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Sage

Sage

Description

Sage (Salvia officinalis ) is native to the Mediterranean and naturalized throughout Europe and North America. Known as garden sage, meadow sage, and true sage, this pungent herb is a member of the Lamiaceae, or mint, family. The genus name is taken from the Latin salvare meaning "to save." The specific name officinalis indicates that sage was included on official lists of medicinal herbs. There are numerous species of sage, including clary sage (S. sclarea ) named because of its traditional use as an eyewash. Native Americans used the roots and leaves of lyre-leafed sage (S. lyrata L. ), also known as cancerweed, as a salve for sores and in a tea to treat colds and coughs. Another species, known as divine sage (S. divinorum ), a native of Oaxaca, Mexico, has been used for centuries by local shamans to achieve altered states of consciousness in healing rituals. There are many more garden varieties, including red or purple sage (S. officinalis purpurascens ), which is valued particularly for its medicinal purposes.

Sage thrives in full sun and well-drained soils, growing wild in some areas. It is a hardy evergreen shrub with a deep taproot and an erect root stalk that produces woody, square, slightly downy, branching stems that may reach a height of 4 ft (1.2 m). This familiar garden perennial has long, light-green leaf stalks that bear simple opposite lance- or oval-shaped leaves. The strong and pliable leaves are veined, with a velvet-like somewhat crinkled texture and may grow to 2 in (5.1 cm) long in some varieties. Leaf margins resemble a fine embroidery finish with rounded minutely toothed edges. They are a gray-green on the top and lighter on the underside. The entire plant is strongly aromatic, with a familiar pungency. Fresh leaves are bitter to the taste. Sage blossoms in the middle of summer with small white, blue, or purple flowers.

General use

Sage is a celebrated herb long valued for its many uses in medicine, magic, and meal preparation. Poets, shamans, herbalists, cooks, emperors, and common folk have touted its virtues for thousands of years. The Romans revered the herb as a sacred plant, and the Egyptians used it to treat the plague. Nicholas Culpeper, the seventeenth-century herbalist and astrologer, believed sage was under the dominion of Jupiter. Folk belief placed the herb under the influence of Venus, and sage was traditionally used to aid conception. One folk tradition encouraged eating a bit of sage each day during the month of May to assure immortality. Although it failed to live up to this promise, sage was traditionally planted on graves.

Sage's main constituents include volatile oil, diterpene bitters , thujone, camphor, tannins, triterpenoids, resin, flavonoids, estrogenic substances, phenolic acids, including rosmarinic and caffeic acids, and saponins. It acts as a carminative, antiperspirant, antispasmodic, astringent, antiseptic, and antibiotic. More recently, sage has been discovered to have antiallergic effects.

Sage has been used as a general tonic. It is the preferred beverage tea in many cultures, particularly in China, where the root of the species S. miltiorrhiza, known as dan shen, is used for its soothing and healing qualities. Sage has antioxidant properties that have recently been used by the food industry to improve the stability of oils that must be kept in storage for long periods of time.

Sage is also high in calcium . It provides potassium, magnesium , and zinc as well as vitamins C and B-complex. Sage is calming to the central nervous system and may reduce anxiety . It can soothe spasms in smooth and skeletal muscles. Sage is a bitter digestive stimulant and acts to relieve digestive problems. The herb also contains estrogenic substances that help to regulate menstruation .

Taken cold, the tea is astringent and diuretic, and will help to reduce night sweats in menopausal women and reduce milk flow in breast-feeding mothers. Taken hot, a sage infusion acts as an expectorant and is good for common colds and flu. A strong infusion of sage used as a hair rinse may darken hair color and help reduce hair loss . The antibacterial properties in sage make it a useful mouthwash for gingivitis and an antiseptic sore throat gargle. Sage is still listed in the United States Pharmacopoeia as a treatment for bleeding gums and sore throats. A tea made from the leaves may be used as an antiseptic wash for wounds and sores. Crushed leaves may be applied to relieve insect bites. The powdered herb, added to toothpaste and powders, helps to whiten teeth.

Some research indicates that sage may boost insulin action and be helpful to treat non-insulin dependent diabetes. The herb may reduce blood sugar levels and promote bile flow. Among its many virtues, sage is said to improve memory and bring prosperity to the household. Dried sage, burned as a smudge, is used in Native American rituals as a purifying and cleansing herb believed to promote healing, wisdom, protection, and longevity.

Preparations

The leaf is the medicinal part of the herb. Both fresh and dried leaves may be used for medicinal or culinary purposes. The leaves are harvested when the herb begins to flower in the summer of its second year. The leaves are removed from the woody branches and spread in a single layer on a tray or screen in a warm, airy, and shady place. Exposure to direct sunlight during the drying process will result in a significant loss of the volatile oil. Dried leaves are stored in a dark, airtight container.

To make an infusion, 1 pint of nonchlorinated water that has just reached the boiling point is poured over 23 tsp of dried or fresh sage leaves in a glass container. The mixture is covered and steeped for 1015 minutes. This liquid can be drunk warm or cold, up to 3 cups daily, or used as a gargle or hair rinse.

Tinctures of sage are available commercially. A standard dose is 1640 drops, taken up to three times daily.

To make a sage compress, a clean cotton cloth is soaked in an infusion of sage leaves and then applied to wounds or sores to aid healing.

Precautions

Sage preparations in medicinal doses should not be used during pregnancy , although use of small amounts of sage for culinary purposes is safe. Breast-feeding women should avoid sage unless they are using the herb to reduce the flow of breast milk when weaning. People with epilepsy should not use sage due to the thujone content in the herb. Thujone may trigger convulsions in these people, and the essential oil contains as much as 25% thujone. The essential oils may accumulate in the system, so long-term use of essential oils (more than two weeks at a time) should be avoided. Those allergic to sage or other plants in the mint family should avoid this herb.

