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Electronics

Electronics

Electronics is the branch of physics (the science of matter and energy) that deals with the flow of electrons and other carriers of electric charge. This flow of electric charge is known as electric current, and a closed path through which current travels is called an electric circuit.

The modern era of electronics originated in the early twentieth century with the invention of the electron tube. An electron tube is a device that stores electric charges and amplifies (intensifies or strengthens) electronic signals. In 1947 the industry took a giant leap forward when American physicists John Bardeen (19081991), Walter Brattain (19021987), and William Shockley (19101989) developed the smaller, more efficient transistor, which led to a new generation of miniature electronics. In the late 1950s, American physicist Robert Noyce (19271990) invented the silicon integrated circuitan even more efficient way to process electronic impulses that has carried the electronics industry into the computer age. The 1980s saw the development of circuits employing very-largescale integration (VLSI). VLSI technology involves placement of 100,000 or more transistors on a single silicon chip. VLSI greatly expands the computational speed and ability of computers. Microcomputers, medical equipment, video cameras, and communication satellites are just a few examples of devices made possible by integrated circuits. Researchers believe that, in the future, new technologies may make it possible to fit one billion or more transistors on a single chip.

Of the many forms of electronics, none has helped transform our lives more than digital electronics, which began in the 1970s. The personal computer is one of the best examples of this transformation because it has simplified tasks that were difficult or impossible for individuals to complete.

Today electronics has a vast array of applications including television, computers, microwave ovens, radar, radio, sound recording and reproduction equipment, video technology, and X-ray tubes.

[See also Electric current; Transistor; Vacuum tube ]

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electronics

electronics, science and technology based on and concerned with the controlled flow of electrons or other carriers of electric charge, especially in semiconductor devices. It is one of the principal branches of electrical engineering. The invention of the transistor, announced in 1948, and the subsequent development of integrated circuits have brought about revolutionary changes in electronics, which was previously based on the technology of the electron tube. The miniaturization and savings in power brought about by these developments have allowed electronic circuits to be packaged more densely, making possible compact computers, advanced radar and navigation systems, and other devices that use very large numbers of components (see microelectronics). It has also brought to the consumer such items as smaller and more reliable radio and television receivers, advanced sound- and video-recording and reproducing systems, microwave ovens, cellular telephones, and powerful yet inexpensive personal computers. The consumer electronics industry—which began in 1920 when radio broadcasting started in the United States—accounts for annual sales of close to $50 billion in the United States alone. Because of advances in electronics manufacturing technology, the cost of electronic products often decreases even as quality and reliability increase. Power requirements are continually reduced, allowing greater portability.

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"electronics." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"electronics." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 20, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/electronics

"electronics." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved July 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/electronics

Electronics

Electronics

A later development of the work of Albert Abrams (1863-1924) that employs therapeutic apparatus to produce shortwave low-power electromagnetic and alternating magnetic currents to correct disease conditions. Abrams believed that diseases produced peculiar radiations, and that these radiations in turn produce a reflex in living tissue that can be detected by apparatuses and normalized by the appropriate electro-magnetic energy produced by other apparatuses.

In 1922 the College of Electronic Medicine was founded in San Francisco. It was superseded in 1947 by the Electronic Medical Foundation. The magazine Physio-Clinical Medicine, started in 1916, later became the Electronic Medical Digest, reviewing a wide range of developments relating to electromagnetic theories and research in cell radiation and disease therapies.

Sources:

Abrams, Albert. Human Energy. San Francisco: The Author, 1914.

Barr, James. Abrams' Methods of Diagnosis and Treatment. London, 1925.

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"Electronics." Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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electronics

electronics Study and use of circuits based on the conduction of electricity through valves and semiconductors. The diode valve, invented by John Fleming, and the triode valve, invented by Lee De Forest, provided the basic components for all the electronics of radio, television and radar until the end of World War 2. In 1948, a team led by William Shockley produced the first semiconducting transistor. Semiconductor devices do not require the high operating voltages of valves and can be miniaturized as an integrated circuit (IC). This has led to the production of computers and automatic control devices. See also cathode-ray tube; electron; microelectronics; printed circuit; thermionics

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"electronics." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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electronics

e·lec·tron·ics / ilekˈträniks; ˌēlek-/ • pl. n. [usu. treated as sing.] the branch of physics and technology concerned with the design of circuits using transistors and microchips, and with the behavior and movement of electrons in a semiconductor, conductor, vacuum, or gas: electronics is seen as a growth industry [as adj.] electronics engineers. ∎  [treated as pl.] circuits or devices using transistors, microchips, and other components.

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"electronics." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Jul. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"electronics." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 20, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/electronics

"electronics." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved July 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/electronics