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halogen

halogen (hăl´əjĕn) [Gr.,=salt-bearing], any of the chemically active elements found in Group 17 of the periodic table; the name applies especially to fluorine (symbol F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), and iodine (I). Astatine (At), formerly known as alabamine, is a radioactive element also classed as a halogen; its most stable isotope (which does not occur in nature) has a half-life of less than 81/2 hr. The chemical and physical properties of astatine are not well known; it is believed to resemble iodine. The halogens are the best-defined family of chemical elements. Chemically they closely resemble one another; they are nonmetallic and form monovalent negative ions. They also exhibit an almost perfect gradation of physical properties. Fluorine, a pale yellow gas, is the least dense and chemically the most active, displacing the other halogens from their compounds and even displacing oxygen from water. Chlorine, a yellow-green gas, is more dense and less reactive than fluorine. Bromine is a dark red liquid. Iodine is a grayish black solid and is the least chemically active of the four; however, among the nonmetals only oxygen is more reactive than iodine. Pure halogens exist as diatomic molecules, e.g., Cl2; they form interhalogen compounds, i.e., compounds between two halogens. The halogens form numerous compounds with other elements. With hydrogen they form hydrogen halides, whose water solutions are called hydrohalic acids, e.g., the water solution of hydrogen chloride is called hydrochloric acid. They form numerous metal halides, or salts, e.g., sodium chloride, common table salt. They also form halocarbons, compounds with carbon and often other elements such as hydrogen and oxygen. Chloroform, iodoform, and carbon tetrachloride are halocarbons. Some other halogen compounds are calomel (mercurous chloride), fluorite, sal ammoniac (ammonium chloride), corrosive sublimate (mercuric chloride), and chlorine bleaches.

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"halogen." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"halogen." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved June 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/halogen

halogen

hal·o·gen / ˈhaləjən/ • n. Chem. any of the elements fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine, occupying group VIIA (17) of the periodic table. They are reactive nonmetallic elements that form strongly acidic compounds with hydrogen, from which simple salts can be made. ∎  [as adj.] denoting lamps and radiant heat sources using a filament surrounded by the vapor of iodine or another halogen: halogen headlights. DERIVATIVES: hal·o·gen·ic / ˌhaləˈjenik/ adj.

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"halogen." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"halogen." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 22, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/halogen-0

"halogen." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved June 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/halogen-0

halogen

halogen Elements (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine and astatine) belonging to group VII of the periodic table. They react with most other elements and with organic compounds. Fluorine is the most reactive and radioactive astatine is the least reactive. The halogens are highly electronegative; they react strongly because they require only one electron to achieve the ‘stable 8’ inert gas configuration. They produce crystalline salts (halides) containing negative ions of the type F and Cl.

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"halogen." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"halogen." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (June 22, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/halogen

"halogen." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved June 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/halogen

halogen

halogen (hal-ŏ-jen) n. any one of the related elements fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine.

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"halogen." A Dictionary of Nursing. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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halogen

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"halogen." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"halogen." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved June 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/halogen