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fruit

fruit, matured ovary of the pistil of a flower, containing the seed. After the egg nucleus, or ovum, has been fertilized (see fertilization) and the embryo plantlet begins to form, the surrounding ovule (see pistil) develops into a seed and the ovary wall (pericarp) around the ovule becomes the fruit. The pericarp consists of three layers of tissue: the thin outer exocarp, which becomes the "skin" ; the thicker mesocarp; and the inner endocarp, immediately surrounding the ovule. A flower may have one or more simple pistils or a compound pistil made up of two or more fused simple pistils (each called a carpel); different arrangements give rise to different types of fruit. A new variety of fruit is obtained as a hybrid in plant breeding or may develop spontaneously by mutation.

Types of Fruits

Fruits are classified according to the arrangement from which they derive. There are four types—simple, aggregate, multiple, and accessory fruits. Simple fruits develop from a single ovary of a single flower and may be fleshy or dry. Principal fleshy fruit types are the berry, in which the entire pericarp is soft and pulpy (e.g., the grape, tomato, banana, pepo, hesperidium, and blueberry) and the drupe, in which the outer layers may be pulpy, fibrous, or leathery and the endocarp hardens into a pit or stone enclosing one or more seeds (e.g., the peach, cherry, olive, coconut, and walnut). The name fruit is often applied loosely to all edible plant products and specifically to the fleshy fruits, some of which (e.g., eggplant, tomatoes, and squash) are commonly called vegetables. Dry fruits are divided into those whose hard or papery shells split open to release the mature seed (dehiscent fruits) and those that do not split (indehiscent fruits). Among the dehiscent fruits are the legume (e.g., the pod of the pea and bean), which splits at both edges, and the follicle, which splits on only one side (e.g., milkweed and larkspur); others include the dry fruits of the poppy, snapdragon, lily, and mustard. Indehiscent fruits include the single-seeded achene of the buttercup and the composite flowers; the caryopsis (grain); the nut (e.g., acorn and hazelnut); and the fruits of the carrot and parsnip (not to be confused with their edible fleshy roots).

An aggregate fruit (e.g., blackberry and raspberry) consists of a mass of small drupes (drupelets), each of which developed from a separate ovary of a single flower. A multiple fruit (e.g., pineapple and mulberry) develops from the ovaries of many flowers growing in a cluster. Accessory fruits contain tissue derived from plant parts other than the ovary; the strawberry is actually a number of tiny achenes (miscalled seeds) outside a central pulpy pith that is the enlarged receptacle or base of the flower. The core of the pineapple is also receptacle (stem) tissue. The best-known accessory fruit is the pome (e.g., apple and pear), in which the fleshy edible portion is swollen stem tissue and the true fruit is the central core. The skin of the banana is also stem tissue, as is the rind of the pepo (berrylike fruit) of the squash, cucumber, and melon.

The Role of Fruits in Seed Dispersal

The structure of a fruit often facilitates the dispersal of its seeds. The "wings" of the maple, elm, and ailanthus fruits and the "parachutes" of the dandelion and the thistle are blown by the wind; burdock, cocklebur, and carrot fruits have barbs or hooks that cling to fur and clothing; and the buoyant coconut may float thousands of miles from its parent tree. Some fruits (e.g., witch hazel and violet) explode at maturity, scattering their seeds. A common method of dispersion is through the feces of animals that eat fleshy fruits containing seeds covered by indigestible coats.

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"fruit." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Sep. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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fruit

fruit / froōt/ • n. 1. the sweet and fleshy product of a tree or other plant that contains seed and can be eaten as food: tropical fruits such as mangoes and papaya | eat plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables. ∎  Bot. the seed-bearing structure of a plant, e.g., an acorn. ∎  the result or reward of work or activity: the pupils began to appreciate the fruits of their labors the journal was the first fruit of the creative partnership. ∎ archaic or poetic/lit. natural produce that can be used for food: we give thanks for the fruits of the earth. ∎  archaic offspring: she couldn't bear not to see the fruit of her womb. 2. inf., offens. a male homosexual. • v. [intr.] (of a tree or other plant) produce fruit, typically at a specified time: the trees fruit very early | [as n.] (fruiting) cover strawberries with cloches to encourage early fruiting. PHRASES: bear fruit have good results: their efforts finally bore fruit in 1993 in a surprise decision by the Supreme Court. in fruit (of a tree or plant) at the stage of producing fruit.

