# Equilibrium

A state of equilibrium exists in a process when the rate of the forward process equals the rate of the reverse process. The equilibrium condition exists in relation to thermal, mechanical, and chemical changes. For example, within a closed flask, liquid water evaporates to form vapor, and at the same time the vapor condenses to form liquid. When the rate of evaporation equals the rate of condensation, the system is said to be in a state of equilibrium:

A state of thermal equilibrium exists when the heat loss of a system is equal to the heat gain. Chemical equilibrium exists when a reversible chemical reaction occurs within a closed system, such as a sealed flask, and the rate of the reaction in the forward direction equals the rate of the reaction in the reverse direction. For example: N2 + 3H2 2NH3.

In this reaction, nitrogen and hydrogen gases react to form gaseous ammonia, NH3. When nitrogen and hydrogen are first introduced into the reaction chamber, they begin to form ammonia molecules. As the concentration of ammonia increases, ammonia molecules start to decompose, forming nitrogen and hydrogen. When the rate at which ammonia is formed equals the rate at which it decomposes, the system is at equilibrium. A reaction at equilibrium never goes completely to completion; molecules of reactants continue to collide to form product molecules, and product molecules constantly decompose to form reactant molecules.

A state of mechanical equilibrium is a special physical state in which the external forces and moments on an object are zero. All forces are balanced, and the object is at rest. Examples of systems in mechanical equilibrium include a ball hanging motionless on a string and a mass suspended motionless from a spring.

Every equilibrium system follows predictable mathematical rules. The law of mass action states that the product of the concentrations of a reaction's products, each raised to the power of the coefficient of the species, divided by the product of the concentrations of the reactants, each raised to the power of the coefficient of the species, is a constant at constant temperature. Thus for the ammonia reaction:

N2 + 3 H2 2 NH3

The equation describing the equilibrium reaction is called an equilibrium expression, and Keq, the equilibrium constant, is a definite numerical value for each equilibrium reaction. The equilibrium constant for a particular reaction is specific for that reaction and changes only with variations in temperature. The presence of a catalyst does not alter Keq but does cause the reaction to reach equilibrium more rapidly.

The size of Keq can be used to predict whether the reaction goes further toward completion (results in the formation of large quantities of products) or favors reactants (results in higher concentrations of reactants present at equilibrium). For example, hydrogen and iodine react at 200°C (392°F) to form hydrogen iodide in the following equilibrium reaction: H2 + I2 2HI. The value of Keq for the reaction has been determined to be 50, experimentally. At equilibrium, if the concentrations of hydrogen and iodine were 1.0 moles per liter, the concentration of hydrogen iodide would be or 7.1 moles per liter.

Le Châtelier's principle states that if a stress is brought to bear upon a system at equilibrium, the equilibrium reaction shifts in a direction that relieves the stress. Put more simply, if the concentration of one of the reactants or products is increased at equilibrium, the reaction moves in the direction that consumes the added material. Adding hydrogen and iodine to the reaction mixture above would result in the formation of more hydrogen iodide.

Similarly, adding hydrogen and nitrogen to the reaction mixture that forms ammonia would result in the formation of more ammonia, and removing ammonia would shift the equilibrium to the right, forming even more ammonia. Ammonia, hydrogen, and nitrogen are all gases, and one mole of each gas occupies a volume of about 22.4 liters at STP . In the reaction N2 + 3H2 2NH3, 22.4 liters of nitrogen react with 3 times 22.4 liters of hydrogen to form 44.8 liters of ammonia. This means that 4 times 22.4 liters of reactants form 2 times 22.4 liters of products. Le Châtelier's principle predicts that increasing pressure on the system at equilibrium causes the equilibrium to shift to the right. Therefore, ammonia is manufactured in a continuous loop by pumping in N2 and H2 and removing NH3 by liquefaction as it is formed, causing the unreacted N2 and H2 to form more ammonia. The presence of a catalyst helps the hydrogen and nitrogen molecules interact to form ammonia more rapidly.

