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Four noble truths

Four noble truths (Skt., catvāri-ārya-satyāni. Pāli, cattari-ariya-saccāni). The foundation of the Buddha's insight and teaching: (i) the first truth is the recognition of the all-pervasive and universal nature of dukkha; (ii) the second truth is the recognition of what gives rise to suffering, summarized in the thirst (taṇhā, Skt., tṛṣṇa) for satisfaction in things that necessarily pass away, or for permanence (e.g. a self or soul) in the midst of the transient; (iii) the third truth is that dukkha can nevertheless be brought to cessation, by the eradication of taṇhā, and that this cessation is nirvāna; (iv) the fourth truth is the summary, in the Eight-fold Path (aṣṭangika-mārga), of the means to that eradication.

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