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Elements

ELEMENTS

CONCEPT

The elements are at the heart of chemistry, and indeed they are at the heart of life as well. Every physical substance encountered in daily life is either an element, or more likely a compound containing more than one element. There are millions of compounds, but only about 100 elements, of which only 88 occur naturally on Earth. How can such vast complexity be created from such a small amount of elements? Consider the English alphabet, with just 26 letters, with which an almost infinite number of things can be said or written. Even more is possible with the elements, which greatly outnumber the letters of the alphabet. Despite the relatively great quantity of elements, however, just two make up almost the entire mass of the universeand these two are far from abundant on Earth. A very small number of elements, in fact, are essential to life on this planet, and to the existence of human beings.

HOW IT WORKS

The Focal Point of Chemistry

Like physics, chemistry is concerned with basic, underlying processes that explain how the universe works. Indeed, these two sciences, along with astronomy and a few specialized fields, are the only ones that address phenomena both on the Earth and in the universe as a whole. By contrast, unless or until life on another planet is discovered, biology has little concern with existence beyond Earth's atmosphere, except inasmuch as the processes and properties in outer space affect astronauts.

While physics and chemistry address many of the same fundamental issues, they do so in very different ways. To make a gross generalizationsubject to numerous exceptions, but nonetheless useful in clarifying the basic difference between the two sciencesphysicists are concerned with external phenomena, and chemists with internal ones.

For instance, when physicists and chemists study the interactions between atoms, unless physicists focus on some specialized area of atomic research, they tend to treat all atoms as more or less the same. Chemists, on the other hand, can never treat atoms as though they are just undifferentiated particles colliding in space. The difference in structure between one kind of atom and another, in fact, is the starting-point of chemical study.

Structure of the Atom

An atom is the fundamental particle in a chemical element, or a substance that cannot be broken down into another substance by chemical means. Clustered at the center, or nucleus, of the atom are protons, which have a positive electric charge, and neutrons, which possess no charge.

Spinning around the nucleus are electrons, which are negatively charged. The vast majority of the atom's mass is made up by the protons and neutrons, which have approximately the same mass, whereas that of the electron is much smaller. The mass of an electron is about 1/1836 that of proton, and 1/1839 that of a neutron.

It should be noted that the nucleus, though it constitutes most of the atom's mass, is only a tiny portion of the atom's volume. If the nucleus were the size of a grape, in fact, the electrons would, on average, be located about a mile away.

Isotopes

Atoms of the same element always have the samenumber of protons, and since this figure isunique for a given element, each element is assigned an atomic number equal to the number of protons in its nucleus. Two atoms may have the same number of protons, and thus be of the same element, yet differ in their number of neutrons. Such atoms are called isotopes.

Isotopes are generally represented as follows: where S is the symbol of the element, a is the atomic number, and m is the mass numberthe sum of protons and neutrons in the atom's nucleus. For the stable silver isotope designated as for instance, Ag is the element symbol (discussed below); 47 its atomic number; and 93 the mass number. From this, it is easy to discern that this particular stable isotope has 46 neutrons in its nucleus.

Because the atomic number of any element is established, sometimes isotopes are represented simply with the mass number thus: 93Ag. They may also be designated with a subscript notation indicating the number of neutrons, so that one can obtain this information at a glance without having to do the arithmetic. For the silver isotope shown here, this is written as Isotopes are sometimes indicated by simple nomenclature as well: for instance, carbon-12 or carbon-13.

Ions

The number of electrons in an atom is usually the same as the number of protons, and thus most atoms have a neutral charge. In certain situations, however, the atom may lose or gain one or more electrons and acquire a net charge, becoming an ion. The electrons are not "lost" when an atom becomes an ion: they simply go elsewhere.

Aluminum (Al), for instance, has an atomic number of 13, which tells us that an aluminum atom will have 13 protons. Given the fact that every proton has a positive charge, and that most atoms tend to be neutral in charge, this means that there are usually 13 electrons, with a negative charge, present in an atom of aluminum. Aluminum may, however, form an ion by losing three electrons.

CATIONS.

After its three electrons have departed, the remaining aluminum ion has a net positive charge of 3, represented as +3. How do we know this? Initially the atom had a charge of +13 + (13) = 0. With the exit of the 3 electrons, leaving behind only 10, the picture changes: now the charge is +13 + (10) = +3.

