Quantum Electrodynamics (QED)
Quantum electrodynamics (QED)
Quantum electrodynamics (QED) is a scientific theory that is also known as the quantum theory of light. QED describes the quantum properties (properties that are conserved and that occur in discrete amounts called quanta) and mechanics associated with the interaction of light (i.e., electromagnetic radiation) with matter. The practical value of QED rests upon its ability, as a set of equations, to allow calculations related to the absorption and emission of light by atoms and to allow scientists to make very accurate predictions regarding the result of the interactions between photons and charged atomic particles such as electrons. QED is a fundamentally important scientific theory because it accounts for all observed physical phenomena except those associated with aspects of relativity theory and radioactive decay.
QED is a complex and highly mathematical theory that paints a picture of light that is counterintuitive to everyday human experience. According to QED theory, light exists in a duality consisting of both particle and wavelike properties. More specifically, QED asserts that electromagnetism results from the quantum behavior of the photon, the fundamental "particle" responsible for the transmission electromagnetic radiation. According to QED theory, a seeming particle vacuum actually consists of electronpositron fields. An electronpositron pair (positrons are the positively charged antiparticle to electrons) comes into existence when photons interact with these fields. In turn, QED also accounts for the subsequent interactions of these electrons, positrons, and photons.
Photons, unlike other "solid" particles, are thought to be "virtual particles" constantly exchanged between charged particles such as electrons. Indeed, according to QED theory the forces of electricity and magnetism (i.e., the fundamental electromagnetic force) stem from the common exchange of virtual photons between particles and only under special circumstances do photons become observable as light.
According to QED theory, "virtual photons" are more like the wavelike disturbances on the surface of water after it is touched. The virtual photons are passed back and forth between the charged particles much like basketball players might pass a ball between them as they run down the court. As virtual particles, photons cannot be observed because they would violate the laws regarding the conservation of energy and momentum. Only in their veiled or hidden state do photons act as mediators of force between particles. The "force" caused by the exchange of virtual photons causes charged particles to change their velocity (speed and/or direction of travel) as they absorb or emit virtual photons.
Only under limited conditions do the photons escape the charged particles and thereby become observable as electromagnetic radiation. Observable photons are created by perturbations (i.e., wavelike disruptions) of electrons and other charged particles. According to QED theory, the process also works in reverse as photons can create a particle and its antiparticle (e.g., an electron and its oppositely charged antiparticle, a positron).
In QED dynamics, the simplest interactions involve only two charged particles. The application of QED is, however, not limited to these simple systems; interactions involving an infinite number of photons are described by increasingly complex processes termed secondorder (or higher) processes. Although QED can account for an infinite number of processes (i.e., an infinite number of interactions) the theory also dictates that more interactions also become increasingly rare as they become increasingly complex.
The genesis of QED was the need for physicists to reconcile theories initially advanced by British physicist James Clerk Maxwell regarding electromagnetism in the later half of the nineteenth century (i.e., that electricity and magnetism are two aspects of a single force) with quantum theory developed during the early decades of the twentieth century. Prior to WWII, British physicist Paul Dirac, German physicist Werner Heisenberg, and Austrianborn American physicist Wolfgang Pauli all made significant contributions to the mathematical foundations related to QED. Even for these experienced physicists, however, working with QED posed formidable obstacles because of the presence of "infinities" (infinite values) in the mathematical calculations (e.g., for emission rates or determinations of mass). It was often difficult to make predictions match observed phenomena and early attempts at using QED theory often gave physicists wrong or incomprehensible answers.
The calculations used to define QED were made more accessible and reliable by a process termed renormalization, independently developed by American physicist Richard Feynman (1918–1988), American physicist Julian Schwinger (1918–1994), and Japanese physicist Shin'ichiro Tomonaga (1906–1979). In essence the work of these three renowned scientists concentrated on making the needed corrections to Dirac's infinity problems and his advancement of QED theory, which helped reconcile quantum mechanics with Einstein's special theory of relativity. Their "renormalization" allowed positive infinities to cancel out negative infinities and thus, allowed measured values of mass and charge to be used in QED calculations.
The use of renormalization initially allowed QED predictions to accurately predict the observed interactions of electrons and photons. During the later half of the twentieth century, based principally on the work of Feynman, Schwinger, Tomonaga and another influential physicist Freeman Dyson, QED became an important model used to explain the structure, properties and reactions of quarks, gluons and other subatomic particles. Although Feynman, Schwinger, and Tomonaga each worked separately on the refinement of different aspects of QED theory, in 1965, these physicists jointly shared the Nobel Prize for their work.
Because QED is compatible with special relativity theory, and special relativity equations are part of QED equations, QED is termed a relativistic theory. QED is also termed a gaugeinvariant theory, meaning that it makes accurate predictions regardless of where applied in space or time. Like gravity , QED mathematically describes a force that becomes weaker as the distance between charged particles increases, reducing in strength as the inverse square of the distance between particles. Although the photons themselves are electrically neutral, the predictions of interactions made possible by QED would not be possible between uncharged or electrically neutral particles. Accordingly, in QED theory there are two values for electric charge on particles, positive and negative.
QED theory was revolutionary in physics . In contrast to theories that strove to explain natural phenomena in terms of direct causes and effects, the development of QED stemmed from a growing awareness of the limitations on scientist's ability to make predictions regarding the subatomic realm. In fact, QED was unique precisely because QED did not always make specific predictions. QED relied instead on developing an understanding of the properties and behavior of subatomic particles characterized by probabilities rather than by traditional causeandeffect certainties. Instead of allowing scientists to make specific predictions regarding the outcome of certain interactions—Tomonaga's predictions were often mystifyingly incompatible with human experience (e.g., that an electron could be in two places at once)—QED allowed the calculation of probabilities regarding outcomes (e.g., the probability that an electron would take one path as opposed to another).
