Leipzig, Madrid, Burgundy, Lyons, Bordeaux, Novgorod, and Sturbridge and Bartholomew Fair in England. Of the variety of goods traded at such fairs, cloth was probably the most important. The volume of trade was so great that by the 15th cent. some fair towns became banking centers and were subjected to special regulations. With the breaking of the manorial system, commerce became an expanding and regular part of economic life. Trade fairs declined and to a large extent were replaced by outdoor and indoor general markets. In the 17th cent. pleasure fairs, dominated by entertainments such as plays, became popular. The exposition, combining entertainment and commerce, flourishes today. A variety of advanced industrial wares (such as computers) are exhibited, and important technological innovations are displayed. International trade fairs, devoted solely to commercial display and directed toward businessmen, have also become popular since World War II. Agricultural fairs—held to improve farming methods, stocks, and crops—have been particularly important in the history of the United States. Many states and counties still maintain annual fairs, though some have been discontinued. In recent years, specialized fairs, such as the Frankfurt Book Fair, have taken on international significance.

See H. Augur, The Book of Fairs (1939); W. Addison, English Fairs and Markets (1953); C. Walford, Fairs Past and Present (1967); R. Weiss, Fairs, Pavilions, Exhibits and their Audiences (1982).

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"fair." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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fair

fair1 / fe(ə)r/ • adj. 1. in accordance with the rules or standards; legitimate: fair and equal representation. ∎  just or appropriate in the circumstances: to be fair, this subject poses special problems. ∎ Baseball (of a batted ball) within the field of play marked by the first and third baselines. 2. (of hair or complexion) light; blond. ∎  (of a person) having such a complexion or hair. 3. considerable though not outstanding in size or amount. ∎  moderately good though not outstandingly so: he believes he has a fair chance of success. 4. (of weather) fine and dry. 5. archaic beautiful: attractive: the fairest of her daughters. • adv. 1. without cheating or trying to achieve unjust advantage: no one could say he played fair. 2. dial. to a high degree: she'll be fair delighted to see you. PHRASES: fair and square honestly and straightforwardly: we won the match fair and square. a fair deal equitable treatment. fair enough inf. used to admit that something is reasonable or acceptable: “I can't come because I'm working late.” “Fair enough.” fair-to-middling slightly above average: she manages to capitalize on some fair-to-middling material. the fair sex dated or humorous women. in a fair way to do something dated having nearly done something, and likely to achieve it: he is in a fair way to get well. no fair inf. unfair (often used in or as a petulant protestation): no fair—we're the only kids in the whole school who don't get to watch TV on school nights.DERIVATIVES: fair·ish adj. fair·ness n. fair2 • n. a gathering of stalls and amusements for public entertainment. ∎  a competitive exhibition of livestock, agricultural products, and household skills held annually by a town, county, or state and also featuring entertainment and educational displays. ∎  an exhibition to promote particular products: the Contemporary Art Fair. fair3 • v. [tr.] [usu. as adj.] (faired) streamline (a vehicle, boat, or aircraft) by adding fairings.

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"fair." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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fair

fair all's fair in love and war in certain conditions rules do not apply, and any measures are acceptable. The saying is recorded from the early 17th century, but a related idea is found earlier in Lyly's Euphues (1578), ‘Any impiety may lawfully be committed in love, which is lawless.’
fair and softly goes far in a day steady undeviating progress is likely to be more successful than proceeding by fits and starts; saying recorded from the mid 14th century.
a fair field and no favour equal conditions in a contest, not unduly favouring or hindering either side.
fair play's a jewel proverbial saying, early 19th century, applauding the value of honest dealing.
a fair-weather friend someone who cannot be relied on for continuing support in a difficult situation, especially when one is attacked or criticized.

see also none but the brave deserve the fair, give and take is fair play, if St Paul's day be fair and clear at St Paul1, turn and turn about is fair play.

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"fair." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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fair

fair1 beautiful, pleasing OE.; free from blemish XII; favourable XIII; light-coloured (opp. dark) XVI. OE. fæġer = OS., OHG. fagar, ON. fagr, Goth. fagrs :- Gmc. *faʒraz.

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"fair." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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fair

fair2 periodical gathering of buyers and sellers. XIII. — OF. feire (mod. foire) :- late L. fēria, sg. of classL. fēriæ holiday, rel. to festum FEAST.

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fairness

fairness See fair surface design.

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"fairness." A Dictionary of Computing. . Encyclopedia.com. 17 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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fair

fairaffair, affaire, air, Altair, Althusser, Anvers, Apollinaire, Astaire, aware, Ayer, Ayr, bare, bear, bêche-de-mer, beware, billionaire, Blair, blare, Bonaire, cafetière, care, chair, chargé d'affaires, chemin de fer, Cher, Clair, Claire, Clare, commissionaire, compare, concessionaire, cordon sanitaire, couvert, Daguerre, dare, debonair, declare, derrière, despair, doctrinaire, éclair, e'er, elsewhere, ensnare, ere, extraordinaire, Eyre, fair, fare, fayre, Finisterre, flair, flare, Folies-Bergère, forbear, forswear, foursquare, glair, glare, hair, hare, heir, Herr, impair, jardinière, Khmer, Kildare, La Bruyère, lair, laissez-faire, legionnaire, luminaire, mal de mer, mare, mayor, meunière, mid-air, millionaire, misère, Mon-Khmer, multimillionaire, ne'er, Niger, nom de guerre, outstare, outwear, pair, pare, parterre, pear, père, pied-à-terre, Pierre, plein-air, prayer, questionnaire, rare, ready-to-wear, rivière, Rosslare, Santander, savoir faire, scare, secretaire, share, snare, solitaire, Soufrière, spare, square, stair, stare, surface-to-air, swear, Tailleferre, tare, tear, their, there, they're, vin ordinaire, Voltaire, ware, wear, Weston-super-Mare, where, yeah

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