When a neutral atom loses one or more electrons, the result is a positively charged ion, or cation (pronounced KAT-ie-un). Cations are represented by a superscript number and plus sign after the element symbol: Al3+, for instance, represents the aluminum cation described above. (Some chemists represent this with the plus sign before the numberfor example, Al+3.) A cation is named after the element of which it is an ion: thus the ion we have described is called either the aluminum ion, or the aluminum cation.

ANIONS.

When a neutrally charged atom gains electrons, and as a result acquires a negative charge, this type of ion is known as an anion (AN-ie-un). Anions can be represented symbolically in much the same way of cations: Cl, for instance, is an anion of chlorine that forms when it acquires an electron, thus assuming a net charge of 1. Note that the 1 is not represented in the superscript notation, much as people do not write 101. In both cases, the 1 is assumed, whereas any number higher than 1 is shown.

The anion described here is never called a chlorine anion; rather, anions have a special nomenclature. If the anion represents, as is the case here, a single element, it is named by adding the suffix -ide to the name of the original element name: hence it would be called chloride. Other anions involve more than one element, and in these cases other rules apply for designating names. A few two-element anions use the-ide ending; such is the case, for instance, with a deadly mixture of carbon and nitrogen (CN), better known as cyanide.

For anions involving oxygen, there may be different prefixes and suffixes, depending on the relative number of oxygen atoms in the anion.

REAL-LIFE APPLICATIONS

The Periodic Table

Note that an ion is never formed by a change in the number of protons: that number, as noted earlier, is a defining characteristic of an element. If all we know about a particular atom is that it has one proton, we can be certain that it is an atom of hydrogen. Likewise, if an atom has 79 protons, it is gold.

Knowing these quantities is not a matter of memorization: rather, one can learn this and much more by consulting the periodic table of elements. The periodic table is a chart, present in virtually every chemistry classroom in the world, showing the elements arranged in order of atomic number. Elements are represented by boxes containing the atomic number, element symbol, and average atomic mass, in atomic mass units, for that particular element. Vertical columns within the periodic table indicate groups or "families" of elements with similar chemical characteristics.

These groups include alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, and noble gases. In the middle of the periodic table is a wide range of vertical columns representing the transition metals, and at the bottom of the table, separated from it, are two other rows for the lanthanides and actinides.

An Overview of the Elements

As of 2001, there 112 elements, of which 88 occur naturally on Earth. (Some sources show 92 naturally occurring elements; however, a few of the elements with atomic numbers below 92 have not actually been found in nature.) The others were created synthetically, usually in a laboratory, and because these are highly radioactive, they exist only for fractions of a second. The number of elements thus continues to grow, but these "new" elements have little to do with the daily lives of ordinary people. Indeed, this is true even for some of the naturally occurring elements: few people who are not chemically trained, for instance, are able to identify thulium, which has an atomic number of 69.

Though an element can theoretically exist as a gas, liquid, or a solid, in fact the vast majority of elements are solids. Only 11 elementsthe six noble gases, along with hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, and chlorineexist in the gaseous state at a normal temperature of about 77°F (25°C). Just two are liquids at normal temperature: mercury, a metal, and the non-metal bromine. (The metal gallium becomes liquid at just 85.6°F, or 29.76°C.) The rest are all solids.

The noble gases are monatomic, meaning that they exist purely as single atoms. So too are the "noble metals," such as gold, silver, and platinum. "Noble" in this context means "set apart": noble gases and noble metals are known for their tendency not to react to, and hence not to bond with, other elements. On the other hand, a number of other elements are described as diatomic, meaning that two atoms join to form a molecule.

Names of the Elements

ELEMENT SYMBOL.

As noted above, the periodic table includes the element symbol or chemical symbola one-or two-letter abbreviation for the name of the element. Many of these are simple one-letter designations: O for oxygen, or C for carbon. Others are two-letter abbreviations, such as Ne for neon or Si for silicon. Note that the first letter is always capitalized, and the second is always lowercase.

In many cases, the two-letter symbols indicate the first and second letters of the element's name, but this is far from universal. Cadmium, for example, is abbreviated Cd, while platinum is Pt. In other cases, the symbol seems to have nothing to do with the element name as it is normally used: for instance, Au for gold or Fe for iron.

