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Parsley

Parsley

Description

Parsley (Petroselinum crispum and P. sativum ) is a member of the Apiaceae family of plants. Relatives of this common culinary herb include the garden vegetables carrot, parsnip, and celery. Parsley belongs to the same family as poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L. ), a deadly narcotic herb. Parsley is native to the Mediterranean area but is now naturalized and cultivated throughout the world. Nicolas Culpeper, the seventeenth-century English herbalist and astrologer, placed parsley under the dominion of the planet Mercury. Common names for this herb include parsley breakstone, garden parsley, rock parsley, persely, and petersylinge. A variety known as Hamburg parsley (P. crispum, "Tuberosum" ), first cultivated in Holland, has a root as much as six times as large as garden parsley.

In ancient times parsley was dedicated to Persephone, the wife of Hades and goddess of the underworld. Parsley is slow to germinate. Folk legend explains this characteristic with the myth that parsley must first visit Hades seven times before it may freely germinate and flourish on the earth. It was also believed that the herb would flourish only in gardens where a strong woman presides over the household. Parsley was used as a ceremonial herb in ancient Greek and Roman cultures. The herb was sprinkled on corpses to cover the stench, and planted on the graves of loved ones. Roman gladiators ate parsley before facing foes in the arena. Victorious Greek athletes were crowned with parsley. In the Middle Ages this lovely herb was known as merry parsley and was credited with lethal powers. It was believed that one could bring certain death to an adversary by pulling a parsley root from the earth while calling out the enemy's name.

Parsley is a self-seeding biennial that thrives in rich, moist soil in full sun or partial shade. It grows from a single spindle-shaped taproot producing smooth, many-branched and juicy stems. The bright green leaves are feather-like in appearance, tri-pinnate and finely divided. Some varieties are flat-leafed, others are more compact and curly. Diminutive five-petaled flowers are yellow-green and borne in dense, flat-topped clusters. They bloom in midsummer. The gray-brown seeds are tiny, ribbed and ovate (egg-shaped). Parsley can grow as much as 3 ft (1 m) tall in its second year as the flower-bearing stems become nearly leafless and reach for the sun.

General use

Parsley's taproot, leaves, and seeds are used medicinally. The leaf is used extensively as a culinary herb and garnish. Parsley's volatile oil, particularly the oil from the seed, contains the chemicals apiole, also known as parsley camphor, and myristicin in varying quantities depending on the variety of parsley. These constituents are diuretic, and also act as uterine stimulants. The diuretic effect of parsley appears to be related to increased retention of potassium in the small intestine.

Internal uses

In folk tradition, parsley has been used to promote menstruation , facilitate childbirth , and increase female libido. Its emmenagogic properties can bring on delayed menstruation. Parsley juice also inhibits the secretion of histamine; it is useful in treating hives and relieving other allergy symptoms. A decoction of parsley root can help eliminate bloating and reduce weight by eliminating excess water gain. Parsley has also been used traditionally as a liver tonic and as a means of breaking up kidney stones . The German Commission E, an advisory panel on herbal medicines, has approved parsley for use in the prevention and treatment of kidney stones. The saponin content of parsley may help relieve coughs. Parsley root is laxative and its carminative action can relieve flatulence and colic . Parsley is rich in vitamins and minerals, including A and C, as well as calcium , thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, zinc , potassium, and iron . The boron and fluorine in parsley give strength to the bones. Parsley's high chlorophyll content makes this beneficial herb a natural as a tasty breath freshener.

More recently, the natural deodorizing activity of parsley has been put to use by the food industry. More particularly, parsley can be added to processed foods containing onions or garlic in order to minimize the odors associated with these vegetables.

External uses

The freshly gathered leaves of parsley have been used as a poultice to relieve breast tenderness in lactating women. Parsley poultices may also soothe tired, irritated eyes, and speed the healing of bruises . The juice will relieve the itch and sting of insect bites, and serves well as a mosquito repellent. A juice-soaked gauze pad can be applied to relieve earache or toothache , or used as a face wash to lighten freckles. The powdered seeds, sprinkled on the hair and massaged into the scalp for three days, are a folk remedy said to stimulate hair growth. Parsley has also been used as a hair rinse in efforts to eradicate head lice.

Preparations

The root and seed of parsley should be harvested in the fall from plants in the second year of growth. The leaves can be harvested throughout the growing season. It is important not to confuse wild parsley with the herb Aethusa cynapium, also known as "fool's parsley." It would be a toxic mistake.

After harvesting, remove parsley leaves from the stems and place them in a single layer on a drying tray out of direct sunlight in an airy room. When the herb is thoroughly dry, store it in tightly sealed, clearly labeled dark glass containers.

Decoction: Many of parsley's medicinal properties are concentrated in the root and are best extracted by decoction. Add about 1 tsp of thinly-sliced fresh or dried parsley root to 8 oz of cold water in a glass or ceramic pot. Bring to a boil; reduce heat and simmer for about ten minutes and infuse for an additional ten minutes. Drink up to three cups daily.

Infusion: Place 2 oz of fresh parsley leaves or root in a warmed glass container. Bring 2.5 cups of fresh nonchlorinated water to the boiling point and add it to the herbs. Cover and infuse the tea for about ten minutes, then strain. Drink the herb after the infusion cools. The prepared tea can be kept for about two days in the refrigerator. Parsley tea may be enjoyed by the cupful up to three times a day.