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"fruit." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Sep. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"fruit." The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English. . Retrieved September 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/fruit-1

fruit

fruit Seed-containing mature ovary of a flowering plant. Fruits serve to disperse plants and are an important food source (they provide vitamins, acids, salts, calcium, iron, and phosphates). They can be classified as simple, aggregate or multiple. Simple fruits, dry or fleshy, are produced by one ripened ovary of a single pistil (unit comprising a stigma, style, and ovary) and include legumes (peas and beans) and nuts. Aggregate fruits develop from several simple pistils; examples are raspberry and blackberry. Multiple fruits develop from a flower cluster; each flower produces a fruit which merges into a single mass at maturity; examples are pineapples and figs. Although considered fruits in culinary terms, apples and pears are regarded botanically as ‘false’ fruits, as the edible parts are created by the receptacle and not the carpel walls.

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"fruit." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Sep. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"fruit." World Encyclopedia. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 20, 2017). http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/fruit

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fruit

fruit The structure formed from the ovary of a flower, usually after the ovules have been fertilized (see also parthenocarpy). It consists of the fruit wall (see pericarp) enclosing the seed(s). Other parts of the flower, such as the receptacle, may develop and contribute to the structure, resulting in a false fruit (see pseudocarp). The fruit may retain the seeds and be dispersed whole (an indehiscent fruit), or it may open (dehisce) to release the seeds (a dehiscent fruit). Fruits are divided into two main groups depending on whether the ovary wall remains dry or becomes fleshy (succulent). Succulent fruits are generally dispersed by animals and dry fruits by wind, water, or by some mechanical means. See illustration. See also composite fruit.

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"fruit." A Dictionary of Biology. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Sep. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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fruit

fruit fruit of the vine literary term for grapes.
low-hanging fruit something easily achieved or overcome; the expression dates from the late 20th century, and the image may be associated with the idea in cherry-pick.
when all fruit fails, welcome haws often used of someone taking an older or otherwise unsuitable lover (haws, the red fruit of the hawthorn, are contrasted with fruits generally eaten as food). The saying is recorded from the early 18th century.

See also Dead Sea fruit, first fruits, forbidden fruit, September blow soft, till the fruit's in the loft, stolen fruit is sweet, the tree is known by its fruit.

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"fruit." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Sep. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"fruit." The Oxford Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. . Retrieved September 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/fruit

fruit

fruit (esp. pl.) vegetable products gen. XII; edible products of a tree; (arch.) offspring; produce, product XIII. — (O)F. :- L. frūctus (enjoyment of) the produce of the soil, fruit, revenue, f. *frūg-, base of fruī enjoy, perh. orig. feed on, frūēs ‘fruits’ of the earth; cf. BROOK2.
So fruit vb. bear fruit. XIV. fruiterer XV. Extension with -ER1 of fruiter (XV) — (O)F. fruitier (see -ER2). fruitful XIII. fruitless ineffectual XIV; unproductive XV; unavailing XIX.

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"fruit." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Sep. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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fruit

fruit The fleshy seed‐bearing part of plants (including tomato and cucumber, which are usually called vegetables). They contain negligible protein and fat, with carbohydrate varying from 3% in melon to 25% in banana, and supply varying amounts of vitamin C. Yellow‐ and orange‐coloured fruits (e.g. apricot, peach, papaya) are sources of vitamin A (as carotene).

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"fruit." A Dictionary of Food and Nutrition. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Sep. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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fruit

fruit Strictly, the ripened ovary of a plant and its contents. More loosely, the term is extended to the ripened ovary and seeds together with any structure with which they are combined (e.g. the apple (a pome) in which the true fruit (core) is surrounded by flesh derived from the floral receptacle).

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"fruit." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Sep. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"fruit." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Retrieved September 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/fruit

fruit

fruit Strictly, the ripened ovary of a plant and its contents. More loosely, the term is extended to the ripened ovary and seeds together with any structure with which they are combined, e.g. the apple (a pome) in which the true fruit (core) is surrounded by flesh derived from the floral receptacle.

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"fruit." A Dictionary of Plant Sciences. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Sep. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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Fruit

FRUIT

This entry includes three subentries:
Citrus Fruit
Temperate Fruit
Tropical and Subtropical

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"Fruit." Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Sep. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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"Fruit." Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. . Retrieved September 20, 2017 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/food/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/fruit

fruit

fruitacute, argute, astute, beaut, Beirut, boot, bruit, brut, brute, Bute, butte, Canute, cheroot, chute, commute, compute, confute, coot, cute, depute, dilute, dispute, flute, fruit, galoot, hoot, impute, jute, loot, lute, minute, moot, mute, newt, outshoot, permute, pollute, pursuit, recruit, refute, repute, root, route, salute, Salyut, scoot, shoot, Shute, sloot, snoot, subacute, suit, telecommute, Tonton Macoute, toot, transmute, undershoot, uproot, Ute, volute •Paiute • jackboot • freeboot • top boot •snow boot • gumboot • marabout •statute • bandicoot • Hakluyt •archlute • absolute • dissolute •irresolute, resolute •jackfruit • passion fruit • breadfruit •grapefruit • snakeroot • beetroot •arrowroot • autoroute

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"fruit." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 20 Sep. 2017 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

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