Many of the one-letter symbols indicate elements discovered early in history. For instance, carbon is represented by C, and later "C" elements took two-letter designations: Ce for cerium, Cr for chromium, and so on. But many of those elements with apparently strange symbols were among the first discovered, and this is precisely why the symbols make little sense to a person who does not recognize the historical origins of the name.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND ON SOME ELEMENT NAMES.

For many years, Latin was the language of communication between scientists from different nations; hence the use of Latin names such as aurum ("shining dawn") for gold, or ferrum, the Latin word for iron. Likewise, lead (Pb) and sodium (Na) are designated by their Latin names, plumbum and natrium, respectively.

Some chemical elements are named for Greek or German words describing properties of the elementfor example, bromine (Br), which comes from a Greek word meaning "stench." The name of cobalt comes from a German term meaning "underground gnome," because miners considered the metal a troublemaker. The names of several elements with high atomic numbers reflect the places where they were originally discovered or created: francium, germanium, americium, californium.

Americium and californium, with atomic numbers of 95 and 98 respectively, are among those elements that do not occur naturally, but were created artificially. The same is true of several elements named after scientistsamong them einsteinium, after Albert Einstein (1879-1955), and nobelium after Alfred Nobel (1833-1896), the Swedish inventor of dynamite who established the Nobel Prize.

Abundance of Elements

IN THE UNIVERSE.

The first two elements on the periodic table, hydrogen and helium, represent 99.9% of the matter in the entire universe. This may seem astounding, but Earth is a tiny dot within the vastness of space, and hydrogen and helium are the principal elements in stars.

All elements, except for those created artificially, exist both on Earth and throughout the universe. Yet the distribution of elements on Earth is very, very different from that in other placesas well it should be, given the fact that Earth is the only planet known to support life. Hydrogen, for instance, constitutes only about 0.87%, by mass, of the elements found in the planet's crust, waters, and atmosphere. As for helium, it is not even among the 18 most abundant elements on Earth.

ON EARTH.

That great element essential to animal life, oxygen, is by far the most plentiful on Earth, representing nearly half49.2%of the total mass of atoms found on this planet. (Here the term "mass" refers to the known elemental mass of the planet's atmosphere, waters, and crust; below the crust, scientists can only speculate, though it is likely that much of Earth's interior consists of iron.) Together with silicon (25.7%), oxygen accounts for almost exactly three-quarters of the elemental mass of Earth. Add in aluminum (7.5%), iron (4.71%), calcium (3.39%), sodium (2.63%), potassium (2.4%), and magnesium (1.93%), and these eight elements make up about 97.46% of Earth's material.

In addition to hydrogen, whose distribution is given above, nine other elements account for a total of 2% of Earth's composition: titanium (0.58%), chlorine (0.19%), phosphorus (0.11%), manganese (0.09%), carbon (0.08%), sulfur (0.06%), barium (0.04%), nitrogen (0.03%), and fluorine (0.03%). The remaining 0.49% is made up of various elements.

Elements In the Human Body

Fans of science-fiction are familiar with the phrase "carbon-based life form," which is used, for instance, by aliens in sci-fi movies to describe humans. In fact, the term is a virtual redundancy on Earth, since all living things contain carbon.

Essential though it is to life, carbon as a component of the human body takes second place to oxygen, which is an even larger proportion of the body's mass65.0%than it is of the Earth. Carbon accounts for 18%, and hydrogen for 10%, meaning that these three elements make up 93% of the body's mass. Most of the remainder is taken up by 10 other elements: nitrogen (3%), calcium (1.4%), phosphorus (1.0%), magnesium (0.50%), potassium (0.34%), sulfur (0.26%), sodium (0.14%), chlorine (0.14%), iron (0.004%), and zinc (0.003%).

TRACE ELEMENTS.

As small as the amount of zinc is in the human body, there are still other elements found in even smaller quantities. These are known as trace elements, because only traces of them are present in the body. Yet they are essential to human well-being: without enough iodine, for instance, a person can develop a goiter, a large swelling in the neck area. Chromium helps the body metabolize sugars, which is why people concerned with losing weight and/or toning their bodies through exercise may take a chromium supplement.

Even arsenic, lethal in large quantities, is a trace element in the human body, and medicines for treating illnesses such as the infection known as "sleeping sickness" contain tiny amounts of arsenic. Other trace elements include cobalt, copper, fluorine, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silicon, and vanadium.

MAINTAINING AND IMPROVING HEALTH.