In particular, Feynman's work, teaching, and contributions to QED theory reached near legendary status within the physics community. In 1986, Feynman published QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter. In his book, Feynman attempted to explain QED theory in much the same manner as Einstein's writing on relativity theory a half century earlier. In fact, although Feynman's profound contributions to QED theory were well beyond the understanding of the general public, no other physicist since Einstein and Oppenheimer had so captured the attention of the lay public. In addition, Feynman also became somewhat of a celebrity for chronicles relating to his life and studies.
Feynman's work redefined QED theory, quantum mechanics, and electrodynamics, and Feynman's writings remain the definitive explanation of QED theory. With regard to QED theory, Feynman is perhaps best remembered for his invention of simple diagrams, now widely known among physicists as "Feynman diagrams," to portray the complex interactions of atomic particles. The diagrams allow visual representation of the ways in which particles can interact by the exchange of virtual photons. In addition to providing a tangible picture of processes outside the human capacity for observation, Feynman's diagrams precisely portray the interactions of variables used in the complex QED mathematical calculations.
Schwinger and Tomonaga also refined the mathematical methodology of QED theory so that predictions became increasingly consistent with predictions of phenomena made by the special theory of relativity. Tomonaga also solved a perplexing inconsistency that vexed Dirac's work (e.g., that an electron could, inconceivably, and not in accord with observations, be calculated to have a seemingly infinite amount of energy). Tomonaga's mathematical improvements, along with refinements made by Schwinger and Feynman, resolved this incompatibility and allowed for the calculation of finite energies for electrons. In a masterstroke, Tomonaga renormalized and made more accurate the prediction of particle properties (e.g., magnetic properties) and the process of radiation.
QED went on to become, arguably, the best tested theory in science history. Most atomic interactions are electromagnetic in nature and, no matter how accurate the equipment yet devised, the predictions made by renormalized QED theory hold true. Some tests of QED—for example, predictions of the mass of some subatomic particles—offer results accurate to six significant figures or more. Even with the improvements made by the renormalization of QED, however, the calculations often remain difficult. Although some predictions can be made using one Feynman diagram and a few pages of calculations, others may take hundreds of Feynman diagrams and the access to supercomputing facilities to complete the necessary calculations.
The development of QED theory allowed scientists to predict how subatomic particles are created or destroyed. Just as Feynman, Schwinger and Tomonaga's renormalization of QED allowed for calculation of finite properties relating to mass, energy, and chargerelated properties of electrons, physicists hope that such improvements offer a model to improve other gauge theories (i.e., theories which explain how forces, such as the electroweak force, arise from underlying symmetries). The concept of forces such as electromagnetism arising from the exchange of virtual particles has intriguing ramifications for the advancement of theories regarding the working mechanisms underlying the strong, weak, and gravitational forces.
Many scientists assert that if a unified theory can be found, it will rest on the foundations established during the development of QED theory. Without speculation, however, is the fact that the development of QED theory was, and remains today, an essential element in the verification and development of quantum field theory.
See also Atomic structure; Quantum theory and mechanics
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quantum electrodynamics
quantum electrodynamics (QED), quantum field theory that describes the properties of electromagnetic radiation and its interaction with electrically charged matter in the framework of quantum theory. QED deals with processes involving the creation of elementary particles from electromagnetic energy, and with the reverse processes in which a particle and its antiparticle annihilate each other and produce energy. The fundamental equations of QED apply to the emission and absorption of light by atoms and the basic interactions of light with electrons and other elementary particles. Charged particles interact by emitting and absorbing photons, the particles of light that transmit electromagnetic forces. For this reason, QED is also known as the quantum theory of light.
QED is based on the elements of quantum mechanics laid down by such physicists as P. A. M. Dirac, W. Heisenberg, and W. Pauli during the 1920s, when photons were first postulated. In 1928 Dirac discovered an equation describing the motion of electrons that incorporated both the requirements of quantum theory and the theory of special relativity. During the 1930s, however, it became clear that QED as it was then postulated gave the wrong answers for some relatively elementary problems. For example, although QED correctly described the magnetic properties of the electron and its antiparticle, the positron, it proved difficult to calculate specific physical quantities such as the mass and charge of the particles. It was not until the late 1940s, when experiments conducted during World War II that had used microwave techniques stimulated further work, that these difficulties were resolved. Proceeding independently, Freeman J. Dyson, Richard P. Feynman and Julian S. Schwinger in the United States and Shinichiro Tomonaga in Japan refined and fully developed QED. They showed that two charged particles can interact in a series of processes of increasing complexity, and that each of these processes can be represented graphically through a diagramming technique developed by Feynman. Not only do these diagrams provide an intuitive picture of the process but they show how to precisely calculate the variables involved. The mathematical structures of QED later were adapted to the study of the strong interactions between quarks, which is called quantum chromodynamics.
See R. P. Feynman, QED (1985); P. W. Milonni, The Quantum Vacuum: An Introduction to Quantum Electrodynamics (1994); S. S. Schweber, QED and the Men Who Made It: Dyson, Feynman, Schwinger, and Tomonaga (1994); G. Scharf, Finite Quantum Electrodynamics: The Causal Approach (1995).
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quantum electrodynamics
quantum electrodynamics (QED) Use of quantum mechanics to study the properties of electromagnetic radiation and how it interacts with charged elementary particles. For example, the theory predicts that a collision between an electron and a proton should result in the production of a photon of electromagnetic radiation, which is exchanged between the colliding particles.
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