Tincture: Combine 4 oz of finely-cut fresh or powdered dry herb with 1 pt of brandy, gin, or vodka in a glass container. There should be enough alcohol to cover the plant parts and have a 50/50 ratio of alcohol to water. Place the mixture away from light for about two weeks, shaking several times each day. Strain and store in a tightly capped dark glass bottle. A standard dose is 1/21 tsp of the tincture up to three times a day

Juice: Large amounts of organic fresh parsley are needed for juicing. An electric home juicer or food processor may be used. Squeeze any pulp through a sieve to extract all the juice. Prepare parsley juice fresh as needed, and store in clearly labeled glass containers. Keep refrigerated.

Precautions

A chemical found in the oil-rich seeds of parsley has abortifacient properties. For this reason, women should

not use parsley during pregnancy or lactation. Parsley irritates the epithelial tissues of the kidney, increasing blood flow and filtration rate; therefore persons with kidney disease should not take this herb internally without consultation with a qualified herbalist or physician. According to the PDR for Herbal Medicine, the daily dose of parsley in medicinal preparations is 2.1 oz (6 g). Parsley's volatile oil is toxic in high doses, and overdose can lead to poisonings.

Side effects

Parsley contains furocoumarinscompounds that can cause photosensitivity in fair-skinned persons exposed to sunlight after "intensive skin contact" with the freshly harvested herb. Parsley may also cause allergy in sensitive persons.

Interactions

No interactions have been reported between parsley and standard allopathic medications.

Resources

BOOKS

Coon, Nelson. An American Herbal: Using Plants For Healing. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press, 1979.

Duke, James A., Ph.D. The Green Pharmacy. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press, 1997.

Foster, Steven, and James A. Duke. Peterson Field Guides, Eastern/Central Medicinal Plants. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1990.

Hoffmann, David. The New Holistic Herbal, 2nd ed. Boston: Element, 1986.

Hutchens, Alma R. A Handbook of Native American Herbs. Boston: Shambhala Publications, Inc., 1992.

PDR for Herbal Medicines. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, 1998.

Tyler, Varro E., Ph.D. Herbs of Choice. New York: Pharmaceutical Products Press, The Haworth Press, Inc., 1994.

Weiss, Gaea, and Shandor Weiss. Growing & Using the Healing Herbs. New York: Wings Books, 1992.

PERIODICALS

Kreydiyyeh, S. I., and J. Usta. "Diuretic Effect and Mechanism of Action of Parsley." Journal of Ethnopharmacology 79 (March 2002): 353-357.

Negishi, O., T. Negishi, and T. Ozawa. "Effects of Food Materials on Removal of Allium-specific Volatile Sulfur Compounds." Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 50 (June 19, 2002): 3856-3861.

ORGANIZATIONS

United States Department of Agriculture. Washington, DC 20250. <www.usda.gov>.

Clare Hanrahan

Rebecca J. Frey, PhD

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"Parsley." Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine. . Retrieved June 26, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/parsley

parsley

parsley, Mediterranean aromatic herb (Petroselinum crispum or Apium petroselinum) of the carrot family, cultivated since the days of the Romans for its foliage, used in cookery as a seasoning and garnish. In ancient times parsley was also used for chaplets and as a funeral decoration. Hamburg parsley is a variety grown for its edible root. Parsley is widely cultivated throughout the United States, chiefly in Louisiana. Parsley is often eaten because of its high content of vitamin C. Parsley is classified in the division Magnoliophyta, class Magnoliopsida, order Apiales, family Apiaceae (Umbelliferae).

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"parsley." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"parsley." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved June 26, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/parsley

parsley

pars·ley / ˈpärslē/ • n. a biennial plant (Petroselinum crispum) with white flowers and aromatic leaves that are either crinkly or flat and used as a culinary herb and for garnishing food. Members of the parsley family (Umbelliferae) have their flowers arranged in umbels and are known as umbellifers; typical members include Queen Anne's lace and hemlock as well as many food plants and herbs (carrot, parsnip, celery, fennel, anise).

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"parsley." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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parsley

parsley The earliest antecedents of the present form, percely, pers(e)le, -ly (XIV), appear to repr. a blend of (i) OE. petersilie, corr. to MDu. petersilie (mod. -selie), OHG. petersilia (G. -silie) — Rom. *petrosilium, for L. petroselīnum — Gr. petrosélīnon, f. pétrā rock, pétros stone + sélīnon parsley, with (ii) ME. percil, per(e)sil — OF. peresil (mod. persil), of the same L. — Gr. orig.

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"parsley." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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parsley

parsley Branching biennial herb, native to the Mediterranean region and widely cultivated for its aromatic leaves used for flavouring and as a garnish. It has heads of small, greenish-yellow flowers. Height: to 0.9m (3ft). Family Apiaceae/Umbelliferae; species Petroselinum crispum.

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"parsley." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"parsley." World Encyclopedia. . Retrieved June 26, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/parsley

parsley

parsley Leaves of the herb Petroselinum crispum, P. hertense, or P. sativum. Since it is largely used as a garnish and for flavouring, the nutrients per serving are negligible.

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"parsley." A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. . Encyclopedia.com. 26 Jun. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"parsley." A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. . Retrieved June 26, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/education/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/parsley