Though these elements are present in trace quantities within the human body, that does not mean that exposure to large amounts of them is healthy. Arsenic, of course, is a good example; so too is aluminum. Aluminum is present in unexpected places: in baked goods, for instance, where a compound containing aluminum (baking powder) is sometimes used in the leavening process; or even in cheeses, as an aid to melting when heated. The relatively high concentrations of aluminum in these products, as well as fluorine in drinking water, has raised concerns among some scientists.

Generally speaking, an element is healthy for the human body in proportion to its presence in the body. With trace elements and others that are found in smaller quantities, however, it is sometimes possible and even advisable to increase the presence of those elements by taking dietary supplements. Hence a typical multivitamin contains calcium, iron, iodine, magnesium, zinc, selenium, copper, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, boron, and vanadium.

For most of these, recommended daily allowances (RDA) have been established by the federal government. Usually, people do not take sodium as a supplement, thoughAmericans already get more than their RDA of sodium through salt, which is overly abundant in the American diet.

WHERE TO LEARN MORE

Challoner, Jack. The Visual Dictionary of Chemistry. New York: DK Publishing, 1996.

"Classification of Elements and Compounds" (Web site). <http://dl.clackamas.cc.or.us/ch104-04/classifi.htm> (May 14, 2001).

"Elements and Compounds" (Web site). <http://wine1.sb.fsu.edu/chm1045/notes/Intro/Elements/Intro02.htm> (May 14, 2001).

"Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures." Purdue University Department of Chemistry. (Web site). <http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/ch2/mix.html> (May 14, 2001).

"Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures" (Web site). <http://www.juniorcert.net/serve/cont.php3?pg=SC2CEC0339> (May 14, 2001).

Knapp, Brian J. Elements. Illustrated by David Woodroffe and David Hardy. Danbury, CT: Grolier Educational, 1996.

"MatterElements, Compounds, and Mixtures" (Web site). <http://chem.sci.gu.edu.au/help_desk/Matter.htm> (May 14, 2001).

Oxlade, Chris. Elements and Compounds. Chicago, IL: Heinemann Library, 2001.

Stwertka, Albert. A Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Zumdahl, Steven S. Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation, 4th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2000.

KEY TERMS

ANION:

The negative ion that results when an atom gains one or more electrons. An anion (pronounced "AN-ie-un") of an element is never called, for instance, the chlorine anion. Rather, for an anion involving a single element, it is named by adding the suffix -ide to the name of the original elementhence, "chloride." Other rules apply for more complex anions.

ATOM:

The smallest particle of an element. An atom can exist either alone or in combination with other atoms in a molecule. Atoms are made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons. An atom that loses orgains one or more electrons, and thus has a net charge, is an ion. Atoms that have the same number of protonsthat is, are of the same elementbut differ in number of neutrons are known as isotopes.

ATOMIC MASS UNIT:

An SI unit (abbreviated amu), equal to 1.66 · 1024 g, for measuring the mass of atoms.

ATOMIC NUMBER:

The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. Since this number is different for each element, elements are listed on the periodic table in order of atomic number.

AVERAGE ATOMIC MASS:

A figure used by chemists to specify the massin atomic mass unitsof the average atom in a large sample. If a substance is a compound, the average atomic mass of all atoms in a molecule of that substance must be added together to yield the average molecular mass of that substance.

CATION:

The positive ion that results when an atom loses one or more electrons. A cation (pronounced KAT-ie-un) is named after the element of which it is anion and thus is called, for instance, the aluminum ion or the aluminum cation.

CHEMICAL SYMBOL:

Another term for element symbol.

COMPOUND:

A substance made up of atoms of more than one element. These atoms are usually joined in molecules.

DIATOMIC:

A term describing an element that exists as molecules composed of two atoms. This is in contrast to monatomic elements.

ELECTRON:

Negatively charged particles in an atom. Electrons, which spin around the protons and neutrons that make up the atom's nucleus, constitute a very small portion of the atom's mass. The number of electrons and protons is the same, thus canceling out one another. But when an atom loses or gains one or more electrons, howeverthus becoming anionit acquires a net electric charge.

ELEMENT:

A substance made up of only one kind of atom. Unlike compounds, elements cannot be chemically broken into other substances.