Equilibrium constants are dependent upon the temperature of the system. Formation of ammonia is exothermicheat is released as the reaction occurs: N2 + 3H2 2NH3 + 93.7 kilojoules of energy. Therefore, cooling the reaction mixture favors the formation of even more ammonia.

Systems may be in chemical or mechanical equilibrium, and they may also exhibit thermal equilibrium. If a hot object is placed in contact with a colder mass of the same material inside an insulated container, heat flows from the hot object into the colder object until the temperatures of the two are equal. Heat lost by the warm object is equal to the amount gained by the cold object. The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of an object a certain amount is equal to the amount which that object would lose in cooling by the same amount. The amount of heat needed to warm or the amount lost when cooling equals the product of the specific heat (or heat capacity) of the substance, the mass, and the change in temperature. For example, if a 50-gram (1.8-ounce) piece of silver at 70°C (158°F) is placed in 50 grams (1.8 ounces) of water at 15°C (59°F), the principle of thermal equilibrium can be used to calculate the final temperature of the water and silver:

At equilibrium, if the concentrations of hydrogen and iodine were 1.0 mole/Liter, the concentration of hydrogen iodide would be or 7.1 moles/Liter.

As a result of heat flowing from the silver into the water to establish a thermal equilibrium between the two, the final temperature of the silver and water is 18.1°C (64.6°F).

Dan M. Sullivan

## Bibliography

Brown, Theodore L.; Lemay, H. Eugene; Bursten, Bruce E.; and Burdge, Julia R. (2002). Chemistry, 9th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

McMurry, John, and Fay, Robert C. (2004). Chemistry, 4th edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.

McQuarrie, Donald A., and Rock, Peter A. (1984). General Chemistry. New York: Freeman Publications.

Silberberg, Martin S. (2000). Chemistry, 2nd edition. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

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## equilibrium

equilibrium, state of balance. When a body or a system is in equilibrium, there is no net tendency to change. In mechanics, equilibrium has to do with the forces acting on a body. When no force is acting to make a body move in a line, the body is in translational equilibrium; when no force is acting to make the body turn, the body is in rotational equilibrium. A body in equilibrium at rest is said to be in static equilibrium. However, a state of equilibrium does not mean that no forces act on the body, but only that the forces are balanced. For example, when a lever is being used to hold up a raised object, forces are being exerted downward on each end of the lever and upward on its fulcrum, but the upward and downward forces balance to maintain translational equilibrium, and the clockwise and counterclockwise moments of the forces on either end balance to maintain rotational equilibrium. The stability of a body is a measure of its ability to return to a position of equilibrium after being disturbed. It depends on the shape of the body and the location of its center of gravity (see center of mass). A body with a large flat base and a low center of gravity will be very stable, returning quickly to its position of equilibrium after being tipped. However, a body with a small base and high center of gravity will tend to topple if tipped and is thus less stable than the first body. A body balanced precariously on a point is in unstable equilibrium. Some bodies, such as a ball or a cone lying on its side, do not return to their original position of equilibrium when pushed, assuming instead a new position of equilibrium; these are said to be in neutral equilibrium. In thermodynamics, two bodies placed in contact with each other are said to be in thermal equilibrium when, after a sufficient length of time, their temperatures are equal. Chemical equilibrium refers to reversible chemical reactions in which the reactions involved are occurring in opposite directions at equal rates, so that no net change is observed.

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## equilibrium

equilibrium, social equilibrium In normative functionalist theory generally, and the work of Talcott Parsons in particular, the commonplace concept of equilibrium (a state of balance in which opposing forces or tendencies neutralize each other) is given a more specific meaning. It applies, in particular, to what Parsons calls a ‘boundary-maintaining system’; that is, a social system which ‘maintains certain constancies of pattern’, relative to its environment. Two types of constancy are identified—static (unchanging), and moving, the latter of which Parsons describes as ‘an orderly process of social change’ (see The Social System, 1951
). The tendency of social systems towards equilibrium is built into the premisses of (and later the very definitions of a society proffered by) Parsonsian theory. The use of the terms ‘moving equilibrium’ and ‘disequilibrium’ (rather than the more prosaic change and conflict) speaks volumes about the conservatism of this form of sociological theory. See also CHANGE, SOCIAL; CONSENSUS; SOCIAL INTEGRATION AND SYSTEM INTEGRATION.