Side effects

There are no adverse side effects when sage is taken in designated therapeutic doses. However, sage may interfere with absorption of iron and other minerals

Interactions

As of 2002, no interactions have been reported between sage and standard prescription medications.

Resources

BOOKS

The Herbal Healer, Prevention Health Library. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press, Inc., 1998.

McIntyre, Anne. The Medicinal Garden. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1997.

PDR for Herbal Medicines. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, 1998.

Prevention's 200 Herbal Remedies, 3rd edition. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press, Inc., 1997.

Reid, Daniel. Chinese Herbal Medicine. Boston, MA: Shambhala, 1996.

PERIODICALS

Miura, K., H. Kikuzaki, and N. Nakatani. "Antioxidant Activity of Chemical Components from Sage (Salvia officinalis L. ) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L. ) Measured by the Oil Stability Index Method." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50 (March 27, 2002): 1845-1851.

Shi, T. Y., and H. M. Kim. "Inhibition of Immediate-Type Allergic Reactions by the Aqueous Extract of Salvia plebeia." Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology 24 (May 2002): 303-314.

Zainuddin, A., J. Pokorny, and R. Venskutonis. "Antioxidant Activity of Sweetgrass (Hierochloe odorata Wahlnb. ) Extract in Lard and Rapeseed Oil Emulsions." Nahrung 46 (February 2002): 15-17.

ORGANIZATIONS

United States Pharmacopoeia (USP). 12601 Twinbrook Parkway, Rockville, MD 20852. (800) 822-8772. <www.usp.org>.

OTHER

"1001 Herbs for a Healthy Life." <www.herb.com>.

Clare Hanrahan

Rebecca J. Frey, PhD

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sage

sage, any species of the large genus Salvia, aromatic herbs or shrubs of the family Labiatae (mint family). The common sage of herb gardens is S. officinalis, a strongly scented shrubby perennial, native from S Europe to Asia Minor. The dried leaves are used as seasoning, especially in dressings for meat and poultry and also in sage cheese; sage tea, once popular as a beverage, has also been used as a domestic remedy for colds and other ailments and as a hair rinse. The oil is used in medicinals and flavorings and sometimes in perfumery. Prized since ancient times, common sage was thought to prolong life and to increase wisdom by strengthening the memory—whence the name.

The ornamental sages are often popularly called salvia. Of these the scarlet sage (S. splendens), native to Brazil, is best known. Clary (S. sclarea), native from the Mediterranean region to Iran, is a biennial sage whose seeds were once used to "clear the eye" ; it has bluish or pinkish flowers, and its oil is sometimes used similarly to that of the common sage.

The seeds of some species of W North America, e.g., the thistle sage (S. carduacea) of California, were used by Native Americans for a flour and a beverage. Another species is S. carnosa, the purple sage of the western deserts. S. divinorum, native to S Mexico and known as diviner's sage or magic mint, has psychoactive properties and is used as a hallucinogenic drug. Most sages are good honey plants.

One of the lantanas (see verbena) is sometimes called red or yellow sage. True sages are classified in the division Magnoliophyta, class Magnoliopsida, order Lamiales, family Labiatae.

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sage

sage1 / sāj/ • n. 1. an aromatic plant (Salvia officinalis) of the mint family, with grayish-green leaves that are used as a culinary herb, native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean. 2. (also white sage) either of two bushy North American plants with silvery-gray leaves: ∎  an aromatic plant (Artemisia ludoviciana) of the daisy family, valued by some for its cleansing properties and as an incense. ∎  a plant (Krascheninnikovia lanata) of the goosefoot family. sage2 • n. a profoundly wise man, esp. one who features in ancient history or legend. • adj. having, showing, or indicating profound wisdom: they nodded in agreement with these sage remarks. DERIVATIVES: sage·ly adv. sage·ness n.

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sage

sage1 in traditional belief, this plant grows best either under the care of the dominant partner of a marriage, or when the wife is dominant.

Sage was formerly regarded as having medicinal properties, and the name comes (in Middle English via Old French) from Latin salvia ‘healing plant’, from salvus ‘safe’.

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sage

sage Common name for a number of plants of the mint family (Lamiaceae/Labiatae) native to the Mediterranean region. The best-known is Salvia officinalis, an aromatic perennial herb used widely for seasoning. Height: 15–38cm (6–15in).

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sage

sage2 a profoundly wise man, especially one who features in ancient history or legend; the word comes (in Middle English, as an adjective, via Old French) from Latin sapere ‘be wise’.

See also Seven Sages at seven.

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sage

sage Leaf of the Dalmatian sage, Salvia officinalis; fragrant and spicy; used to flavour meat and fish dishes, and in poultry stuffing. Other sages (Greek, Spanish, English) differ in flavour from the Dalmatian variety.

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sage

sage1 plant of the genus Salvia. XIV. ME. sauge — (O)F. :- L. salvia ‘the healing plant’, f. salvus uninjured (SAFE1).

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sage

sage2 wise XIII; sb. man of profound wisdom XIV. — (O)F. :- Gallo-Rom. *sapius, f. sapere be wise (cf. SAPIENT).

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sage

sage See SALVIA.

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sage

sageage, assuage, backstage, cage, downstage, engage, enrage, gage, gauge, mage, multistage, offstage, onstage, Osage, page, Paige, rage, rampage, sage, stage, swage, under-age, upstage, wage •greengage • ribcage • birdcage •teenage • saxifrage • outrage •space-age

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SAGE

SAGE (seɪdʒ) Military (USA, Canada) semiautomatic ground environment

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