ELEMENT SYMBOL:

A one-or two-letter abbreviation for the name of an element. These may be a single capitalized letter (O for oxygen), or a capitalized letter followed by a lowercase one (Ne for neon). Sometimes the second letter is not the second letter of the element name (for example, Pt for platinum). In addition, the symbol may refer to an original Greek or Latinname, rather than the name used now, is the case with Au (aurum) for gold.

ION:

An atom that has lost or gained one or more electrons, and thus has a net electric charge.

ISOTOPES:

Atoms that have an equal number of protons, and hence are of the same element, but differ in their number of neutrons.

MASS NUMBER:

The sum of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus. Where an isotope is represented, the mass number is placed above the atomic number to the left of the element symbol.

MOLECULE:

A group of atoms, usu-allybut not always representing more than one element, joined in a structure. Compounds are typically made of up molecules.

MONATOMIC:

A term describing an element that exists as single atoms. This in contrast to diatomic elements.

NEUTRON:

A subatomic particle that has no electric charge. Neutrons are found at the nucleus of an atom, alongside protons.

NUCLEUS:

The center of an atom, a region where protons and neutrons are located, and around which electrons spin.

PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS:

A chart that shows the elements arranged in order of atomic number, along with element symbol and the average atomic mass (in atomic mass units) for that particular element. Vertical columns within the periodic table indicate groups or "families" of elements with similar chemical characteristics.

PROTON:

A positively charged particle in an atom. Protons and neutrons, which together form the nucleus around which electrons spin, have approximately the same massa mass that is many times greater than that of an electron. The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is the atomic number of an element.

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Elements ( (table))

Elements

 Parentheses indicate most stable isotope; brackets enclose lower and upper bounds of weight variation.
Elements
Element Symbol Atomic Number Atomic Weight Melting Point(Degrees Celsius) Boiling Point(Degrees Celsius)
actinium Ac 89 (227) 1050. 3200. ±300
aluminum Al 13 26.98154 660.37 2467.
americium Am 95 (243) 1172. 2600.
antimony Sb 51 121.760 630.74 1750.
argon Ar 18 39.948 -189.2 -185.7
arsenic As 33 74.92160 817. (at 28 atmospheres) 613. (sublimates)
astatine At 85 (210) 302. (est.) 337. (est.)
           
barium Ba 56 137.327 725. 1640.
berkelium Bk 97 (247) 1050. 2590.
beryllium Be 4 9.01218 1278. ±5 2970.
bismuth Bi 83 208.98040 271.3 1560. ±5
bohrium Bh 107 (270)
boron B 5 [10.806; 10.821] 2300. 2550. (sublimates)
bromine Br 35 79.904 -7.2 58.78
           
cadmium Cd 48 112.411 320.9 765.
calcium Ca 20 40.078 839. ±2 1484.
californium Cf 98 (251) 900. 1470.
carbon C 6 [12.0096; 12.0116] ∼3550. 4827.
cerium Ce 58 140.116 799. 3426.
cesium Cs 55 132.90545 28.40 669.3
chlorine Cl 17 [35.446; 35.457] -100.98 -34.6
chromium Cr 24 51.9961 1857. ±20 2672.
cobalt Co 27 58.9332 1495. 2870.
copernicium Cn 112 (285)
copper Cu 29 63.546 1083.4 ±0.2 2567.
curium Cm 96 (247) 1340. ±40 3110.
           
darmstadtium Ds 110 (281)
dubnium Db 105 (268)
dysprosium Dy 66 162.500 1412. 2562.
           
einsteinium Es 99 (252) 857.
erbium Er 68 167.259 1529. 2863.
europium Eu 63 151.964 822. 1597.
           
fermium Fm 100 (257) 1527.
flerovium Fl 114 (289)
fluorine F 9 18.9984 -219.62 -188.14
francium Fr 87 (223) (27) (est.) (677) (est.)
           
gadolinium Gd 64 157.25 1313. ±1 3266.
gallium Ga 31 69.723 29.78 2403.
germanium Ge 32 72.63 937.4 2830.
gold Au 79 196.96657 1064.43 2808.
           
hafnium Hf 72 178.49 2227. ±20 4602.
hassium Hs 108 (277)
helium He 2 4.0026 <-272.2 -268.934
holmium Ho 67 164.93032 1474. 2425.
hydrogen H 1 [1.00784; 1.00811] -259.14 -252.87
           
indium In 49 114.818 156.61 2080.
iodine I 53 126.90447 113.5 184.35
iridium Ir 77 192.217 2410. 4130.
iron Fe 26 55.845 1535. 2750.
           
