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Newcastle disease

Newcastle disease, pneumoencephalitis, acute viral disease of domestic poultry. Newcastle disease is characterized by sneezing, coughing, and nervous behavior. Affected birds may show tremors, circling, falling, twisting of the head and neck, or complete paralysis. Mortality reaches 90% in very young birds but adult mortality is very low. Among affected laying hens, egg quantity and quality drop sharply at first but usually return to former levels within four to eight weeks. In humans the virus causes only a temporary conjunctivitis. The disease can be controlled in poultry by sanitary management and isolation of flocks, and by live-virus and inactivated vaccines administered by injection or in eye-drops, aerosol sprays, or drinking water.

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"Newcastle disease." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Sep. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Newcastle disease." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved September 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/newcastle-disease

Newcastle disease

Newcastle disease An acute, infectious disease which affects birds, including domestic fowl. Although not necessarily fatal, the disease is economically important since affected birds are less productive. The disease affects mainly the respiratory tract, but the nervous system may become involved. Mortality rates vary. It is caused by a paramyxovirus.

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"Newcastle disease." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Sep. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Newcastle disease." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 22, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/newcastle-disease

"Newcastle disease." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Retrieved September 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/newcastle-disease

Newcastle disease

Newcastle disease An acute, infectious disease which affects birds, including domestic fowl. Although not necessarily fatal, the disease is economically important since affected birds are less productive. The disease affects mainly the respiratory tract, but the nervous system may become involved. Mortality rates vary. It is caused by a paramyxovirus.

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Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

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"Newcastle disease." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Encyclopedia.com. 22 Sep. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Newcastle disease." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 22, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/newcastle-disease-0

"Newcastle disease." A Dictionary of Zoology. . Retrieved September 22, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/newcastle-disease-0