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## equilibrium

e·qui·lib·ri·um / ˌēkwəˈlibrēəm; ˌekwə-/ • n. (pl. -lib·ri·a / -ˈlibrēə/ ) a state in which opposing forces or influences are balanced: the maintenance of social equilibrium. ∎  a state of physical balance: I stumbled over a rock and recovered my equilibrium. ∎  a calm state of mind: his intensity could unsettle his equilibrium. ∎  Chem. a state in which a process and its reverse are occurring at equal rates so that no overall change is taking place: ice is in equilibrium with water. ∎  Econ. a situation in which supply and demand are matched and prices stable. DERIVATIVES: e·qui·lib·ri·al / -ˈlibrēəl/ adj.

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# Equilibrium (in Occultism)

According to occultist Éliphas Lévi, magic harmony is said to depend upon equilibrium. In ceremonial magic operations, if the will of the operator is always at the same tension and directed along the same line, moral impotence will ensue. On the other hand, mediums who submit themselves passively to psychic forces are equally unbalanced. Lévi extols the all-powerful action of harmony in exalting the soul and giving it rule over the senses, guided by the will.

### Sources:

Lévi, Éliphas. Transcendental Magic. New York: Samuel Weiser, 1972.

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## equilibrium

equilibrium In geomorphology, a steady state of balance between the processes acting on a landscape and the resisting Earth materials so that over time the geometric shape of the landscape is little changed. Individual land-forms, such as river profiles and hillslopes, may show similar balance. As it is recognized that a perfect balance cannot exist between input and output of energy, the terms ‘quasi-’ and ‘dynamic’ equilibrium are sometimes used. Quasi-equilibrium is an apparent equilibrium which is recognized for short periods of time.

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## equilibrium

equilibrium In physics, a stable state in which any variety of forces acting on a particle or object negate each other, resulting in no net force. While thought of as a state of balance or rest, an object with constant velocity is also said to be in equilibrium. The term can also be ascribed to a body with a constant temperature; this is known as thermic equilibrium.

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## equilibrium

equilibrium XVII. — L. æquilībrium, f. æqui- EQUI- + lībra balance.

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## equilibrium

equilibrium •columbium •erbium, terbium, ytterbium •scandium • compendium •palladium, radium, stadium, vanadium •medium, tedium •cryptosporidium, cymbidium, idiom, iridium, rubidium •indium •exordium, Gordium, rutherfordium •odeum, odium, plasmodium, podium, sodium •allium, gallium, pallium, thallium, valium •berkelium, epithelium, helium, nobelium, Sealyham •beryllium, cilium, psyllium, trillium •linoleum, petroleum •thulium • cadmium •epithalamium, prothalamium •gelsemium, premium •chromium, encomium •holmium • fermium •biennium, millennium •cranium, geranium, germanium, Herculaneum, titanium, uranium •helenium, proscenium, rhenium, ruthenium, selenium •actinium, aluminium, condominium, delphinium •ammonium, euphonium, harmonium, pandemonium, pelargonium, plutonium, polonium, zirconium •neptunium •europium, opium •aquarium, armamentarium, barium, caldarium, cinerarium, columbarium, dolphinarium, frigidarium, herbarium, honorarium, planetarium, rosarium, sanitarium, solarium, sudarium, tepidarium, terrarium, vivarium •atrium •delirium, Miriam •equilibrium, Librium •yttrium •auditorium, ciborium, conservatorium, crematorium, emporium, moratorium, sanatorium, scriptorium, sudatorium, vomitorium •opprobrium •cerium, imperium, magisterium •curium, tellurium •potassium • axiom • calcium •francium • lawrencium • americium •Latium, solatium •lutetium, technetium •Byzantium • strontium • consortium •protium • promethium • lithium •alluvium, effluvium •requiem • colloquium • gymnasium •caesium (US cesium), magnesium, trapezium •Elysium • symposium