krypton Kr 36 83.798 -156.6 -152.30 ±0.10
           
lanthanum La 57 138.90547 921. 3457.
lawrencium Lr 103 (262) 1627.
lead Pb 82 207.2 327.502 1740.
lithium Li 3 [6.938; 6.997] 180.54 1342.
livermorium Lv 116 (292)
lutetium Lu 71 174.9668 1663. 3395.
           
magnesium Mg 12 24.3050 648.8 ±0.5 1090.
manganese Mn 25 54.93805 1244. ±3 1962.
meitnerium Mt 109 (276)
mendelevium Md 101 (258) 827.
mercury Hg 80 200.59 -38.842 356.58
molybdenum Mo 42 95.96 2617. 4612.
           
neodymium Nd 60 144.242 1021. 3068.
neon Ne 10 20.1797 -248.67 -246.048
neptunium Np 93 (237) 640. ±1 3902. (est.)
nickel Ni 28 58.6934 1453. 2732.
niobium Nb 41 92.90638 2468. ±10 4742.
nitrogen N 7 [14.00643; 14.00728] -209.86 -195.8
nobelium No 102 (259) 827.
           
osmium Os 76 190.23 3045. ±30 5027. ±100
oxygen O 8 [15.99903; 15.99977] -218.4 -182.962
           
palladium Pd 46 106.42 1554. 2970.
phosphorus P 15 30.97376 44.1 (white) 280. (white)
platinum Pt 78 195.084 1772. 3827. ±100
plutonium Pu 94 (244) 641. 3232.
polonium Po 84 (209) 254. 962.
potassium K 19 39.0983 63.25 760.
praseodymium Pr 59 140.90765 931. 3512.
promethium Pm 61 (145) 1042 3000. (est.)
protactinium Pa 91 231.03588 <1600. 4026.
           
radium Ra 88 (226) 700. 1140.
radon Rn 86 (222) -71. -61.8
rhenium Re 75 186.207 3180. 5627. (est.)
rhodium Rh 45 102.90550 1966. ±3 3727. ±100
roentgenium Rg 111 (280)
rubidium Rb 37 85.4678 38.89 686.
ruthenium Ru 44 101.07 2310. 3900.
rutherfordium Rf 104 (265)
           
samarium Sm 62 150.36 1072. ±5 1791.
scandium Sc 21 44.95591 1541. 2831.
seaborgium Sg 106 (271)
selenium Se 34 78.96 217. 684.9 ±1.0
silicon Si 14 [28.084; 28.086] 1410. 2355.
silver Ag 47 107.8682 961.93 2212.
sodium Na 11 22.98977 97.81 ±0.03 882.9
strontium Sr 38 87.62 269. 1384.
sulfur S 16 [32.059; 32.076] 112.8 444.674
           
tantalum Ta 73 180.94788 2996. 5425. ±100
technetium Tc 43 (98) 2200. 4877.
tellurium Te 52 127.60 449.5 ±0.3 989.8 ±3.8
terbium Tb 65 158.92535 1356. 3123.
thallium Tl 81 [204.382; 204.385] 303.5 1457. ±10
thorium Th 90 232.03806 1750. ∼4790.
thulium Tm 69 168.93421 1545. ±15 1947.
tin Sn 50 118.710 231.9681 2270.
titanium Ti 22 47.867 1660. ±10 3287.
tungsten W 74 183.84 3410. ±20 5660.
           
ununoctium Uuo 118 (294)
ununpentium Uup 115 (288)
ununseptium Uus 117 (294)
ununtrium Uut 113 (284)
uranium U 92 238.02891 1132.3 ±0.8 3818.
           
vanadium V 23 50.9415 1890. ±10 3380.
           
xenon Xe 54 131.293 -111.9 -107.1 ±3
           
ytterbium Yb 70 173.054 819. 1194.
yttrium Y 39 88.90585 1522. ±8 3338.
           
zinc Zn 30 65.38 419.58 907.
zirconium Zr 40 91.224 1852. ±2 4377.

