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shell

shell / shel/ • n. 1. the hard protective outer case of a mollusk or crustacean: cowrie shells| the technique of carving shell. ∎  the thin outer covering of an animal's egg, which is hard and fragile in that of a bird but leathery in that of a reptile. ∎  the outer case of a nut kernel or seed. ∎  the carapace of a tortoise, turtle, or terrapin. ∎  the wing cases of a beetle. ∎  the integument of an insect pupa or chrysalis. ∎  (one's shell) fig. used with reference to a state of shyness or introversion: she'll soon come out of her shell with the right encouragement. 2. something resembling or likened to a shell because of its shape or its function as an outer case: pasta shells baked pastry shells filled with cheese. ∎  the walls of an unfinished or gutted building or other structure: the hotel was a shell, the roof having collapsed completely. ∎ fig. an outer form without substance: he was a shell of the man he had been previously. ∎  a light racing boat used in the sport of crew. ∎  a woman's sleeveless sweater or blouse. ∎  the metal framework of a vehicle body. ∎  an inner or roughly made coffin. ∎  the handguard of a sword. ∎  Physics each of a set of orbitals around the nucleus of an atom, occupied or able to be occupied by electrons of similar energies. 3. an explosive artillery projectile or bomb: the sound of the shell passing over, followed by the explosion | [as adj.] shell holes. ∎  a hollow metal or paper case used as a container for fireworks, explosives, or cartridges. ∎  a cartridge. 4. Comput. short for shell program. • v. 1. [tr.] bombard with shells: the guns started shelling their positions. 2. [tr.] remove the shell or pod from (a nut or seed): they were shelling peas | [as adj.] (shelled) shelled Brazil nuts. 3. [intr.] gather seashells: there was nothing to do except swim or go shelling on the beaches. PHRASAL VERBS: shell something out (or shell out) inf. pay a specified amount of money, esp. an amount that is resented as being excessive: it doesn't make sense to shell out $8.50 for an elevator ride.DERIVATIVES: shelled adj. [in comb.] : a soft-shelled clam. shell-less adj. shell-like / -ˌlīk/ adj. shell·y / ˈshelē/ adj.

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"shell." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 19 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"shell." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 19, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/shell-2

"shell." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved August 19, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/shell-2

shell

shell, in zoology, hard outer covering secreted by an animal for protection. It is also called the test, crust, or carapace. The term usually refers to the calcareous shells of the many species of mollusk but is also applied to the exoskeleton of the crab and other crustaceans, to the bony covering of the turtle, and to the hard exterior of a bird's egg. People have made use of mollusk shells since early times as receptacles for food and water, as currency (see shell money), and for ornament. The scientific study of shells is called conchology.

See P. A. Morris, A Field Guide to the Shells (of the Atlantic coast, 1973; the Pacific, 1974); J. M. Eisenberg, A Collector's Guide to Seashells of the World (1980); The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Shells (1981); S. D. Romashko, The Shell Book (1984); K. R. Wye, The Simon & Schuster Pocket Guide to Shells of the World (1989); M. G. Harasewych and F. Moretzsohn, The Book of Shells (2010).

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"shell." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 19 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"shell." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 19, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/shell

"shell." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved August 19, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/shell

shell

shell.
1. Concrete structure evolved from work by Candela, Freyssinet, Maillart, Nervi, Nowicki, Saarinen, and Torroja, and derived from the exemplar of an eggshell. The stressed skin or shell operates with the frame to form a strong structural system.

2. Scallop.

3. Ornament called coquillage in which shells and mother-of-pearl pieces are used for effect in grottoes, marine ornament, nymphaea, etc.

Bibliography

J. Joedicke (1963);
Lewis & Darley (1986);
W. Papworth (1887)

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"shell." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Encyclopedia.com. 19 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"shell." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 19, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/shell

"shell." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Retrieved August 19, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/shell

shell

shell hard outer covering of an animal, fruit, etc.; scale or scale-like object OE.; hollow or concave object XVI; exterior cover or case (spec. one containing powder and shot) XVII. OE. (Angl.) sċell, (WS.) sċiell = (M)LG., MDu. schelle, schille, Du. schel, schil pod, rind, scale, shell, ON. skel sea-shell, Goth. skalja tile :- Gmc. *skaljō, f. *skal- (cf. SCALE1, 2).
Hence vb. XVI.

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"shell." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 19 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"shell." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 19, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/shell-4

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shell

shell In biology, the hard protective case of various molluscs. or eggs of animals, such as birds, tortoises, turtles, or snakes. The case is secreted by the epidermis of the mollusc and consists of a protein matrix strengthened by calcium carbonate. The shell of a bird is also mostly composed of calcium.

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"shell." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 19 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"shell." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 19, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/shell

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shell

shell A program that provides the user interface of an operating system and is often considered to be part of it. The main inner part of the operating system, the kernel, is thus enclosed by the shell, as in a nut. Some operating systems have a choice of shells.

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"shell." A Dictionary of Computing. . Encyclopedia.com. 19 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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shell

shell a (scallop) shell is the emblem of St James the Great. It is also known as a pilgrim's shell.

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"shell." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. 19 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"shell." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Retrieved August 19, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/shell

shell

she'll / shēl/ • contr. of she shall; she will.

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"shell." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 19 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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shell

shellAdele, Aix-la-Chapelle, aquarelle, artel, au naturel, bagatelle, béchamel, befell, bell, belle, boatel, Brunel, Cadell, carousel, cartel, cell, Chanel, chanterelle, clientele, Clonmel, compel, Cornell, crime passionnel, dell, demoiselle, dispel, dwell, el, ell, Estelle, excel, expel, farewell, fell, Fidel, fontanelle, foretell, Gabrielle, gazelle, gel, Giselle, hell, hotel, impel, knell, lapel, mademoiselle, maître d'hôtel, Manuel, marcel, matériel, mesdemoiselles, Michel, Michelle, Miguel, misspell, morel, moschatel, Moselle, motel, muscatel, nacelle, Nell, Nobel, Noel, organelle, outsell, Parnell, pell-mell, personnel, propel, quell, quenelle, rappel, Raquel, Ravel, rebel, repel, Rochelle, Sahel, sardelle, sell, shell, show-and-tell, smell, Snell, spell, spinel, swell, tell, undersell, vielle, villanelle, well, yell •Buñuel • Pachelbel • handbell •barbell • harebell • decibel • doorbell •cowbell • bluebell • Annabel •mirabelle • Christabel • Jezebel •Isabel, Isobel •nutshell • infidel • asphodel •zinfandel • Grenfell • Hillel • parallel •Cozumel • caramel • Fresnel •pimpernel • pipistrelle • Tricel •filoselle

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"shell." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 19 Aug. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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