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element

el·e·ment / ˈeləmənt/ • n. 1. a part or aspect of something abstract, esp. one that is essential or characteristic: the death had all the elements of a great tabloid story. ∎  a small but significant presence of a feeling or abstract quality: it was the element of danger he loved in flying. ∎  (elements) the rudiments of a branch of knowledge: legal training may include the elements of economics and political science. ∎  (often elements) a group of people of a particular kind within a larger group or organization: extreme right-wing elements in the army. ∎  Math. & Logic an entity that is a single member of a set. 2. (also chemical element) each of more than one hundred substances that cannot be chemically interconverted or broken down into simpler substances and are primary constituents of matter. Each element is distinguished by its atomic number, i.e., the number of protons in the nuclei of its atoms. ∎  any of the four substances (earth, water, air, and fire) regarded as the fundamental constituents of the world in ancient and medieval philosophy. ∎  one of these substances considered as a person's or animal's natural environment: for the islanders, the sea is their kingdom, water their element fig. she was in her element with doctors and hospitals. ∎  (the elements) the weather, esp. strong winds, heavy rain, and other kinds of bad weather: there was no barrier against the elements. ∎  (elements) (in church use) the bread and wine of the Eucharist. 3. a part in an electric teapot, heater, or stove that contains a wire through which an electric current is passed to provide heat. ∎ on some electric typewriters, a ball with raised letters that print when the keys are pressed.

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"element." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"element." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved August 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/element-1

element

element any of the four substances (earth, water, air, and fire) regarded as the fundamental constituents of the world in ancient and medieval philosophy. The word is recorded from Middle English (denoting fundamental constituents of the world or celestial objects) and comes via Old French from Latin elementum ‘principle, rudiment’, translating Greek stoikheion ‘step, component part’.

In late Middle English, elements denoted the letters of the alphabet; from this developed the sense of the rudiments of learning, the first principles of a subject.

From the mid 16th century, element (usually in plural) has also denoted the bread or wine used in the Christian Eucharist.

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"element." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"element." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Retrieved August 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/element

element

element Substance that cannot be split into simpler substances by chemical means. All atoms of a given element have the same atomic number (at.no.) and thus the same number of protons and electrons. The atoms can have different atomic mass numbers and a natural sample of an element is generally a mixture of isotopes. The known elements range from hydrogen (at.no. 1) to unnilenium (at.no. 109); elements of the first 95 atomic numbers exist in nature, the higher numbers have been synthesized. See also periodic table

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"element." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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element

element one of the four constituents of the universe (earth, water, air, fire) XIII (whence ult. the use in mod. chem. XIX); constituent portion; pl. rudiments XIV. — (O)F. élément — L. elementum esp. pl. principles, rudiments, letters of the alphabet (used to tr. Gr. stoikheîon step, base, element, etc.), of unkn. orig.
Hence elemental XV. So elementary XVII (earlier elementare XIV, -air XVI). — L. elementārius.

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"element." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Element

ELEMENT

A material factor; a basic component.

The term is used to mean one of several parts that unite to form a whole, as in elements of a criminal action or civil action. In the tort of assault and battery, an essential element of the offense would be unwanted physical contact. An element of the crime of rape is lack of consent on the part of the victim.

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"Element." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Elements

Elements.
1. In Christianity, the materials of bread and wine used in the eucharist.

2. In Hinduism, the components and forces which constitute the universe: see BHŪTA.

3. In Buddhism, constituents of appearance, dharma (2).

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"Elements." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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element

element
1. of a set. Another name for member.

2. See logic element.

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"element." A Dictionary of Computing. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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element

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superintendent, transcendent •antecedent, decedent, needn't, precedent •didn't • diffident • confident •accident • dissident •coincident, incident •oxidant • evident •improvident, provident •president, resident •strident, trident •co-respondent, correspondent, despondent, fondant, respondent •accordant, concordant, discordant, mordant, mordent •rodent •imprudent, jurisprudent, prudent, student •couldn't, shouldn't, wouldn't •impudent •abundant, redundant •decadent • verdant • infant • elephant •triumphant • sycophant • elegant •fumigant • congregant • litigant •termagant • arrogant • extravagant •pageant •cotangent, plangent, tangent •argent, Sargent, sergeant •agent • newsagent • regent •astringent, contingent, stringent •indigent • intelligent • negligent •diligent • intransigent • exigent •cogent •effulgent, fulgent, indulgent •pungent •convergent, detergent, divergent, emergent, insurgent, resurgent, urgent •bacchant • peccant • vacant • piquant •predicant • mendicant • significant •applicant • supplicant • communicant •lubricant • desiccant • intoxicant •gallant, talent •appellant, propellant, propellent, repellent, water-repellent •resemblant •assailant, inhalant •sealant • sibilant • jubilant •flagellant • vigilant • pestilent •silent •Solent, volant •coolant • virulent • purulent •ambulant, somnambulant •coagulant • crapulent • flatulent •feculent • esculent • petulant •stimulant • flocculent • opulent •postulant • fraudulent • corpulent •undulant •succulent, truculent •turbulent • violent • redolent •indolent • somnolent • excellent •insolent • nonchalant •benevolent, malevolent, prevalent •ambivalent, equivalent •garment • clement • segment •claimant, clamant, payment, raiment •ailment •figment, pigment •fitment • aliment • element •oddment •dormant, informant •moment • adamant • stagnant •lieutenant, pennant, subtenant, tenant •pregnant, regnant •remnant • complainant •benignant, indignant, malignant •recombinant • contaminant •eminent •discriminant, imminent •dominant, prominent •illuminant, ruminant •determinant • abstinent •continent, subcontinent •appurtenant, impertinent, pertinent •revenant •component, deponent, exponent, opponent, proponent •oppugnant, repugnant •immanent •impermanent, permanent •dissonant • consonant • alternant •covenant • resonant • rampant •discrepant • flippant • participant •occupant • serpent •apparent, arrant, transparent •Arendt •aberrant, deterrent, errant, inherent, knight-errant •entrant •declarant, parent •grandparent • step-parent •godparent •flagrant, fragrant, vagrant •registrant • celebrant • emigrant •immigrant • ministrant • aspirant •antiperspirant • recalcitrant •integrant • tyrant • vibrant • hydrant •migrant, transmigrant •abhorrent, torrent, warrant •quadrant • figurant • obscurant •blackcurrant, concurrent, currant, current, occurrent, redcurrant •white currant • cross-current •undercurrent •adherent, coherent, sederunt •exuberant, protuberant •reverberant • denaturant •preponderant • deodorant •different, vociferant •belligerent, refrigerant •accelerant • tolerant • cormorant •itinerant • ignorant • cooperant •expectorant • adulterant •irreverent, reverent •nascent, passant •absent •accent, relaxant •acquiescent, adolescent, albescent, Besant, coalescent, confessant, convalescent, crescent, depressant, effervescent, erubescent, evanescent, excrescent, flavescent, fluorescent, immunosuppressant, incandescent, incessant, iridescent, juvenescent, lactescent, liquescent, luminescent, nigrescent, obsolescent, opalescent, pearlescent, phosphorescent, pubescent, putrescent, quiescent, suppressant, tumescent, turgescent, virescent, viridescent •adjacent, complacent, obeisant •decent, recent •impuissant, reminiscent •Vincent • puissant •beneficent, maleficent •magnificent, munificent •Millicent • concupiscent • reticent •docent •lucent, translucent •discussant, mustn't •innocent •conversant, versant •consentient, sentient, trenchant •impatient, patient •ancient • outpatient •coefficient, deficient, efficient, proficient, sufficient •quotient • patent •interactant, reactant •disinfectant, expectant, protectant •repentant • acceptant •contestant, decongestant •sextant •blatant, latent •intermittent •assistant, coexistent, consistent, distant, equidistant, existent, insistent, persistent, resistant, subsistent, water-resistant •instant •cohabitant, habitant •exorbitant • militant • concomitant •impenitent, penitent •palpitant • crepitant • precipitant •competent, omnicompetent •irritant • incapacitant • Protestant •hesitant • visitant • mightn't • octant •remontant • constant •important, oughtn't •accountant • potent •mutant, pollutant •adjutant • executant • disputant •reluctant •consultant, exultant, resultant •combatant • omnipotent • impotent •inadvertent •Havant, haven't, savant, savante •advent •irrelevant, relevant •pursuivant • solvent • convent •adjuvant •fervent, observant, servant •manservant • maidservant •frequent, sequent •delinquent • consequent •subsequent • unguent • eloquent •grandiloquent, magniloquent •brilliant • poignant • hasn't •bezant, omnipresent, peasant, pheasant, pleasant, present •complaisant • malfeasant • isn't •cognizant • wasn't • recusant •doesn't

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"element." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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